Search results

1 – 10 of over 14000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Rakhee Vyas and Anne L. Souchon

Using information effectively has become a critical determinant for gaining competitive advantage and enhancing business performance. In this context, the need for further…

Abstract

Using information effectively has become a critical determinant for gaining competitive advantage and enhancing business performance. In this context, the need for further research into export information use is particularly pressing, given the increased recognition that mere export information acquisition is not sufficient to ensure optimal decision‐making quality for foreign markets. Information use has been conceptualised in the past as a multi‐dimensional construct encompassing instrumental, conceptual, and symbolic use, with most studies focusing on the first two dimensions. However, the nature of the export‐non‐export dichotomy within firms sets the scene for political information‐related activity and thus symbolic use of export information. This paper presents a multidimensional conceptualisation of symbolic use of export information, anchored in a cross‐disciplinary review of the literature. Key propositions regarding the impact of symbolic use of export information on export performance are also proposed. Conclusions are drawn and a future research agenda is outlined.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 May 2018

Shu-pei Tsai

Enhancing the innovative behaviour of knowledge workers is a main task in knowledge management. The pay-for-performance policy is one of the management practices for…

Abstract

Purpose

Enhancing the innovative behaviour of knowledge workers is a main task in knowledge management. The pay-for-performance policy is one of the management practices for innovative behaviour enhancement and has been gaining popularity in the knowledge-intensive context. However, it is still uncertain whether such practice really enhances the innovative behaviour of knowledge workers. To address this issue, this paper aims to propose and verify a conceptual framework incorporating kernel notions of social exchange, psychological empowerment and work engagement rooted in the social cognition paradigm.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study conducts a survey on 608 knowledge workers and their supervisors, validating the model structure and causal path pattern of the proposed framework. The causality is delineated from social exchange attributes of financial incentive, psychological empowerment and work engagement to innovative behaviour of knowledge workers.

Findings

Perceived organisational support and perceived pay equity are primary antecedents of symbolic incentive meaning reflected in the financial incentive of the pay-for-performance policy. Symbolic incentive meaning comprising dimensions of relative position, control and personal importance relates positively to innovative behaviour of knowledge workers. Psychological empowerment and work engagement are partial mediators of the positive relationship.

Originality/value

The current study explicates why and how social exchange attributes of the financial incentive provided by the pay-for-performance policy may enhance innovative behaviour of knowledge workers. Implications are supplied to knowledge management scholars and practitioners to optimise the pay-for-performance policy for innovative behaviour enhancement.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 22 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 February 2017

Francisco G. Nunes, Janet E. Anderson, Luis M. Martins and Siri Wiig

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of ownership of community pharmacies on the perception of organizational identity and its relationships with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of ownership of community pharmacies on the perception of organizational identity and its relationships with organizational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was carried out on a sample of pharmacists working in community pharmacies in Portugal. The sample comprised 1,369 pharmacists, of whom 51 percent were owner-managers. Measures of pharmacies’ normative (community health oriented) and utilitarian (business oriented) identities, identity strength (clear and unifying), substantive (stockholder focused) and symbolic (society focused) performance were included.

Findings

Both owners and employed pharmacists rated the normative identity of pharmacies higher than the utilitarian identity. Compared with employed pharmacists, owners perceive a lower level of utilitarian identity, the same level of normative identity, and higher levels of identity strength. Normative identity and identity strength predicted symbolic performance. Normative and utilitarian identities and identity strength predicted substantive performance. The relationship between utilitarian identity and substantive performance was significant among owner pharmacists but not among employed pharmacists.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations include the use of perceptive measures and the focus on the individual level of analysis.

Practical implications

In order to improve pharmacies’ performance, pharmacists who manage community pharmacies are challenged to reconcile tensions arising from the co-existence of business and community health identities and from their own agency (self-serving) and stewardship (altruistic) motives.

Originality/value

This study draws on institutional, identity and stewardship theories to understand how pharmacists, owners and employees, view the identity of community pharmacies and how identity relates to organizational performance.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 October 2018

Muhammad Safdar Sial, Zheng Chunmei, Tehmina Khan and Vinh Khuong Nguyen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and firm performance and the moderating role of earnings management…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and firm performance and the moderating role of earnings management on the relationship between CSR and firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical study used the updated data set (3,481 unbalanced observations for period 2009–2015) from Chinese listed companies on Shenzhen and Shanghai stock exchanges. The generalized method of moments (GMM) statistical approach has been used for the analysis. The authors utilized STATA to test GMM on a sample of Chinese listed firms data over the period 2009–2015. The unbalanced sample obtained 3,481 observations from China stock market and accounting research database and CSR ratings provided by Rankins (RKS).

Findings

The results demonstrated that CSR has a positive and significant relationship with firm’s performance; also, earnings management has a negatively moderate relationship between CSR and firm performance. These results imply that a high value of earnings management, which results in high level of symbolic CSR, converts to low firm performance of the Chinese firms. CSR actions (only as symbolic measures) promoted by managers as a means to cover their profit management incite an adverse effect on the company’s performance. This study has highlighted the impact of two different corporate social responsibilities: substantive and symbolic (genuine CSR vs greenwashing) on firm performance.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this investigation will be of distinct interest to company owners who wish to ascertain the effectiveness of the sustainability decisions of directors and managers, and also to investors and public authorities to estimate the positive relationship between CSR and company’s reputation and image, and thus, the positive influence on firm performance.

Originality/value

Previous studies have generally focused on the relationship between CSR and firm performance. This study provides the impact of earnings management (measurement of both aspects of accrual-based earnings management and real earnings management) on this relationship. Furthermore, this study examines the state of CSR in the Chinese market and provides empirical evidence of this relationship in emerging markets.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 10 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Kjell Toften

To test empirical relationships between export market information use and export knowledge and export performance.

Abstract

Purpose

To test empirical relationships between export market information use and export knowledge and export performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Confirmatory factor analysis, using LISREL 8.50, based on a postal survey. The setting selected was the Norwegian seafood industry, mainly consisting of a number of small and medium‐sized firms with a strong export dependency.

Findings

The results indicate that “instrumental/conceptual” use of information positively affects both export knowledge and export performance, while “symbolic” use does not affect either. Export knowledge is found to have no direct influence on export performance in this study.

Research limitations/implications

For generalisation purposes, longitudinal studies in multiple settings would be preferable to this cross‐sectional survey in a specific setting.

Practical implications

Firms accumulate knowledge and expertise by integrating and incorporating information that has been processed, interpreted and used. This study underscores the importance, for success in export markets, of a commitment to systematically generating, disseminating and responding to export market information. There are clear implications for the management of market intelligence and planning, to enhance the firm's performance.

Originality/value

Provides a better understanding of export market information use and its consequences, by integrating it with the concepts of export knowledge and export performance, and testing their structural relations.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 April 2019

Dorota Dobija, Anna Maria Górska, Giuseppe Grossi and Wojciech Strzelczyk

The purpose of this paper is to facilitate a deeper understanding of the uses and users of performance measurement (PM) in the university context.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to facilitate a deeper understanding of the uses and users of performance measurement (PM) in the university context.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data were gathered from four universities. This approach allows for a multilevel and comparative analysis based on the neo-institutional theory. The results are discussed alongside interdisciplinary literature on the use of PM in the public sector.

Findings

PM practices at universities have become increasingly popular on institutional, organisational and individual levels. The results indicate that different types of PM are used in universities and that the extent, and scope of PM used by various actors differ. Universities often use PM in a ceremonial and symbolic manner, with the aim of legitimising themselves externally as research-oriented institutions. The use of PM depends on both, exogenous factors (such as isomorphic pressures) and endogenous factors related to the different responses of organisations and individual actors (university managers, and academics). However, the analysis at the internal level reveals different attitudes and some resistance to the use of such kinds of PM. In universities with a local focus, the use of PM for rational decision-making is generally loosely coupled with the reporting performance for external accountability purposes. Moreover, the internal use of PM can be also symbolic.

Research limitations/implications

This paper focusses on four case studies that are currently undergoing changes. The comparative analysis is supported by the use of different data collection methods and several in-depth interviews with key university actors.

Originality/value

The authors assume that the use of PM depends on a number of exogenous and endogenous factors. PM uses and users are discussed in the specific context of the higher education system in Poland. The four business school cases facilitate a comparative analysis of the similarities and differences in terms of the uses and users of PM in the context of internationally and locally oriented universities.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2014

Johannes M. Drees

Extant research posits that mergers and acquisition (M&As) do not create value. Still many firms adopt expansion strategies such as alliances, joint ventures (JVs), and…

Abstract

Extant research posits that mergers and acquisition (M&As) do not create value. Still many firms adopt expansion strategies such as alliances, joint ventures (JVs), and M&As to grow and enhance their performance. Through performing a meta-analysis on 204 papers that assess the relationship between the three most prevalent expansion strategies formed by firms, alliances, JVs, and M&As and their different substantive and symbolic performance effects, this study contributes in two ways. First, it becomes clear that alliances and M&As enhance a firm’s substantive performance, while no positive performance effect is observed for JVs. In turn, all three expansion strategies boost a firm’s symbolic performance in terms of its legitimacy and status. Second, a distinction between their effects on a firm’s substantive performance in terms of their market-based and accounting-based performance shows that alliances and M&As both positively contribute to a firm’s accounting-based performance, while only the former spurs a firm’s market-based returns. This indicates that M&As have more long-term accounting-based performance effects compared to alliances and JVs, which suggests that in the long-term firms do best by expanding through M&As.

Details

Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-970-6

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

Jing Hu, Xin Liu, Sijun Wang and Zhilin Yang

This study aims to examine the role of functional and symbolic image congruity in Chinese consumers' brand preferences in the auto market, and the role of brand…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the role of functional and symbolic image congruity in Chinese consumers' brand preferences in the auto market, and the role of brand familiarity in moderating the relationship between brand image congruity and consumers' preferences.

Design/methodology/approach

A one‐on‐one survey was administered to 1,440 consumers by market research specialists on two popular auto brands in China.

Findings

While confirming existing findings concerning functional image congruity, the results revealed that symbolic image congruity had a negative impact on Chinese consumers' brand preference when a brand's perceived symbolic image is higher than consumers' ideal expectations (i.e. upward incongruity), and brand familiarity does not moderate the role of symbolic image congruity in Chinese consumers' brand preference.

Originality/value

The paper's findings could help managers to improve their brand management and enhance consumer satisfaction.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 December 2019

Zelong Wei, Xi Song and Paike Xie

Despite increased research attention to management innovation, the literature offers conflicting explanations of how it affects firm performance. The rational perspective…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite increased research attention to management innovation, the literature offers conflicting explanations of how it affects firm performance. The rational perspective emphasises the role of management innovation for organisational routine updating. The fashion perspective views management innovation as a symbolic activity to foster legitimacy. The purpose of this study is to integrate the two perspectives and explore both the mediating effects of organisational efficiency and business legitimacy and the moderating effect of CEO shareholding.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on empirical data from 238 Chinese firms, this study conducts stepwise regression to test the hypotheses.

Findings

This study finds that management innovation positively affects both organisational efficiency and business legitimacy and then firm performance. However, the promotion effect of organisational efficiency is stronger than that of business legitimacy on firm performance. The results further indicate that CEO shareholding strengthens the effect of management innovation on organisational efficiency but weakens it for business legitimacy.

Originality/value

This study presents a complete explanation of the effect of management innovation on firm performance by exploring the mediating effect of both organisational efficiency and business legitimacy. Further, it compares the effects of organisational efficiency and business legitimacy on firm performance. Finally, it resolves the conflict between the rational and fashion perspectives by involving the moderating effect of CEO shareholding.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Ting Chen, Xiao‐song Zhang, Xu Xiao, Yue Wu, Chun‐xiang Xu and Hong‐tian Zhao

Software vulnerabilities have been the greatest threat to the software industry for a long time. Many detection techniques have been developed to address this kind of…

Abstract

Purpose

Software vulnerabilities have been the greatest threat to the software industry for a long time. Many detection techniques have been developed to address this kind of issue, such as Fuzzing, but mere Fuzz Testing is not good enough, because the Fuzzing only alters the input of program randomly, and does not consider the basic semantics of the target software. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new vulnerability exploring system, called “SEVE” to explore the target software more deeply and to generate more test cases with more accuracy.

Design/methodology/approach

Symbolic execution is the core technique of SEVE. The user can just input a standard input, and the SEVE system will record the execution path, alter the critical branches of it, and generate a totally different test case which will make the software under test execute a different path. In this way, some potential bugs or defects, even the exploitable vulnerabilities will be discovered. To alleviate path explosion, the authors propose heuristic method and function abstraction, which in turn improve the performance of SEVE even further.

Findings

We evaluate SEVE system to record critical data about its efficiency and performance. We have tested some real‐world vulnerabilities, from which the underlying file‐input programs suffer. After that, the results show that SEVE is not only re‐creating the discovery of these vulnerabilities, but also at a higher performance level than traditional techniques.

Originality/value

The paper proposes a new vulnerability exploring system, called “SEVE” to explore the target software and generate test cases automatically and also heuristic method and function abstraction to handle path explosion.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 14000