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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Christian Boris Brunner, Sebastian Ullrich, Patrik Jungen and Franz-Rudolf Esch

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of symbolic product information (symbolic product design) on consumers’ perceived brand evaluations. In an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of symbolic product information (symbolic product design) on consumers’ perceived brand evaluations. In an experimental setting, the authors consider as key factors the congruence between symbolic product design and product category, the level of product involvement as well as brand strength.

Design/methodology/approach

In an experiment of 490 participants, consumers are confronted to different symbolic product designs connotations. Based on the cognitive process model “SARA” (selective activation, reconstruction and anchoring), the authors examined how symbolic product design associations are used as heuristics in the working memory when making brand judgement.

Findings

The results show that product design associations are used in consumers’ information processing as anchor for brand evaluations. This effect is stronger if symbolic design associations are incongruent to the product category because of consumers’ deeper elaboration process. Furthermore, the impact of symbolic product design is higher for weak compared to strong brands.

Research limitations/implications

This research supports the cognitive process model “SARA” being an appropriate foundation explaining the effects of symbolic product design. Further research should extend this experiment, using a field study in a more realistic setting and/or a choice situation between different alternative product designs at the point of sale. Furthermore, the consumers’ elaboration process should be manipulated differently, e.g. in a mental load condition.

Practical implications

Symbolic product design is important to enhance brand association networks in the consumers’ mind, particularly if the brand is weak. Marketers should use incongruent symbolic product information to differentiate from competitors who use “stereotype” product designs.

Originality/value

Research about product design in the marketing discipline is still limited. The authors analyse the impact of symbolic product design on brand evaluations in an experimental setting of 490 respondents in four product categories. The findings support that consumers use product design as heuristics to evaluate brands.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 22 August 2019

Hosam Al-Samarraie, Atef Eldenfria, Melissa Lee Price, Fahed Zaqout and Wan Mohamad Fauzy

This paper aims to investigate the influence of map design characteristics on users’ cognitive load and search performance. Two design conditions (symbolic vs non-symbolic

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the influence of map design characteristics on users’ cognitive load and search performance. Two design conditions (symbolic vs non-symbolic) were used to evaluate users’ ability to locate a place of interest.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 19 students (10 male and 9 female, 20-23 years old) participated in this study. The time required for subjects to find a place in the two conditions was used to estimate their searching performance. An electroencephalogram (EEG) device was used to examine students’ cognitive load using event-related desynchronization percentages of alpha, beta and theta brain wave rhythms.

Findings

The results showed that subjects needed more time to find a place in the non-symbolic condition than the symbolic condition. The EEG data, however, revealed that users experienced higher cognitive load when searching for a place in the symbolic condition. The authors found that the design characteristics of the map significantly influenced users’ brain activity, thus impacting their search performance.

Originality/value

Outcomes from this study can be used by cartographic designers and scholars to understand how certain design characteristics can trigger cognitive activity to improve users' searching experience and efficiency.

Details

The Electronic Library , vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2014

Frank Franzak, Suzanne Makarem and Haeran Jae

The objective of this paper is to develop a better understanding of brand engagement by examining two of its antecedents: design benefits and consumer emotions. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to develop a better understanding of brand engagement by examining two of its antecedents: design benefits and consumer emotions. The authors explore the relationship between design and brand engagement and advance a model with emotional responses as mediator.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper integrates a range of theoretical works across design and marketing, including concepts of product design, types of design benefits, brand engagement, and brand communities.

Findings

The authors propose a conceptual model where emotional arousal, which differs across design benefits, mediates the relationship between design benefits and brand engagement. Brand engagement intensifies with emotional arousal as design benefits change from functional, to hedonic, to symbolic.

Research limitations/implications

The conceptual model proposed in this paper can have significant applications in the areas of product design, branding strategies, and brand communications. However, it has not been tested empirically.

Practical implications

The resulting model improves understanding of how marketers can use design to elicit different forms of brand engagement. Implications for marketers include planning brand engagement outcomes early in the product or service development process; involving consumers in that process, clearly communicating the benefits of the design; and supporting venues where brand engagement of different types can be practiced.

Originality/value

Brand engagement is unique brand-related behavior that has received limited attention in the design and marketing literatures. The proposed model offers a look at brand engagement from a design perspective, while emphasizing the role of consumers' emotional responses to design benefits.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Qinan Luo and Haibin Duan

– The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach for aircraft taking off control in wind shear, which is a challenging issue for an aircraft.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach for aircraft taking off control in wind shear, which is a challenging issue for an aircraft.

Design/methodology/approach

Aircraft control in wind shear needs an anti-jamming controller. Symbolic control is an effective and adaptive method for complex dynamic system. In this paper, wind shear flight control laws are developed for the dynamics of a B-747 aircraft by using symbolic control. The problem of efficiently steering dynamical systems with disturbance by using symbolic control is considered, and theoretical analysis on the proposed approach is also conducted. The implementation of an altitude scheduling strategy with symbolic controller makes it possible for aircraft to escape serious wind shear.

Findings

This work improved symbolic control algorithm so that it can be applied to aircraft control problem. A series of comparative experimental results with proportional-integral-derivative controller demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Practical implications

The symbolic control method developed in this paper can be easily applied to another aircraft control problems.

Originality/value

An improved symbolic control method is proposed for solving aircraft taking off problem in wind shear.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 87 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

James H. Leigh and Terrance G. Gabel

Considers the concept of symbolic interactionism within the contextof consumer behaviour. Examines the implications for market strategythrough segmentation variables…

Abstract

Considers the concept of symbolic interactionism within the context of consumer behaviour. Examines the implications for market strategy through segmentation variables, consumer and group characteristics, and general exemplary concepts. Surmises that marketers can create a product′s symbolic image, and should manage that image through a clear and consistent marketing program.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

James H. Leigh and Terrance G. Gabel

Notes how many products are purchased due to their symbolicsignificance to important reference groups. Discusses the concept ofsymbolic interactionism and considers this…

Abstract

Notes how many products are purchased due to their symbolic significance to important reference groups. Discusses the concept of symbolic interactionism and considers this with regard to consumerbehaviour. Suggests that marketing practitioners can develop symbolic relevance via marketing strategy. Makes recommendations for target market definition and marketing mix options.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2020

Christin Seifert and Veena Chattaraman

This study aims to provide a holistic understanding of how visual storytelling influences the objective and subjective cognitive responses of consumers, namely objective…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide a holistic understanding of how visual storytelling influences the objective and subjective cognitive responses of consumers, namely objective aesthetic impression and subjective aesthetic association, and aesthetic judgments in response to differing levels of novelty in design innovations.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-factorial experimental study manipulating the novelty of chair designs (moderate/high) and visual design stories (present/absent) was conducted among 263 female US consumers to test the proposed research model.

Findings

With respect to the main effects of novelty and visual design stories, consumers had more positive cognitive responses and aesthetic judgments to: product designs with moderate (vs high) novelty; and products with visual design stories than without. A significant interaction effect uncovered that visual design stories particularly aided products with high (vs moderate) design novelty with respect to objective aesthetic impressions. Examination of the structural relationships between the variables revealed that subjective aesthetic associations mediate the relationship between objective aesthetic impressions and aesthetic judgments.

Practical implications

To mitigate risk in radical design innovations, marketers should use visual storytelling to communicate product form associations and enable consumers to successfully decode the meaning of novel designs during initial encounters.

Originality/value

By examining a holistic model involving both perceptual and conceptual product concepts, this study fills a critical research void to develop insightful implications on bridging the gap between novel product designs and consumer understanding.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2019

Akmaral Yussupova, Liu Songfu, Ardasher Namazbay and Ahad Nejad Ebrahimi

This study investigated the emerging progressive use of ornamental art in the landscape architecture of Kazakhstan and determined the influence of symbolism on the quality…

Abstract

This study investigated the emerging progressive use of ornamental art in the landscape architecture of Kazakhstan and determined the influence of symbolism on the quality of new urban environments. The study analysed the existing recreational facilities in Kazakhstan in order to establish their symbolic meaning, the level of utilisation of symbolic ornaments, and the socio-economic factors that influence the design structure of landscape elements. The results revealed that symbolic meanings of the ornaments stem from historic, legal and cultural traditions of different ethnic groups in Kazakhstan. Therefore, the form depends on not only the topography of the area, but also the traditional symbolism and numerology. This study categorised the studied places according to their size: large gardens, small squares and small landscape forms. Taking into account the natural and climatic features of Kazakhstan, small landscape forms acquire the quality of arid zone gardens. However, lack of identity and consistency appears to be a major problem in design of larger scale landscapes. This article posits that coordination between socio-economic and historical-cultural factors will open new creative opportunities for the development of an original landscape architecture in Kazakhstan, yet balance between environmental construction and contextually meaningful urban planning will still be needed.

Details

Open House International, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Janina Haase, Klaus-Peter Wiedmann, Jannick Bettels and Franziska Labenz

Advertising is one of the most important components of food marketing. However, there is uncertainty over the optimal means of convincing consumers to buy a product. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Advertising is one of the most important components of food marketing. However, there is uncertainty over the optimal means of convincing consumers to buy a product. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of advertising content comprising text (sensory, functional and symbolic messages) and pictures (product image) on food product evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

Two online experiments investigating strawberry advertisements were performed. Study 1 incorporated only text, whereas study 2 investigated combinations of text and pictures. Analyses of variance were conducted to determine any significant differences among the three texts (sensory, functional and symbolic) and among the combinations of text and pictures.

Findings

Study 1 revealed no significant differences. All three texts were well received, which shows the relevance of all the product benefits – sensory, functional and symbolic – for food products. In contrast, study 2 identified significant differences. The data analysis indicated that advertising effectiveness increases with the complementarity of the text and picture. Notably, the combination of the product picture and symbolic text was scored the highest for effectiveness.

Originality/value

The findings provide new insights into advertising design that food firms can use to enhance consumer product evaluations in terms of expected taste, perceived experience and quality, overall attitude and purchase intention. Further, the results contribute to the research stream of food product benefits by highlighting the relevance of sensory, functional and symbolic design elements.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2018

Yi Wu, Tingru Cui, Na Liu, Yimeng Deng and Junpeng Guo

Drawn from the social playfulness literature and the elaboration likelihood model, the purpose of this paper is to propose and test a research model to examine users…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawn from the social playfulness literature and the elaboration likelihood model, the purpose of this paper is to propose and test a research model to examine users’ continuous participation in SNS game applications.

Design/methodology/approach

A field survey with 133 subjects was conducted to test the research model.

Findings

Two identified design features, symbolic physicality and inherent sociability, are found to influence users’ perceived curiosity and perceived enjoyment toward playing SNS game applications. Perceived enjoyment is significantly associated with perceived curiosity and predicts users’ continuous participation of SNS game applications. The authors also observed a gender difference of social playfulness design on perceived curiosity.

Research limitations/implications

Use intention was used as a proxy for actual use behavior, since objective data on continuance behavior was not available. Additionally, the contributions of this study may be constrained by one single sample.

Practical implications

The findings of the study suggest practical guidelines for designing game applications in SNS through socialization design and symbolic physicality. Further, based on the findings of gender differences, a personalization game design strategy is provided.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the post-adoption IS literature and sheds light on the interesting area of social media participation. Additionally, this study enriches the online gaming research by demonstrating gender differences.

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