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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

James M Williamson and Sarah Stutzman

– The purpose of this paper is to estimate the impact of Internal Revenue Code cost recovery provisions – Section 179 and “bonus depreciation” – on farm capital investment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the impact of Internal Revenue Code cost recovery provisions – Section 179 and “bonus depreciation” – on farm capital investment.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors construct a synthetic panel of data consisting of cohorts of similar farms based on state and production specialization using the USDA’s Agricultural Resource Management Survey for years 1996-2012. Employing panel data methods, the authors are able to control for time-invariant fixed effects, as well as the effects of past investment on current investment.

Findings

The authors estimate statistically significant investment demand elasticities with respect to the Section 179 expensing deduction of between 0.28 and 0.50. A change in bonus depreciation, on average, had little impact on capital investment.

Practical implications

The estimates suggest there is a modest effect of the cost recovery provisions on investment overall, but a stronger effect on farms that have more than $10,000 in gross cash farm income. There are other implications for the agricultural sector: the provisions may encourage technology adoption with its associated benefits, such as reduced cost of production and improved conservation practices. On the other hand, the policy could contribute to the growing concentration in production as large commercial farms expand their operated acreage to take advantage of increasingly efficient physical capital.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first research to use a nationally representative dataset to estimate to impact of Section 179 and “bonus depreciation” on farm investment. The findings provide evidence of the provisions’ impact on farm capital purchases.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 76 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

James M. Williamson

The paper examines the evolution of beginning farms’ income statement and balance sheet items over a 15-year period. The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper examines the evolution of beginning farms’ income statement and balance sheet items over a 15-year period. The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the diversity of beginning farms from a financial point of view.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the USDA’s Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS), the author constructs a synthetic panel of data consisting of age cohorts of beginning farmers and follow them over time. Baseline financial information for the farm income statement and balance sheet is examined in 1999 and again in 2014 for each cohort.

Findings

Overall, there is a marked contrast in the evolution in the income statement between beginning farmers who are under 45 years old and those over 45. The gross cash income of the youngest cohorts grows tremendously, as do their expenses, indicating rapid expansion in production on the part of the youngest cohorts. The change in the balance sheets of the cohorts also provides a glimpse into the changing roles of beginning famers over time. The youngest cohort of beginning farmers increase the current and non-current assets on their balance sheets by a substantial amount, more than doubling both. Furthermore, the youngest cohort is the only group to take on more current liabilities, indicating increased financing of the production expenses.

Practical implications

Differences in the evolution of financial profiles of beginning farms may predict differences in future output, and it could be a predictor of the farm’s operational goals or intentions, as well as predictor of future financial needs and challenges.

Originality/value

Knowing and understanding likely trajectories of beginning farmers may provide an opportunity to better tailor farm programs, outreach, and support to beginning farmers.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 77 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Geraint Johnes, Ricardo Freguglia, Gisele Spricigo and Aradhna Aggarwal

The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic relationship between policies related to educational provision and both educational participation and occupational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic relationship between policies related to educational provision and both educational participation and occupational outcomes in Brazil, using PNAD and RAIS-Migra data.

Design/methodology/approach

Outcomes are examined using: static multinomial logit analysis, and structural dynamic discrete choice modelling. The latter approach, coupled with the quality of the RAIS-Migra data source, allows the authors to evaluate the education policy impacts over time.

Findings

The main results show that the education level raises the propensity that the individual will be in formal sector work or still in education, and reduces the probability of the other outcomes. Transition into non-manual formal sector work following education may, however, occur via a spell of manual work.

Originality/value

This is the first study of occupational destination to be conducted in a rapidly developing country using high-quality panel data and appropriate dynamic methods, and as such makes an important contribution in confirming that increased supply of highly skilled workers enhances occupational attainment in this context.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2018

Leonard Polzin, Christopher A. Wolf and J. Roy Black

The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of accelerated depreciation deductions, which includes Section 179 and bonus depreciation, taken in the first year of asset…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of accelerated depreciation deductions, which includes Section 179 and bonus depreciation, taken in the first year of asset life by Michigan farms. The frequency, value and influence of accelerated depreciation on farm investment are also analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

Accrual adjusted income statements, balance sheets, depreciation schedules, and income tax information for 66 Michigan farms from 2004 to 2014 provide data for the analysis. The present value of the accelerated deduction and change in the cost of capital were calculated. Finally, investment elasticities were used to arrive at the change in investment due to accelerated depreciation.

Findings

Accelerated depreciation was utilized across all applicable asset classes. Section 179 was used more often than bonus depreciation in part because it was available in all the examined years. Based on actual farm business use, accelerated depreciation lowered the cost of capital for the operations resulting in an estimated increase in investment of 0.27 to 11.6 percent depending on asset class.

Originality/value

The data utilized are of a detail not available in previous investigations which used either aggregate data or estimated rather than the observed use of accelerated depreciation. This analysis reveals that accelerated depreciation as used by commercial farms lowers the cost of capital and thus encourages investment particularly in machinery and equipment.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 78 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Mahdi Salehi and Arash Arianpoor

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the consequences of the auditor’s choice in group companies and the expectation gap of listed firms on the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the consequences of the auditor’s choice in group companies and the expectation gap of listed firms on the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE).

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, 128 companies (768 observations) listed on the TSE during the period 2012 to 2017 have been investigated. To test the hypotheses, logistic regression has been used.

Findings

The results showed that companies that are members of business groups are more likely to choose their auditors from large audit firms. The research findings also showed no significant relationship between the business group firms that have used the large auditor and the financial reporting quality. The results showed a positive and meaningful relationship between the member firms that use the large auditor and the audit fees. The results showed a negative and significant relationship between membership in business groups and the audit expectations gap.

Originality/value

Despite the importance of the audit performance, defining auditors’ roles most acceptably has always been challenging to create a gap through the diverse understanding of auditors’ role, which is the distance of perception between users’ auditors. For this reason, over the past years, the audit expectation gap and how to reduce it have focused on academics, professional accounting firms and users of financial statements. As any unmet expectations from the community will reduce the audit firm’s credibility and ability to gain and be widely detrimental to stakeholders, the audit study’s expectation gap in performing audit study is critical. Although there are extensive studies on the gap in auditing expectations in developed economies, most conclusions cannot be attributed to developing countries such as Iran due to cultural and legal differences. Besides, the audit environment in Iran and existing laws can have different results. This research also helps to bridge this gap by providing additional guidance to regulators. Besides, as all recent studies on the expectation gap were qualitative, the present study measures the expectation gap through quantitative statistical methods.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2013

Abstract

Details

Out of the Shadows: The Global Intensification of Supplementary Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-816-7

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2020

Lela Mélon and Rok Spruk

Because of the renewed interest in public purchasing and the strategic use of public funds under the requirements of sustainable development, the question arose once again…

Abstract

Purpose

Because of the renewed interest in public purchasing and the strategic use of public funds under the requirements of sustainable development, the question arose once again as to how to curb the fall of institutional quality once criteria other than price are inserted into the decision-making in public purchasing. E-procurement has been repeatedly named as one of the most efficient tools to that effect and the present paper sets out to discover whether the implementation of e-procurement in a particular country per se entails also higher institutional quality, allowing for a wider implementation of green and sustainable procurement at the national, regional and municipal level without the fear of worsening the country’s institutional quality. By analyzing the implementation of e-procurement in Denmark, the Netherlands and in Portugal, this paper aims to verify the hypothesis that the implementation of e-procurement implies better institutions in terms of public purchasing. As such, the conclusions will be used in further research on the prerequisites for a successful implementation of green public procurement across the European Union.

Design/methodology/approach

Gathering data on institutional quality of three early e-procurement adopters (Denmark, the Netherlands and Portugal) allows for comparison of institutional quality pre- and post-e-procurement implementation. By using difference-in-differences comparison the paper seeks to answer the question how doesmandatory e-procurement influence institutional quality on the national level.

Findings

The paper finds that the reform is generally associated with a relatively stronger control of corruption in the Netherlands and Denmark, while a similar reform in Portugal failed to translate into a stronger control of corruption. Furthermore, while using the quality of regulation as a dependent variable, a positive and robust effect on the quality of regulation in Denmark was shown, while the quality of reputation in the Netherlands and Portugal declined in the post-reform period, with the drop in the quality of regulation in Portugal being considerably greater, a two-fold higher amount than the estimated drop in the Netherlands. The paper suggests that in spite of the same aims, the reform yielded substantially different or even opposing effects compared to Denmark.

Research limitations/implications

By examining three examples of early adopters, further research with broader impact is needed to deduce general implications for e-procurement implementation. Furthermore, implementation of e-procurement at the regional or local level can also yield distinct results.

Social implications

Understanding the actual impact of e-procurement on institutional quality is indispensable for further study on the matter. The present study argues that e-procurement needs to be accompanied by additional measures or variables to yield a positive impact on institutional quality in public procurement.

Originality/value

As to originality, the present paper uses a law and economics approach, originating or better said drawing motivation from green public procurement concerns, trying to provide an insight in terms of tools that can be used to eliminate concerns regarding institutional quality when implementing green public procurement practices.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Marquise J. McGraw

This chapter examines the effects that airports have had on economic development in cities from 1950 to 2010. It uses a novel dataset consisting of previously unexploited…

Abstract

This chapter examines the effects that airports have had on economic development in cities from 1950 to 2010. It uses a novel dataset consisting of previously unexploited data on the origins and history of the aviation system in the United States. Applying the method of synthetic controls to a set of medium and small airports, I examine both the overall impacts and the heterogeneity within the outcomes of various airports. Then, I use regression analysis to determine key factors differentiating successful airports from less successful ones, as it pertains particularly to population and employment growth. I find that, first, on average, cities have benefited from airports over this period. Airports, overall, provided a causal contribution of 0.2– 0.6% per year on population and employment growth over the time period. Second, I show that city-level factors contributing to airport success include: (1) closer proximity to a major research university, (2) a capital city location, and (3) climate factors, particularly higher January mean temperatures and/or hours of sunshine. City size is a consideration as well; cities in larger metropolitan areas, with larger shares of employment in nontradables in the 1950s, were also better positioned to reap the benefits that airports provided on city growth. Significant differences were not found across regions, airport governance structures, or other factors.

Details

The Economics of Airport Operations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-497-2

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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2022

Povilas Lastauskas and Julius Stakėnas

What would have been the hypothetical effect of monetary policy shocks had a country never joined the euro area, in cases where we know that the country in question…

Abstract

What would have been the hypothetical effect of monetary policy shocks had a country never joined the euro area, in cases where we know that the country in question actually did join the euro area? It is one thing to investigate the impact of joining a monetary union, but quite another to examine two things at once: joining the union and experiencing actual monetary policy shocks. The authors propose a methodology that combines synthetic control ideas with the impulse response functions to uncover dynamic response paths for treated and untreated units, controlling for common unobserved factors. Focusing on the largest euro area countries, Germany, France, and Italy, the authors find that an unexpected rise in interest rates depresses inflation and significantly appreciates exchange rate, whereas gross domestic product (GDP) fluctuations are less successfully controlled when a country belongs to the monetary union than would have been the case under the independent monetary policy. Importantly, Italy turns out to be the overall beneficiary, since all three channels – price, GDP, and exchange rate – deliver the desired results. The authors also find that stabilizing an economy within a union requires somewhat smaller policy changes than attempting to stabilize it individually, and therefore provides more policy space.

Details

Essays in Honor of M. Hashem Pesaran: Prediction and Macro Modeling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-062-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Chein‐I Chang and Mingkai Hsueh

The paper aims to characterize anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to characterize anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops an adaptive causal anomaly detector (ACAD) to investigate several issues encountered in hyperspectral image analysis which have not been addressed in the past. It also designs extensive synthetic image‐based computer simulations and real image experiments to substantiate the work proposed in this paper.

Findings

This paper developed an ACAD and custom‐designed computer simulations and real image experiments to successfully address several issues in characterizing anomalies for detection, which are – first, how large size for a target to be considered as an anomaly? Second, how an anomaly responds to its proximity? Third, how sensitive for an anomaly to noise? Finally, how different anomalies to be detected? Additionally, it also demonstrated that the proposed ACAD can be implemented in real time processing and implementation.

Originality/value

This paper is the first work on investigation of several issues related to anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery via extensive synthetic image‐based computer simulations and real image experiments. In addition, it also develops a new developed an ACAD to address these issues and substantiate its performance.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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