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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Murat Selek, Fatih Basçiftçi and Serkan Örücü

Malaria is one of the most sinister life-threatening disease and generally transmitted by the bite of an Anopheles mosquito which was infected. These mosquitoes carry the…

Abstract

Purpose

Malaria is one of the most sinister life-threatening disease and generally transmitted by the bite of an Anopheles mosquito which was infected. These mosquitoes carry the Plasmodium parasite. Worldwide risk of malaria thread is very hard to deal, because of extreme temperature and climate changes which lead to uncontrolled changes in the mosquito population, as many deaths from malaria occur outside the healthcare system and other infections might be misdiagnosed as malaria unless a diagnostic test is done. The purpose of this study is creating a system which is early diagnosing malaria for settlements adequate healthcare units and non-immune travellers.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study’s system, the authors developed a new medical expert system (MES) process using the decreased rule base to detect malaria. The authors’ purpose was to successfully identify the illness by taking all symptoms of malaria into consideration in the MES (six basic signs, 64 different conditions). In the proposed MES process, in place of inspecting all the malaria-related signs, the authors used the decreased rule bases.

Findings

So as to take the lessen decreased bases, Boolean functions are used in a two-level simplification method. Using this method, decreased cases were evaluated by taking six symptoms of malaria into account instead of assessing 64 individual conditions.

Research limitations/implications

The system can be used in diagnosis of asthma and chronic obstructive respiratory disease.

Practical implications

The system can be used in absence of adequate healthcare units. Thus, malaria can be diagnosed early.

Originality/value

The authors hope that the system they have developed will be useful for settlements in the absence of adequate healthcare units and non-immune travellers.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2020

Uchechukwu M. Chukwuocha, Greg N. Iwuoha, Chisom M. Ogara and Ikechukwu N.S. Dozie

This study assessed the effectiveness of malaria classroom corner (MCC), school-based intervention in the promotion of basic malaria awareness and common control practices…

Abstract

Purpose

This study assessed the effectiveness of malaria classroom corner (MCC), school-based intervention in the promotion of basic malaria awareness and common control practices among children of primary school age.

Design/methodology/approach

A quasi-experimental design was employed, involving 206 children of primary 5 and 6 classes from two randomly selected public primary schools in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria. The MCC was designed and set up in the intervention school (with 103 children) while the control school (with 103 children) was offered malaria health talk. Structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data pre- and post-intervention in both schools. Data was analysed using Statistical Package – Stata version 14.1 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA).

Findings

Results show that there was a significant enhancement of basic malaria awareness (p = 0.0003) and common preventive and management practices (p = 0.0202) among children in the intervention primary school compared to those in the control primary school.

Research limitations/implications

The study did not account for actual behaviour change, as its scope was within basic malaria awareness and common control practices.

Practical implications

This approach could enhance awareness and proactiveness of school children towards malaria prevention and overall health consciousness.

Social implications

This could help in achieving a healthy population of school children with a positive effect on their school performance.

Originality/value

The MCC could provide a simple, participatory and effective approach for the promotion of basic malaria awareness and common control practices among primary school-age children in malaria endemic areas. Such children could, in turn, become malaria conversation drivers and behaviour change agents in their homes and communities, thereby contributing to the malaria elimination efforts.

Details

Health Education, vol. 120 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

Hyacinth Eme Ichoku, John E. Ataguba and William M. Fonta

The subsidization of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) at supranational level to avoid undermining the private distribution system in sub‐Saharan Africa and elsewhere…

Abstract

Purpose

The subsidization of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) at supranational level to avoid undermining the private distribution system in sub‐Saharan Africa and elsewhere, as advocated by Committee on the Economics of Antimalarial Drugs board on Global Health, requires the appraisal of the economic behaviour of relevant private agents in these regions, in order to assess their potential influence on access to ACT. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the economic behaviour of informal medicine retailers and how this effects access to ACT, using data generated from a primary survey in southeast Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

A field survey was carried out which included health providers and households. A market price survey was undertaken to generate primary data, using closed and semi‐open questionnaires, and there were focus group discussions in two south‐eastern states in Nigeria. A standard two‐stage method was used for the design of the survey.

Findings

The study demonstrates that the economic behaviour of informal medicine affects market prices of ACT, facilitates information diffusion, improves availability and acceptability dimensions of access to ACT. However, their clinical practices are weak and require policy interventions.

Originality/value

This paper brings to the fore the influence of economic behaviour of retail agents in the medical market, which needs to be taken into account when considering alternative distributional channels for ACT, if the WHO goal of universal access in malaria‐endemic regions is to be achieved.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 September 2012

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Shankar Reddy Kolle, M.S. Vijayashree and T.H. Shankarappa

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the bibliometric characteristics of highly cited articles in Malaria research for the period of 1991-2015.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the bibliometric characteristics of highly cited articles in Malaria research for the period of 1991-2015.

Design/methodology/approach

The data of highly cited articles for the period of 1991 to 2015 were extracted from the Science Citation Index Expended of Web of Science. The keyword “Malaria” was used as topic term to search documents that contained this word in the title or keyword or abstract of the documents that published in 1991 to 2015. A total of 1,614 articles having TC2015 = 100 were retrieved as highly cited articles for further analysis, and Microsoft excel was used for the analysis purpose.

Findings

A total of 1,614 of highly cited articles were published in the 230 journals for the period of 1991 to 2015, and majority of the articles were appeared in journals that have top impact factor. The articles published in the 2011s have greater average citations and authors per article. Six journals have produced almost a quarter of highly cited articles and remaining articles were published in 224 journals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA was the most productive journal with 154 articles, which accounts for 9.53 per cent of the total articles, followed by Lancet (110; 6.81 per cent). We found degree collaboration value of 0.971 for the articles, which indicates the clear dominance of multiple authors in publication of highly cited articles in Malaria research. In this study, new indictor called P index was applied for the evaluation of the author’s productivity. As per the p-value, the White, NJ has emerged as the most productive author with the p-value of 0.41 (61 articles), followed by Marsh, K (p = 0.33), Nosten, F (p = 0.32) and Snow, RW (p = 0.31). The USA and the UK were the most productive countries. The article entitled as “Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data” contributed by Lopez et al. (2006) was the most cited article with 2,245 citations in 2015.

Research limitations/implications

The data for the present study was limited to the publications that indexed in Science Citation index Expended of Web of Science.

Originality/value

This paper would be useful to the researchers to know the trends and achievements in the Malaria research and also to the library and information science professionals in collection building process.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Martin Muderspach Thellefsen, Torkild Thellefsen and Bent Sørensen

The purpose of this paper is to formulate an analytical framework for the information concept based on the semiotic theory.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to formulate an analytical framework for the information concept based on the semiotic theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is motivated by the apparent controversy that still surrounds the information concept. Information, being a key concept within LIS, suffers from being anchored in various incompatible theories. The paper suggests that information is signs, and it demonstrates how the concept of information can be understood within C.S. Peirce’s phenomenologically rooted semiotic. Hence, from there, certain ontological conditions as well epistemological consequences of the information concept can be deduced.

Findings

The paper argues that an understanding of information, as either objective or subjective/discursive, leads to either objective reductionism and signal processing, that fails to explain how information becomes meaningful at all, or conversely, information is understood only relative to subjective/discursive intentions, agendas, etc. To overcome the limitations of defining information as either objective or subjective/discursive, a semiotic analysis shows that information understood as signs is consistently sensitive to both objective and subjective/discursive features of information. It is consequently argued that information as concept should be defined in relation to ontological conditions having certain epistemological consequences.

Originality/value

The paper presents an analytical framework, derived from semiotics, that adds to the developments of the philosophical dimensions of information within LIS.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 74 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1970

Shanker Bahadur Shrestha, Uttam Raj Pyakurel, Mukti Khanal, Murari Upadhyay, Kesara Na-Bangchang and Phunuch Muhamad

The purpose of this paper is to investigate epidemiology and control strategies of the four priority vector-borne diseases (VBDs) in Nepal, i.e. malaria, Kala-azar…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate epidemiology and control strategies of the four priority vector-borne diseases (VBDs) in Nepal, i.e. malaria, Kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis), lymphatic filariasis (LF) and dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was a retrospective design to collect data during 1998–2016 from VBDs endemic districts of Nepal. All data were reviewed and epidemiological information of the four VBDs were analyzed.

Findings

The number of malaria cases during 1998–2016 of the 13 affected districts was declined from 8,498 to 991 cases with no record of deaths since 2012. The number of cases and deaths in the 12 kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) affected districts in 1998 was 1,409 and 42 cases, respectively, but was dramatically decreased in 2016 to 213 and 2 cases, respectively. LF cases of the 61 affected districts in 2011, 2014 and 2016 were 28,855, 30,000 and 33,517 cases, respectively. In total, 25 districts achieved elimination target and the remaining are expected to complete the needful cycles by 2018. Dengue incidence of the 31 affected districts during 2006–2015 was under controlled with reported cases of 642, 356 and 136 cases in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively, and only one death in 2015. Implementation of control strategies particularly disease management and community peoples’ awareness significantly reduced the cases and deaths of the target VBDs.

Practical implications

The results of this study clearly suggest that the current control strategies have been worked effectively. However, in particular of the VBDs, health education in communities in the endemic areas should be adopted for better community participation in the context of the primary health care approach and increase the effectiveness of disease control.

Originality/value

VBDs, i.e., malaria, kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis), LF and dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever, are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the least developed countries which include Nepal. Globalization of travel and trading, unplanned urbanization, environmental and climate change are having a significant impact on disease transmission. Therefore, the Ministry of Health of Nepal had brought some changes in strategies based on activities for disease control, vector control, preventive and preparedness for outbreak response. Consequently, the cases and deaths due to malaria, kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis), lymphatic filaiasis and dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever have been brought down markedly.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 21 April 2010

Danae Roumis

Purpose – This chapter aims to provide a cross-section of some social, political, cultural, and economic factors that contribute to the conditions of illness, specifically…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter aims to provide a cross-section of some social, political, cultural, and economic factors that contribute to the conditions of illness, specifically malaria, in an area of Tanzania where both land and population have been marginalized to varying degrees over time. It also suggests the relevance of such considerations in the planning and implementation of public health interventions in the region.

Methodology/approach – This chapter elaborates upon a case study conducted by the author in the Ngorongoro District in Tanzania in 2006. A political ecology framework is used to guide the discussion.

Findings – Malaria in the Ngorongoro Maasai community can be more fully understood by incorporating critical social science perspectives into health-related analyses, by allowing for a greater appreciation of the complex history behind current configurations of infrastructure and sociopolitical interactions in the region. Assuming that equity is of concern, this appreciation can contribute to ensuring that all populations in the country have the opportunity to benefit from the public health momentum in Tanzania.

Contribution to the field – Much attention is justifiably directed toward the social and economic consequences of infectious diseases in developing countries. Tanzania alone accounts for a large proportion of malaria cases and deaths worldwide. This chapter recognizes that malaria is one of the many elements in an ecological system continually integrating cues from nature and society, and uses that framework to demonstrate the importance of qualitative analysis in view of the copious international funding and assistance for control measures.

Details

Understanding Emerging Epidemics: Social and Political Approaches
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-080-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Rabindra K. Maharana

The aim of this paper is to analyze Indian researchers' publications on malaria research and to serve as a guide to libraries needing to collect information on malaria. It…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to analyze Indian researchers' publications on malaria research and to serve as a guide to libraries needing to collect information on malaria. It also seeks to compare malaria affected Asian countries global rank with their publication and death rates.

Design/methodology/approach

For the purpose of the study Indian researchers' publication data which were indexed in Thomson Reuters Web of Science (WoS) were used. Various statistical techniques and bibliometric measures have been employed for further analysis.

Findings

The present study found out 2,020 documents with h-index of 48, published by Indian researchers which were indexed in WoS during 2003 to 2012 and the majority of them were articles (81.43 percent). Malaria Journal is the most favored research journal among the Indian research community which covers 97 papers. A.P. Dash contributed maximum number of 136 (6.74 percent) papers. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) is the largest Indian funding agency with 184 (9.11 percent) research grants.

Research limitations/implications

Limitation by geographical area and time, i.e. the study only focuses the research publication of Indian researchers on malaria research during 2003 to 2012.

Originality/value

This is the first attempt to apply bibliometric techniques to analyze malaria research by Indian researchers, and, more generally for a country which is very badly affected by the disease.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

Keywords

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Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

David Besanko, Sarah Gillis and Sisi Shen

The years 2011, 2012, and 2013 witnessed both significant developments and setbacks in global polio eradication efforts. On the positive side, January 13, 2012, marked a…

Abstract

The years 2011, 2012, and 2013 witnessed both significant developments and setbacks in global polio eradication efforts. On the positive side, January 13, 2012, marked a full year since India had detected a case of wild poliovirus. On the negative side, polio continued to be endemic in three countries-Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria-and in those countries the goal of eliminating polio seemed more challenging than ever. Between December 2012 and January 2013, sixteen polio workers were killed in Pakistan, and in February 2013, nine women vaccinating children against polio in Kano, Nigeria, were shot dead by gunmen suspected of belonging to a radical Islamist sect. In addition, after a 95 percent decline in polio cases in 2010, the number of cases in Nigeria rebounded in 2011. Recognizing that polio was unlikely to be eliminated in these countries in the near term, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative moved its target date for eradication from 2013 to 2018.

These setbacks sparked a debate about the appropriate strategy for global eradication of polio. Indeed, some experts believed that recent setbacks were not caused by poor management but were instead the result of epidemiological characteristics and preconditions that might render polio eradication unachievable. These experts argued that global health efforts should focus on the control or elimination of polio rather than on the eradication of the disease.

This case presents an overview of polio and the Global Polio Eradication Initiative and recounts the successful effort to eradicate smallpox. The case enables a rich discussion of the current global strategy to eradicate polio, as well as the issue of whether eradication is the appropriate global public health objective. More generally, the case provides a concrete example of a particular type of global public good, namely infectious disease eradication.

After analyzing and discussing the case, students will be able to:

  • Understand the nature of a global public good

  • Perform a back-of-the-envelope benefit-cost analysis of polio eradication

  • Discuss the appropriate strategy for eradicating an infectious disease

  • Apply game theory to analyzing which countries would be likely to contribute funds toward global polio eradication

  • Discuss the role of private organizations in the provision of global public goods

Understand the nature of a global public good

Perform a back-of-the-envelope benefit-cost analysis of polio eradication

Discuss the appropriate strategy for eradicating an infectious disease

Apply game theory to analyzing which countries would be likely to contribute funds toward global polio eradication

Discuss the role of private organizations in the provision of global public goods

Details

Kellogg School of Management Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-6568
Published by: Kellogg School of Management

Keywords

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