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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2019

Nura Ibold

The wave of popular unrest in the Arab world reached Syria in March 2011, and what started as peaceful demonstrations with simple demands of justice and freedom turned…

Abstract

The wave of popular unrest in the Arab world reached Syria in March 2011, and what started as peaceful demonstrations with simple demands of justice and freedom turned into a brutal armed conflict and a full-scale civil war. Over seven years of conflict resulted in the deaths of over half a million Syrians, the forced displacement of millions more, and a huge loss of the country's social and physical structures. What began as another Arab Spring movement against a dictatorial regime has turned into a proxy war that has attracted the interests of the world and regional powers. The paper discusses Syria's political history and investigates the motives for the Syrian uprising and argues that it is related to socio-economic deprivations rather than sectarianism. The work underlines the interests of the countries involved in the Syrian conflict focusing on Russia, USA, Iran, and Turkey, as well as their contribution to the future reconstruction of the country.

Over the past few years, the Syrian regime and its allies targeted many cities and destroyed opposition-held neighborhoods. The work considers if this destruction was part of an overall strategy adopted by the al-Assad regime to terrorize those who opposed it and change Syria demographically, examining the new laws issued by the government to transfer public properties into the hands of its loyal businessmen factions, as in the case of the reconstruction project in the city of Homs.

Seven years of war exhausted Syria's financial stocks, and the country (and in turn the regime) is suffering the consequences of military spending. But like any other war, destruction is also a great opportunity to generate money through reconstruction and growth. It is a “win-win situation”; the regime will use the fund designated for reviving the country to its own benefit, gaining future profits. Already invested in the conflict, involved countries will be part of the reconstruction process to secure their presence and control in Syria.

United Nations agencies like UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) and UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) are working closely with the Syrian regime and its governmental representatives. This research examines their involvement and how their ‘humanitarian mission' is being exploited to prop up the al-Assad regime.

Details

Open House International, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2020

Abstract

Details

Gender and the Violence(s) of War and Armed Conflict: More Dangerous to Be a Woman?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-115-5

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2021

Fakir Al Gharaibeh and Justine O'Sullivan

This research aimed to describe and examine the effects of war followed by forced displacement on Syrian mothers and their children in terms of Reuben Hill's Family Stress…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aimed to describe and examine the effects of war followed by forced displacement on Syrian mothers and their children in terms of Reuben Hill's Family Stress Theory and identify essential elements to consider in social work practice with this population.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 Syrian mothers living in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A thematic analysis at both a semantic and latent level was completed. A case study – “Noor” – was developed to offer insight into one Syrian woman's experiences and response to war-related stressors and displacement.

Findings

The findings from the analysis of the interviews and case study indicated that for Syrian families displaced by conflict the traumas of war were compounded by ongoing and multiple emotional and practical stressors, with ongoing experiences of “loss” being the significant stressor. Giving context to these findings highlights the demand and impost on the host countries, in this study, the UAE, to continue their significant humanitarian efforts to Syrian families.

Research limitations/implications

These findings will assist social workers, humanitarian organisations and their staff and others working with Syrian families, to respond more effectively.

Originality/value

There is no research in evidence in the professional literature that addresses the effects of war on displaced Syrian families in terms of Reuben Hill's Family Stress Theory.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Saeb F. Al Ganideh and Linda K Good

The Syrian civil war that forced hundreds of thousands of Syrian women and children into Jordan as refugees dramatically increased the number of child labourers in that…

Abstract

Purpose

The Syrian civil war that forced hundreds of thousands of Syrian women and children into Jordan as refugees dramatically increased the number of child labourers in that country. The current investigation aims to establish a body of knowledge on the issues surrounding child labour in Jordan by providing an exploratory diagnosis of the phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to explore verbal and physical abusive practices towards working children and investigate whether there are differences between the treatment of domestic and Syrian refugee child labourers.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design is quantitative; however, we use a qualitative technique to support and expand the research findings. Data were collected from 124 Jordanian and Syrian working children over a seven-month period in 2013.

Findings

The results reveal that it is poverty that forces Jordanian children into work while Syrian children are driven by the need for asylum. Of the abusive practices directed towards working children, verbal abuse is the most common. Older children, children from unstable families and those who work long hours are more vulnerable to this form of abuse, while children from unstable family structures and who work long hours are more likely to experience physically abuse. The results reveal that Syrian children are paid much less, are less verbally abused, had better schooling and perceive working conditions more positively than do their Jordanian counterparts.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of this research arise from the size the sample.

Social implications

The current study aims to raise awareness about the importance of preventing abusive practices towards local and refugee children working in Jordan.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, very little is known about refugee child labour and how it might differ from domestic child labour.

Details

Journal of Children’s Services, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Antonio-Martín Porras-Gómez

As the Syrian civil war winds down, the massive reconstruction of the devastated cities has become a recurring subject of political and scientific discussions. A crucial…

Abstract

Purpose

As the Syrian civil war winds down, the massive reconstruction of the devastated cities has become a recurring subject of political and scientific discussions. A crucial question pervades all these debates: is the current legal framework adequate for confronting the reconstruction challenges in an effective way? With the purpose of understanding and informing the question, this study aims to analyze the most important legal instrument for the Syrian urban reconstruction, Law 10/2018.

Design/methodology/approach

A functional analysis of the legal text and of its effective implementation is provided. Following a doctrinal legal approach, internal inconsistencies are highlighted, as well as possible “legal gaps” that might allow and favor instances of disrespect of the rule of law and regulatory capture.

Findings

The main hypotheses discussed are, first, from a descriptive-analytical perspective, that the neoliberal trend in the Syrian political economy underpins the legal framework for the Syrian reconstruction. Second, from a design perspective, that, while offering a strong mechanism for disciplining the Syrian urban planning, Law 10/2018 does not warrant a scenario of respect of the rule of law and seems too easy prey for regulatory capture.

Originality/value

While the most recent and prominent legal instrument aimed to frame Syrian post-war reconstruction, Law 10/2018, has been subject to multiple policy analyzes and critiques, these have focused almost exclusively on its presumed warchitecture dimension, lacking contextual depth and, most worryingly, ignoring any kind of doctrinal legal analysis. Setting the Law 10/2018 in its legal context is something that has not been done yet, even if, according to their own ontology, legal provisions have to be understood within the context of the legal system they are inserted in. This paper delves into the subject, analyzing the legal text, its juridical context and the way it has been interpreted by the administrative decision-maker while looking at instances where the axiological goals constitutionally proclaimed and legally enshrined might be prevented by the very regulatory configuration.

Details

Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9407

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Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2018

Abstract

Details

Strategies, Policies, and Directions for Refugee Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-798-0

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Anthony Feinstein and Stephen Starr

More journalists died in Syria during 2013 than in any other country experiencing conflict. This statistic raises concerns about the psychological wellbeing of journalists…

Abstract

Purpose

More journalists died in Syria during 2013 than in any other country experiencing conflict. This statistic raises concerns about the psychological wellbeing of journalists covering the internecine violence. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The study sample was made up of 59 western journalists currently covering the Syrian conflict. To place these results in the broader context of war journalism previously collected data from a group of 84 journalists who had reported the war in Iraq were used as a control sample. Outcome measures included indices of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Impact of Event Scale-revised) and psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-28 item version (GHQ-28)).

Findings

Compared to journalists who covered the Iraq war, the journalists working in Syria were more likely to be female (p=0.007), single (p=0.018), freelance (p=0.0001) and had worked fewer years as a journalist (p=0.012). They were more depressed according to the GHQ-28 (p=0.001) and endorsed more individual symptoms of depression including worthlessness (p=0.012), helplessness (p=0.02) and suicidal intent (p=0.003). A linear regression analysis revealed that the group differences in depression data could not be accounted for by demographic factors.

Research limitations/implications

An absence of structured interviews. Results not applicable to local Syrian journalists.

Practical implications

Western journalists covering Syrian appear to be particularly vulnerable to the development of depression. Journalists and the news organizations that employ them need to be cognizant of data such as these. Given that depression is treatable, there needs to be a mechanism in place to detect and treat those in need.

Originality/value

This is the first study that highlights the emotional toll on western journalists covering the Syrian conflict.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Executive summary
Publication date: 23 February 2016

SYRIA: Russia will shape end to Syrian civil war

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-ES209598

ISSN: 2633-304X

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Geographic
Topical
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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Emer Groarke

This paper aims to show the viability of consociational power-sharing as a conflict-resolution tool in Syria. It further argues that a subsequent movement from…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to show the viability of consociational power-sharing as a conflict-resolution tool in Syria. It further argues that a subsequent movement from consociational to centripetal power-sharing is vital to ensure sustainable peace.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical overview of power-sharing as a conflict-resolution tool provides the basis for this paper, supported by empirical evidence and qualitative research analysis for its proposed application in Syria. Perceived obstacles to a negotiated settlement are outlined, with suggestions made as to how these issues can be transformed into incentives for invested parties. Such obstacles include Bashar al-Assad remaining in power, and calls for the implementation of Shari’a law by some opposition groups.

Findings

While previously the conditions of the conflict were not conducive to peace talks, this paper finds that regional developments, including the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, have re-opened the possibility of, and indeed the necessity for, political negotiations. Detailing the complexity of a conflict that goes far beyond a mere sectarian divide, the findings of this paper dispel the notion that a sectarian partition is a viable model for Syria. The paper highlights the multiple cleavages occurring simultaneously, and shows how a power-sharing model is best suited to deal with them.

Originality/value

The paper analyses the ongoing inertia of political negotiations to peacefully resolve the conflict. It offers an approach to conflict-resolution in Syria that has, thus far, not been adequately considered in academic – or political – spheres.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Executive summary
Publication date: 6 July 2016

TURKEY: Syrians will stay while civil war persists

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-ES212226

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
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