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Article

Marwa Sobhy Montaser

This paper aims at contributing to our understanding of how self-settled Syrian refugees (registered and non-registered) use informal practices to forge their…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims at contributing to our understanding of how self-settled Syrian refugees (registered and non-registered) use informal practices to forge their non-political agency and how this agency could be considered as political acts.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper was conducted per the qualitative data analysis (in-depth interviews and participant observation), attributed to the critical ethnographic approach, through which refugees’ everyday struggle is explored, additionally, that was incorporated with the analysis of Syrians’ Facebook groups and formal sources.

Findings

The research paper concluded that everyday struggle strategies are considered as political acts by acquiring rights that many self-settled Syrian refugees are stripped of by international humanitarian agencies and host government. Hence, registered and unregistered refugees equally forge what is called “informal citizenship” through their presence via a blend of agency forms ranging from hidden agency to explicit one and via their incorporating into the informal contexts, leading them to carve a position of semi-legality that help them to circumvent the formal structural hardship.

Originality/value

This paper endeavors to study how urban refugees as change agents can convert their illegal presence to “probably refugeeness” to unsettle the prominent recognition of them as illegal non-citizens in southern cities.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

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Khalid Arar, Deniz Örücü and Gülnur Ak Küçükçayır

This chapter presents facets of the current challenges relating to policy, leadership and praxis, as perceived by school principals and both Turkish and Syrian teachers…

Abstract

This chapter presents facets of the current challenges relating to policy, leadership and praxis, as perceived by school principals and both Turkish and Syrian teachers working with refugee and Turkish students in Syrian refugee schools in Ankara. Adopting a qualitative methodology, we explore the experiences, challenges and strategies of the educators in these new school types. In order to investigate this this phenomenon, we adopted the post-migration ecology framework proposed by Anderson et al. (2004) and the conceptualization of five dimensions of multicultural education (content integration, knowledge construction process, prejudice reduction, equity pedagogy and empowering the culture and organization of the school) developed by Banks and Banks (1995). The relevant policy, despite its focus on full integration, is still developing and lack clear technical guidelines for specific issues at school level. The data revealed three themes: perceptions towards the refugees, policy into practice in the schools and the consequent challenges, strategies and needs. Although humanistic ideals are manifest in all the participants’ experience with the new phenomena of refugee education, their needs are multifaceted. They are motivated by a pedagogy of compassion, containment and humanistic universal commitment. The principals employ a style of encouraging social justice and moral leadership, whereas the teachers practise the multicultural pedagogy dimensions with trial and error. Incorporation of Syrian educators and their experience and assistance to the Turkish school staff is also discussed.

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Article

Hassan Vatanparast, Mustafa Koc, Marwa Farag, Joseph Garcea, Rachel Engler-Stringer, Tamer Qarmout, Carol Henry, Louise Racine, Judy White, Romaina Iqbal, Mahasti Khakpour, Sindhuja Dasarathi and Sonia D'Angelo

This study aims to provide a qualitative in-depth account of the status and experience of food insecurity for Syrian refugee households in Toronto and Saskatoon, Canada…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide a qualitative in-depth account of the status and experience of food insecurity for Syrian refugee households in Toronto and Saskatoon, Canada. The study considers the range of geographic, socio-economic, cultural and gendered components shaping and determining the barriers and management of food insecurity.

Design/methodology/approach

The study included 54 semi-structured interviews with refugee families in Toronto and Saskatoon who resettled in Canada after November 2015. In addition, 15 semi-structured in-person or telephone interviews were conducted with settlement and support agencies to measure their capacity to respond to issues of food insecurity for Syrian refugees.

Findings

Syrian refugees reported experiencing food insecurity as part of the broader resettlement journey, including in the transitional phase of refuge and in each settlement context in Canada. Income status in Canada was reported as a key barrier to food security. Low-income barriers to food security were experienced and shaped by factors including food affordability, physical access and availability and the extent of familial or other support networks including sponsorship relationships. Participants also reported how managing food insecurity contributed to the intensification of gender expectations.

Originality/value

The analysis reveals food insecurity as both an income and non-income based concern for refugees during the process of resettlement. The study also highlights the importance of considering variations between primary barriers to food security identified by Syrian families and key informants as critical to the development of strategies designed to mitigate the impacts of resettlement on food security.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Aslıhan Mccarthy

Against the danger of a lost generation of Syrian children, both Turkish state and civil society organizations (CSO) have developed strategies to bridge the education gap…

Abstract

Against the danger of a lost generation of Syrian children, both Turkish state and civil society organizations (CSO) have developed strategies to bridge the education gap of Syrian children. In that context, this chapter explores the relationship between the Turkish state and civil society in education provision for non-camp Syrian refugees between 2011 and 2016. Presenting civil society as a theoretical framework in refugee education, this study aims to contribute to the debates on education in an era of mass displacement on an institutional level. The role of civil society against the state in education for Syrian refugees is put under scrutiny with an emphasis on the repercussions of the unprecedented number of non-citizen students for state-centered, secular, and monocultural visions of education. In doing so, this study uses policy documents between 2011 and 2016 circulated by Ministry of National Education and data gathered from interviews conducted with representatives of state and CSOs.

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Article

Ahmad A. Alhusban, Safa A. Alhusban and Yamen N. Al-Betawi

The purpose of this paper is to explore the direct and indirect impacts of urban Syrian refugees on the residential urban fabric of Al Mafraq city physically and socially…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the direct and indirect impacts of urban Syrian refugees on the residential urban fabric of Al Mafraq city physically and socially. Physically means regarding architectural style and socially means regarding social cohesion and sense of community. Therefore, the research questions are: What are the main source of tensions between the urban Syrian refugees and Al Mafraq host community that hinders the social cohesion? And what is the impact of the urban Syrian refugees on Al Mafraq city socially and architecturally?

Design/methodology/approach

Different research methods were used to explore and provide a rich description of the direct and indirect impacts of urban Syrian refugees on Al Mafraq city architecturally and socially. Desk reviews, focus group discussions and semi-structured individual in-depth interviews were used to explore the social impact of the Syrian refugees on Al Mafraq city. In addition, a qualitative comparative analysis was used to explore their impact on architectural style and urban sprawl.

Findings

The results show that changes have occurred on the character of the residential environment resulting in a conversion about the urban fabric of Al Mafraq city both physically, in regard to architectural style, and socially, regarding social cohesion and sense of community. Physically, the city suffers from a decline in the uniformity of the built environment, resulting in a partial loss of its identity as a homogenous place with calm, cohesive residential neighborhoods. On the other hand, the social fabric of the city is losing its homogeneity and solidarity, causing a decline in the sense of community, social cohesion and levels of trust, and a rise in the social tension leading to severe conflicts among community members.

Practical implications

The different stakeholders should express high concern for the different sources of tensions between the urban Syrian refugee and Al Mafraq host community. They should foster formal and informal communication and promote dialogue between the two communities to improve social relations and reduce the tension between them. The consequences of Syrian asylum on hosting countries present an issue that has been vastly studied by several scholars and international agencies. Research, reports and surveys all denote the negative impact of refugees, especially in cases where resources are scarce, as is the case with Jordan. As a part of such consequences, Al Mafraq city is moving in the wrong direction as a result of the increasing flow of refugees.

Originality/value

The current discourse about the influence of urban refugees on social and architectural style among host communities lacks veracity. Therefore, the significance of this research is offering an alternative academic view to enrich current knowledge and encourage further discourse research about urban refugees. In addition, this research is a comprehensive and double focused, not just on social inclusion and tensions but on urban environment and architecture. This research is useful for architects, urban designers and planners, sociologists, policymakers and humanitarian and peace-building practitioners in the urban non-camp complex emergency setting.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 10 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article

Iman El-Sayed Hossam Hegazy and Ossama El-Sayed Hossam Hegazy

In 2017, 50 percent of Syrian refugee applications in Egypt were submitted by females. However, a suitable integration strategy for this target group remains obscure since…

Abstract

Purpose

In 2017, 50 percent of Syrian refugee applications in Egypt were submitted by females. However, a suitable integration strategy for this target group remains obscure since the available approaches focus mainly on male integration. That is due to the assumption that women refugees are mere followers to men who socially and economically dominate the families in the Middle East. Accordingly, the integration of the Syrian women refugees in society, as well as in the market, proceeds spontaneously without clear visions and therefore with delays. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

To methodologically understand the circumstances of the aforementioned group expert, focused and narrative “episode interviews” have been conducted. Alexandria, Egypt’s second capital, is the research case study as well as the researchers’ hometown. Thus, it allows following a “descriptive comparative analysis” process between the three Alexandrian districts, with different urban fabric: “Al-Nkhil Agamy” gated community, “El-Asafra/Sidi Becher” informal settlement and “New Borg El-Arab” new city.

Findings

Yet, it is unknown what criteria the Syrian women refugees set for choosing their accommodation. Similarly, the obstacles they encounter, especially the ones preventing their integration, are ambiguous. Even their daily life, which might give insights into the barriers they face, due to their status, is unclear. These are the gaps this paper tackles, in addition to the refugees’ immaterial cultural impact in the host society.

Originality/value

Finally, but also importantly, the topic has been seldom researched in Alexandria, in comparison with Cairo. Therefore, this paper aims at qualitatively hearing of the Syrian refugees’ voices in order to enhance their societal interaction and coexistence in Alexandria.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Article

Sertan Kabadayi

Service providers can potentially play a critical role in responding to the global refugee crisis. However, recent evidence suggests that local service employees’ negative…

Abstract

Purpose

Service providers can potentially play a critical role in responding to the global refugee crisis. However, recent evidence suggests that local service employees’ negative and inappropriate behavior is hindering efforts to alleviate the problems faced by refugees. As a response to the call to action to engage with the global refugee crisis in service context and adopting the transformative service research perspective, this paper aims to understand service employees’ motivations to engage in sabotage when they interact with refugees in service settings.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper focuses on the case of Syrian refugees in Turkey as a context. Using a netnographic study, this study analyzes comments by Turkish service employees in different social media groups and newspapers’ online platforms to reveal the motivations of those employees to engage in sabotage behavior.

Findings

The findings of this study revealed employees use five emerging themes as potential motivations to justify their sabotage behavior when serving refugees: perceived scarcity of resources, perceived fairness, perceived identity mismatch, perceived role of government and perceived role of other nations.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study have implications for service organizations, communities and governments to manage, change and even remove some of those perceptions that lead to employee sabotage resulting in increased suffering of refugees.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first study to examine the employee sabotage behavior in the context of serving refugees.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article

Essam Mansour

The purpose of this study is to identify the information needs and information-seeking behaviour of Syrian refugees displaced to Egypt.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify the information needs and information-seeking behaviour of Syrian refugees displaced to Egypt.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data in the form of three focus groups were collected from 37 Syrian refugees who have displaced to Egypt and are concentrated mainly in Greater Cairo. In-depth interviews were conducted in September 2016.

Findings

Data collected about the demography of Syrian refugees revealed that they tend to be men, slightly more than half, mostly with no formal education, with an average age in the mid-30’s, labelled as low-income persons and mostly single. Findings also showed that much of the information needed by Syrian refugees was described as realistic and real, but some was less clearly defined. All Syrian refugees’ information needs are strongly linked to their daily tasks. The majority of Syrian refugees reported that their priority information need was to be aware of the situation in their home country, followed by issues related to their states of the diaspora that they are passing through, such as services provided to their children, shelter and aid in general, as well as rights and obligations related to their refugee status. They also showed that they need information to help get the right or any appropriate work in the host country (Egypt). The study showed that many Syrian refugees were seeking information that meets their basic daily needs. It also showed that the information-seeking behaviour profile of a very large number of Syrian refugees was to prefer informal sources to formal sources to meet everyday problems, as well as troubles challenged by them. A very large number of Syrian refugees revealed that the verbal communication with friends and families were identified as the most popular informal sources of information sought. The study revealed that most of the Syrian refugees were able to use a variety of technologies for the purpose of communication with others, especially mobile phones, being the most key communication devices followed by almost all of them. The use of assisting technologies and devices, such as the computer and the internet and its vast applications proved to be meaningful by Syrian refugees. Other assisting technologies are also heavily used by Syrian refugees, particularly social media, including social networking sites and many other mobile applications. In addition, Syrian refugees have also relied on other technologies and tools to meet their information needs, including television and satellite channels, especially Arabic, which are widely distributed in the Arab environment. Because of some difficulties related to education and awareness, a number of Syrian refugees were not using any type of library. Syrian refugees have met several problems and challenges in accessing information. Such problem may make it difficult to find basic services, make informed decisions and stay in communication with families. Such problems have also a significant impact on their seeking and using information. Finding appropriate work to get money to secure housing, psychological burdens suffered concerning the image of being refugees, emotional distress, lack of accessing some basic services such as education and transportation, lack of financial resources, lack of time, lack of motivation and cultural and social barriers, were significant to Syrian refugees when seeking information. In spite of these challenges and problems met by Syrian refugees, a good number of them wished to improve their image as refugees and to improve their disastrous situation. Based on the review of the existing literature, as well as the findings of this study, further research is needed to understand information needs and information dissemination among Syrian refugees fled to Egypt and how they perceive, select, use, access and evaluate sources of information. Proper strategies should be designed towards the use of traditional and commonly used information dissemination channels among these refugees, such as cultural performances and group discussions. Research is also needed on the impact of illiteracy on the use of information by this category of information users. Owing to the fragile role played by different types of libraries in meeting the information needs of refugees, further research is seriously needed in this regard. In addition, appropriate services should be provided to refugees.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses only on Syrian refugees displaced to Egypt. It does not cover any other refugees inside or outside Egypt, although they significantly exist in Egypt, such as Palestinians, Sudanese, Iraqis, Yemenis, Africans and many other nationals. Any conclusions resulting from this study are limited to only Syrian refugees hosted by Egypt.

Practical implications

This study tries to investigate the Syrian refugees’ information needs and behaviours in terms of their thoughts, motivations, attitudes, preferences and challenges met by them in their search of information. It tries to look at the factors and characteristics that affect this search. Any results from this study may generate interest and create awareness of the information needs of refugees among advocates who are interested in such groups of information users.

Originality/value

This study attempted to identify a significant gap in identifying the information needs and information-seeking behaviour of Syrian refugees displaced to Egypt. It is the first study of its type to address, in a systematic way, this disadvantaged group resettled and hosted by Egypt. Syrian refugees displaced to Egypt have become a matter of major concern that should be addressed and met by serious academic researchers, as well as by official authorities. The literature on the topic of this research revealed that further research is still needed to be undertaken on such group of information users, as there is a very limited research conducted on this topic in developing and Arab countries, including Egypt, particularly among academic library and information professionals.

Details

Information and Learning Science, vol. 119 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5348

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Article

Konstantina Martzoukou and Simon Burnett

This paper presents the research findings of the “Syrian New Scots’ Information Literacy Way-finding practices” research project, funded by the Information Literacy Group…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents the research findings of the “Syrian New Scots’ Information Literacy Way-finding practices” research project, funded by the Information Literacy Group of the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals. The purpose of this paper is to explore the information needs of “Syrian New Scots” (the preferred name for refugees in Scotland), their habitual and adaptive information literacy practices and the barriers and enablers they encounter within their new socio-cultural setting via their interactions with people, tools and processes.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were collected via interviews with three Local Authority Leads for Syrian Resettlement and focus groups with Syrian New Scots in three geographical locations in Scotland: two rural areas and one urban. Syrian research subjects were also involved in a drawing exercise that helped to contextualise the findings.

Findings

The main information needs expressed by participants revolved around the learning of English language which was linked to addressing health-related information needs, well-being and community engagement. All participants also highlighted the issue of socio-cultural differences in fulfilling everyday life information needs (such as health and housing). Information provision to Syrian New Scots requires a more structured process that acknowledges personalised information needs and it is tailored to the different stages of the adaptation process. The findings suggest that the “ways of knowing” that Syrian refugees bring with them are converging information experiences of past and new knowledge structures gained via different socio-cultural and migration experiences.

Originality/value

The research findings of this project will be of interest to local and regional support organisations and community volunteer groups who contribute to the social well-being and social integration of Syrian refugees. In addition, they may be of interest to public libraries due to their role as centres for educational and cultural orientation sessions, and as places of support for newly settled Syrian refugees and the communities that embrace them.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 74 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article

Christina Bache

The following question drove this research: Would the pursuit of a rights-based approach, one that considers local dynamics and political sensitivities result in greater…

Abstract

Purpose

The following question drove this research: Would the pursuit of a rights-based approach, one that considers local dynamics and political sensitivities result in greater economic integration and social inclusion of Syrian refugees in Turkey? The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This piece draws on independent research the author conducted in Turkey and other frontline states to the war in Syria from 2016 to 2018.

Findings

Despite a shift in government policy toward Syrian refugees, without an overarching rights-based approach that includes the participation of all stakeholders and considers local dynamics and political sensitivities, enhancing the livelihood security of Syrian refugees and vulnerable members of host communities remains bleak in Turkey.

Originality/value

This original paper closely examines the Government of Turkey’s response to the humanitarian crisis that was precipitated by the armed conflict in Syria. The paper also examines the socioeconomic dynamics and increased tensions between the Syrian refugee and host communities.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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