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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

Satish Sharma, Satish Jain, J. Sharana Basavaraja and Neeraj Sharma

Hole‐entry hybrid journal bearings are widely used in many applications owing to their favourable characteristics. Ever increasing technological developments demand much…

Abstract

Purpose

Hole‐entry hybrid journal bearings are widely used in many applications owing to their favourable characteristics. Ever increasing technological developments demand much improved performance from these class of bearings operating under the most stringent, exact and precise conditions. Therefore, it becomes imperative that the hole‐entry journal bearings be designed on the basis of more accurately predicted bearing characteristics data. The purpose of this paper is to describe a theoretical study to demonstrate the combined influence of the effect of pocket size at the outlet of supply holes and the journal misalignment on the performance of an orifice compensated hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing system.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element method is used to solve the Reynolds equation governing the flow of an incompressible lubricant in the clearance space between the journal and bearing together with equation of flow through an orifice. The journal misalignment has been accounted for by defining a pair of misalignment parameters sigma and delta. The effect of pocket size at the outlet of supply holes has been accounted by defining a non‐dimensional parameter which is function of diameter of pocket and journal diameter.

Findings

The results presented in this paper indicate that the effect of journal misalignment is, in general, to cause a reduction in bearing dynamic characteristics parameters whereas the effect of pocket size is to slightly compensate this loss. Performance of a two lobe four recessed journal bearing, a proper selection of bearing offset factor along with type of restrictor (capillary or orifice) is essential.

Originality/value

This paper presents valuable data relating to hole‐entry hybrid journal bearings useful for bearing designers.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 62 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2009

J. Sharana Basavaraja, Sathish Sharma and Sathish Jain

The non‐recessed hybrid journal bearings of cylindrical type, when operating at higher rotational speeds can suffer self‐exited vibrations(oil‐whirl Instability), which…

Abstract

Purpose

The non‐recessed hybrid journal bearings of cylindrical type, when operating at higher rotational speeds can suffer self‐exited vibrations(oil‐whirl Instability), which can cause excessive rotor motion causing bearing and sometimes total machine failure. The multi‐lobe journal bearing exhibits better stability as well as a superior capability to suppress oil‐whirl. The paper aims to present a theoretical study pertaining to a two‐lobe hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing by considering the combined influence of surface roughness and journal misalignment on the performance of the bearing.

Design/methodology/approach

The average Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant in the clearance space between the rough bearing surfaces together with the equation of flow through a capillary restrictor has been solved using FEM. The bearing performance characteristics have been simulated for a two‐lobe hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing for the various values of offset factor, restrictor design parameter, surface roughness parameter, surface pattern parameter and journal misalignment parameters.

Findings

The two‐lobe hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing system with an offset factor greater than one indicates significant improvement of the order of 15‐25 percent in the values of direct stiffness and direct damping coefficients compared to a circular hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing system. Also the lubricant flow of a two‐lobe hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing is reduced by 25 percent vis‐à‐vis circular bearing.

Originality/value

The present work is original of its kind, in case of two‐lobe hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing. The results are quite useful for the bearing designer.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 61 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

H.C. Garg and Vijay Kumar

The changing technological scenario necessitated hybrid journal bearings to operate under severe conditions of heavy load and high speed resulting into temperature rise of…

Abstract

Purpose

The changing technological scenario necessitated hybrid journal bearings to operate under severe conditions of heavy load and high speed resulting into temperature rise of the lubricant fluid-film and bearing surface. To predict the performance of a bearing realistically, theoretical model must consider the combined influence of the rise of temperature and non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant. The aim of the present paper is to study the effect of viscosity variation due to temperature rise and non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant on performance of constant flow valve compensated multiple hole-entry hybrid journal bearings.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element method has been used to solve Reynolds equation along with restrictor flow equation, 3D energy equation and 3D conduction equation using suitable iterative technique. The non-Newtonian lubricant has been assumed to follow cubic shear stress law.

Findings

The thermohydrostatic rheological performances of symmetric and asymmetric hole-entry hybrid journal bearing configurations are studied. The computed results illustrate that variation of viscosity due to rise in temperature and non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant affects the performance of hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system quite significantly.

Originality/value

In the present work, the influences of the viscosity variation due to temperature rise and non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant on the performance characteristics of non-recessed hole-entry hybrid journal bearing with symmetric and asymmetric configurations compensated with constant flow valve restrictors have been investigated for generating the design data to be used by bearing designer. The design data computed in the present thesis are a contribution in field of knowledge of bearing design.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2012

H.C. Garg

The purpose of this paper is to present theoretical investigations of the static performance characteristics of orifice compensated symmetric hole‐entry hybrid journal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present theoretical investigations of the static performance characteristics of orifice compensated symmetric hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing considering the combined influence of rise in temperature and non‐Newtonian behavior of the lubricant.

Design/methodology/approach

The thermohydrostatic (THS) rheological solution of a hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing system requires the simultaneous solution of Reynolds equation, energy equation and conduction equation along with appropriate boundary conditions. In the present study an iterative numerical solution scheme is used to establish pressure and temperature fields in the lubricant fluid‐film.

Findings

It is found that there is an increase in the oil requirement for a hybrid journal bearing with the specified operating and geometric parameters, when the viscosity of the lubricant decreases due to the rise in temperature and non‐Newtonian behavior of the lubricant.

Originality/value

The available literature concerning the orifice compensated symmetric hybrid/hydrodynamic journal bearings indicates that the thermal effects together with non‐Newtonian behavior of lubricant due to additives mixed in the lubricants have been ignored in the analysis so as to obviate the mathematical complexity.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2018

Pankaj Khatak and H.C. Garg

Hybrid journal bearing have long been used in machines requiring large load and high speed capacity operating under wide range of temperatures. Different compensating…

Abstract

Purpose

Hybrid journal bearing have long been used in machines requiring large load and high speed capacity operating under wide range of temperatures. Different compensating devices are used in for efficient operation of bearings. This paper aims to help in selection of optimum compensating device by evaluating the comparative performance of constant flow valve, capillary compensated and slot entry hybrid journal bearing under the combined influence of thermal effects and micropolar nature of lubricant.

Design/methodology/approach

The variation in micropolar parameters and viscosity change due to temperature increase of lubricant are considered in present study. Finite element method is used for combined iterative solution of micropolar Reynolds, energy and conduction equations. Micropolar lubricant is assumed to be governed by two parameters, coupling number and characteristic length. The results in the study are presented for symmetric and asymmetric configurations of hole entry and slot entry non-recessed hybrid journal bearings

Findings

The results indicate that constant flow valve compensated hole entry hybrid journal bearing is the highest performing bearing for the given range of micropolar parameters of lubricant in terms of maximum fluid pressure and dynamic coefficients.

Originality/value

The performance variations of various configurations of hybrid journal bearing are presented in a single paper. The reader can get overview of combined effects of micropolar parameters and viscosity decrease due to temperature increase of the lubricant.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

H.C. Garg

This paper aims to describe the theoretical study concerning the effect of non‐linear behavior of the lubricant on the performance of symmetric constant flow valve…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the theoretical study concerning the effect of non‐linear behavior of the lubricant on the performance of symmetric constant flow valve compensated hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing. The bearing performance characteristics have been computed for various values of non‐linearity factor, land width ratio, aspect ratio and external load.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis considers the generalized Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant having variable viscosity in the clearance space and equation of flow of lubricant through constant flow valve restrictor. The non‐Newtonian lubricant is assumed to follow the cubic shear stress law.

Findings

The study indicates that for generation of accurate bearing characteristics data, the inclusion of non‐linear effects of lubricant in the analysis is essential.

Originality/value

The performance characteristics in terms of minimum fluid‐film thickness, fluid‐film stiffness and damping coefficients, critical mass and threshold speed for a wide range of values of the non‐linearity factor and external load are presented. The results presented are expected to be quite useful to bearing designers.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 63 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2009

H.C. Garg, Vijay Kumar and H.B. Sharda

Every high speed machine, demanding high level of perfection, can operate successfully through a precise design of bearings. Such a design can be formulated after…

Abstract

Purpose

Every high speed machine, demanding high level of perfection, can operate successfully through a precise design of bearings. Such a design can be formulated after carefully studying both static and dynamic characteristics of the journal bearing. The present paper aims to describe the study of static and dynamic performance of a hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing system compensated with capillary restrictor by considering the combined influence of thermal effects and non‐Newtonian behavior of the lubricant.

Design/methodology/approach

The variation of the viscosity due to the non‐Newtonian behavior of the lubricant and temperature rise is considered in the study. The numerical solution of the generalized Reynold's, equation governing the flow of the lubricant having variable viscosity along with the energy and heat conduction equations is obtained using finite element method. The non‐Newtonian lubricant has been assumed to follow the cubic shear stress law. The study includes performance of a double row symmetric hole entry hybrid journal bearing configuration containing 12 holes per row.

Findings

The results indicate that change in viscosity of lubricant affects the bearing design parameters.

Originality/value

The paper shows that accurate theoretical modeling of the bearing is an effective tool for the selection of design parameter such as bearing land width ratio (ab), restrictor design parameter (Cs2), and non‐linearity factor (K).

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 61 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Nathi Ram and Satish Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to study theoretically the combined influence of journal misalignment and wear on the performance of a hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study theoretically the combined influence of journal misalignment and wear on the performance of a hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing system. The bearing is assumed to be operating in a turbulent regime.

Design/methodology/approach

The modified Reynolds equation based on Constantinescu lubrication theory has been solved by using finite element method together with orifice and capillary restrictors flow equations as a constrain together with appropriate boundary conditions.

Findings

It has been observed that for a symmetric hole‐entry journal bearing configuration the value of min is more for the bearing compensated by orifice restrictor as compared to capillary restrictor when bearing operates in turbulent regime under worn/unworn conditions. From the point of view of stability threshold speed ω¯th, the reduction in the value of ω¯th for capillary compensated bearing is around −3.89 percent whereas for orifice compensated bearing it is −7.85 percent when misaligned worn bearing is operating in turbulent regime.

Originality/value

The present work is original of its kind, in case of misaligned hole‐entry worn journal bearing. The results are quite useful for the bearing designer.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 65 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2007

R.K. Duvedi, Manpreet Singh and V.K. Jadon

The present work aims to predict accurately the bearing design data for non‐recessed hybrid journal bearings, considering the effect of non‐Newtonian behavior of lubricant…

Abstract

Purpose

The present work aims to predict accurately the bearing design data for non‐recessed hybrid journal bearings, considering the effect of non‐Newtonian behavior of lubricant for different symmetric and non‐symmetric bearing geometric configurations.

Design/methodology/approach

The simultaneous solution of generalized Reynold's equation governing the laminar flow of incompressible lubricant and the equation of flow of lubricant through the capillary restrictor, considering variable viscosity of lubricant following the “Power law”, has been carried out using FEM. For a given set of bearing geometric, operating parameters and for given external vertical load, the values of various performance characteristics have been obtained for a range of values of power law index, after establishing the journal center equilibrium position, the analysis for which has been elaborately explained.

Findings

The results obtained have been presented graphically for various bearing performance characteristics. It has been observed that with decrease in power law index “n”(0<n≤1), the value of min  and load carrying capacity decreases, while bearing flow rate increases for all configuration. The load‐carrying capacity of asymmetric configurations is better and stable over entire range of restrictor design parameter. Bearing configuration with land width ratio = 0.25 and aspect ratio = 1.0, having two rows of holes and six holes in each row, will be better suited for high‐load support, as it has maximum value of minimum fluid film thickness, moderate value of bearing flow and value of attitude angle is almost constant.

Originality/value

The performance characteristics of journal bearing have been presented for a wide range of values of power law index and for different values of restrictor design parameter for capillary restrictor, after establishing the journal center equilibrium position. The comparison of the different symmetric and non‐symmetric journal‐bearing configurations to find the best geometric configuration at different operating conditions, considering the effect of non‐Newtonian behavior of lubricant, represents the originality of the work.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 59 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2013

H.C. Garg and Vijay Kumar

The purpose of this paper is to describe the static performance characteristics of orifice compensated hole-entry hybrid journal bearing considering the combined influence…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the static performance characteristics of orifice compensated hole-entry hybrid journal bearing considering the combined influence of rise in temperature and non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant. The required governing equations have been solved using the finite element method and a suitable iterative technique. The non-Newtonian lubricant has been assumed to follow the cubic shear stress law. The thermohydrostatic (THS) rheological performance of asymmetric hole-entry hybrid journal bearing configurations are studied. The computed results indicate that variation of viscosity due rise in temperature and non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant affects the performance of asymmetric hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system quite significantly.

Design/methodology/approach

The THS rheological solution of a hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system requires the simultaneous solution of Reynolds equation, 3D energy equation and 3D conduction equation along with appropriate boundary conditions. In present study an iterative numerical solution scheme is used to establish pressure and temperature fields in the lubricant fluid-film.

Findings

The computed results indicate that variation of viscosity due rise in temperature and non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant affects the performance of asymmetric hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system quite significantly.

Originality/value

The available literature concerning the orifice compensated asymmetric hole-entry hybrid journal bearings indicates that the thermal effects together with non-Newtonian behavior of lubricant due to additives mixed in the lubricants have been ignored in the analysis so as to obviate the mathematical complexity. The bearing performance characteristics have been presented considering the combined influence of rise in temperature and non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant for asymmetric bearing configurations.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 65 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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