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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Jamshaid Anwar Chattha, Syed Musa Alhabshi and Ahamed Kameel Mydin Meera

In line with the IFSB and BCBS methodology, the purpose of this study is to undertake a comparative analysis of dual banking systems for asset-liability management (ALM…

Abstract

Purpose

In line with the IFSB and BCBS methodology, the purpose of this study is to undertake a comparative analysis of dual banking systems for asset-liability management (ALM) practices with the duration gap, in Islamic Commercial Banks (ICBs) and Conventional Commercial Banks (CCBs). Based on the research objective, two research questions are developed: How do the duration gaps of ICBs compare with those of similar sized CCBs? Are there any country-specific and regional differences among ICBs in terms of managing their duration gaps?

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology comprises two-stages: stage one uses a duration gap model to calculate the duration gaps of ICBs and CCBs; stage two applies parametric tests. In terms of the duration gap model, the study determines the duration gap with a four-step process. The study selected a sample of 100 banks (50 ICBs and 50 CCBs) from 13 countries for the period 2009-2015.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights into the duration gap and ALM of ICBs and CCBs. The ICBs have more variations in their mean duration gap compared to the CCBs, and they have a tendency for a higher (more) mean duration gap (28.37 years) in comparison to the CCBs (11.79 years). The study found ICBs as having 2.41 times more duration gap compared to the CCBs, and they are exposed to increasing rate of return (ROR) risk due to their larger duration gaps and severe liquidity mismatches. There are significant regional differences in terms of the duration gap and asset-liability management.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies also consider “Off-Balance Sheet” activities of the ICBs, with multi-term duration measures. A larger sample size of 100 ICBs with 10 years’ data after the GFC would be more beneficial to the industry. In addition, the impact of an increasing benchmark rate (e.g. 100, 200 and 300 bps) on the ICBs as per the IFSB 20 per cent threshold can also be established with the duration gap approach to identify the vulnerabilities of the ICBs.

Practical implications

The study makes profound contributions to the literature and suggests various policy recommendations for Islamic banks, regulators, and standard setters of the ICBs, for identifying and measuring the significance of the duration gaps; and management of the ROR risk under Pillar 2 of the BCBS and IFSB, for financial soundness and stability purposes.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is a pioneer study in Islamic banking involving a sample of 100 banks (50 ICBs and 50 CCBs) from 13 countries. The results of the study provide original empirical evidence regarding the estimation of duration gap, and variations across jurisdictions in terms of vulnerability of ICBs and CCBs in dual banking systems.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Syed Musa Alhabshi, Hafiz Majdi Ab Rashid, Sharifah Khadijah Syed Agil and Mezbah Uddin Ahmed

This paper aims to address the financial reporting dimensions of intangible assets with specific reference to International Accounting Standards (IAS) 38 as well as…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the financial reporting dimensions of intangible assets with specific reference to International Accounting Standards (IAS) 38 as well as relevant International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS 38 exclusion) that are embedded within intangible assets. These have implications for Islamic financial assets with identifiable and measurable intangible components.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the qualitative research method by way of interviews followed by focus group discussions with professional accountants/accounting academics and Sharīʿah scholars/advisors from academia, the industry and regulatory bodies. Analysis of relevant literature is made to understand the subject matter and Sharīʿah-related issues.

Findings

The study observes that the accounting dimensions of tangible assets are generally consistent with Sharīʿah requirements. However, significant variation arises when the dimensions of intangible assets are represented in financial assets.

Research limitations/implications

The paper presents an exploratory in-depth analysis within the context of intangible assets as specified in IAS 38.

Originality/value

The paper elucidates the comparative accounting dimensions and Sharīʿah requirements in reporting financial assets.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2020

Rafik Harkati, Syed Musa Alhabshi and Salina Kassim

This paper aims to assess the nature of competition between conventional and Islamic banks operating in Malaysia. It is an effort to enrich the existing literature by…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the nature of competition between conventional and Islamic banks operating in Malaysia. It is an effort to enrich the existing literature by offering an empirical compromise on the differences in the results of studies related to competition between the two types of banks.

Design/methodology/approach

Secondary data on all banks operating in Malaysia’s diversified banking sector is collected from the FitchConnect database for the period 2011-2017. A non-structural measure of competition (H-statistic) as informed by Panzar–Rosse is used to measure the competition between conventional and Islamic banks. Panel data analysis techniques are used to estimate H-statistic. Wald test for the market structure of perfect competition/monopoly is used to affirm the validity and consistency of the results.

Findings

The findings of this study signify that the Malaysian banking sector operated under monopolistic competition during the period of study. The long-run equilibrium condition holds for the Malaysian banking sector. Competition among conventional banks is more intense than that among Islamic banks. Financial reform endeavours of Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) along with the liberalisation wave of the financial system were successful in promoting competition, rendering the financial system contestable, resilient and dynamic.

Practical implications

Regulators and policymakers may find the results beneficial in terms of rethinking the number of banks operating in the Islamic sector. The number of banks, however, is not the only determinant of competition in the banking sector. Implications of competition change for stability and risk-taking behaviour of banks should be considered.

Originality/value

Within the context of Malaysia’s diversified banking system, given the contradictory results reported in studies on competition, this study is an effort to provide a plausible middle ground. It suggests a possible answer as to why competition nature has not changed since the policy change initiatives of BNM, namely, banks merger, expansion of Islamic banking operation scope and liberalisation process.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 25 August 2020

Rafik Harkati, Syed Musa Alhabshi and Salina Kassim

The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of capital adequacy ratio (CAR) prescribed in Basel III on the risk-taking behaviour of Islamic and conventional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of capital adequacy ratio (CAR) prescribed in Basel III on the risk-taking behaviour of Islamic and conventional commercial banks in Malaysia. It also investigates the claim that the risk-taking behaviour of Islamic banks (IBs) and conventional banks (CBs) managers is identically influenced by CAR.

Design/methodology/approach

Secondary data for all CBs operating in the Malaysian banking sector are gathered from FitchConnect database for the 2011–2017 period. Both dynamic ordinary least squares and generalised method of moments techniques are used to estimate a panel data of 43 commercial banks, namely, 17 IBs and 26 CBs.

Findings

The findings of this study lend support to the favourable influence of CAR set in Basel III accord on risk-taking behaviour of both types of banks. CBs appeared to be remarkably better off in terms of capital buffers. Evidence is established on the identicality of the risk-taking behaviour of IBs and CBs managers under CAR influence.

Practical implications

Even though a high CAR is observed to hamper risk-taking of banks, the findings may serve as a signal to regulators to be mindful of the implications of holding a high CAR. Similarly, managers may capitalise on the findings in terms of strategising for efficient use of the considerable capital buffers. Shareholders are also concerned about managers’ use of the considerable capital buffers.

Originality/value

This study is among a few studies that endeavoured to provide empirical evidence on the claim that IBs mimic the conduct of CBs in light of the influence of CAR prescribed in Basel III on risk-taking behaviour, particularly banks operating within the same banking environment.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 July 2020

Latifah Algabry, Syed Musa Alhabshi, Younes Soualhi and Omar Alaeddin

The main purpose of this research is to figure out the most effective determinants that play a vital role in enhancing the effectiveness of the internal Sharīʿah audit in…

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Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this research is to figure out the most effective determinants that play a vital role in enhancing the effectiveness of the internal Sharīʿah audit in the Islamic banking industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the existing literature to build comprehensive knowledge that would assist in determining the main factors that impact on the effectiveness of Sharīʿah audit in Islamic banks.

Findings

This research proposes a conceptual framework of factors that impact on Sharīʿah audit effectiveness in IBs based on previously published studies. The proposed framework includes external and internal factors as well as internal Sharīʿah audit structure, process and requirements.

Practical implications

First, the regulators need to provide a detailed framework for Sharīʿah audit which covers the main requirements for effective Sharīʿah governance. Second, Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) need to pay more attention to following the Sharīʿah audit process in order to achieve the objective of effective Sharīʿah governance. Finally, the dearth of empirical research on the role and effectiveness of Sharīʿah audit in Islamic banking highlights the need to develop an appropriate methodology to enhance the study of the effectiveness of Sharīʿah governance practices.

Originality/value

The Sharīʿah ensures compliance with its rules and regulations and enhances the soundness and credibility of the Islamic finance industry. This study identifies a number of issues that require further investigation in order to establish a better system of Sharīʿah audit and to identify the factors that affect Sharīʿah auditing practices. This paper is unique in covering the main elements that have influence on the effectiveness of Sharīʿah audit and proposes them in one framework.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2020

Mashiyat Tasnia, Syed Musa Syed Jaafar AlHabshi and Romzie Rosman

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is considered one of the crucial branding and promotional tools for banks to legitimise their role in society to become socially and…

Abstract

Purpose

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is considered one of the crucial branding and promotional tools for banks to legitimise their role in society to become socially and environmentally responsible corporate citizen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of CSR on stock price volatility of the US banks. This study further examined the moderating role of tax on the relationship between CSR and stock price volatility.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the random-effects panel regression estimation technique to test the hypotheses. The authors include a sample of 37 US banks from 2013 to 2017 with 144 bank-years observation. The authors consider the environmental, social and governance (ESG) scores from Refinitiv as a proxy for CSR. The financial data are also collected from the Refinitiv Datastream database.

Findings

This study finds a significant and positive relationship between CSR and stock price volatility, which indicates that shareholders of the US banks may not prefer excess concentration on CSR because of the additional cost of investment associated with implementing CSR. Also, tax payments and stock price volatility show a significant positive association, which implies that there is a higher possibility of an increase in stock price volatility if the tax rate increases. Generally, shareholders are not interested in paying more taxes, so they may swap the market instead of paying more tax. On the other hand, the authors find a non-significant moderating effect of tax payment on CSR-volatility nexus.

Originality/value

Previous studies mainly focussed on CSR and financial performance of banks. Conversely, studies focussing on CSR and stock volatility are limited. This study will fill the gap in the literature by considering the effect of CSR on the stock price volatility of the US banks.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Ahmad Alrazni Alshammari, Syed Musa Syed Jaafar Alhabshi and Buerhan Saiti

This paper aims to present a comparative examination of the historical and current profiles of the insurance and takaful industry in the Gulf region. Meanwhile, it will…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a comparative examination of the historical and current profiles of the insurance and takaful industry in the Gulf region. Meanwhile, it will provide overview and insightful information of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries for insurance and takaful providers for their marketing strategy purpose.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses insurance and takaful sectors in Gulf region as an exploring area where the data are extracted from the regulators’ annual reports and other reports issued by research houses and market players, e.g. Islamic Financial Services Industry, Swiss Re and Milliman.

Findings

The comparative analysis reveals that insurance activities penetrated the Gulf region through foreign institutions. After independence and booming oil prices, local institutions established the industry in an unregulated environment. As the industry grew and matured, the sector gradually became regulated. This supported the growth of the industry, leading to the emergence of the biggest takaful market in the world, with 72 takaful operators. Almost half of the takaful operators operate in the Saudi market. Regarding business lines, general lines dominated because of compulsory motor insurance for all cars and health insurance for expatriates. Insurance penetration and insurance density recorded a low figure in GCC compared to the global market because of a lack of product development, especially in family line, which many people think the life insurance contradicts Islamic law. Furthermore, it is low due to the poor channel of distributions with depend heavily on insurance agents that fails to reach the customers.

Research limitations/implications

Interestingly, the takaful market share is considered very low, e.g. 9 per cent in Oman 9 and 9.2 per cent in UAE, where the majority of population is Muslim, indicating that takaful providers should focus in these countries to grab better market shares.

Originality/value

As takaful business is an emerging area in Islamic finance and many insurance players are interested in it, this paper provides an overview and marketing insights of insurance and takaful industries in the GCC region.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2020

Anwar Hasan Abdullah Othman, Syed Musa Alhabshi, Salina Kassim, Adam Abdullah and Razali Haron

This study uses the autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL) econometric approach to investigate empirically the effects of cryptocurrencies, the gold standard and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study uses the autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL) econometric approach to investigate empirically the effects of cryptocurrencies, the gold standard and traditional fiat money on global income inequality measured based on the Gini coefficient, and various ratios of income inequality distribution such as top 1 per cent, top 10 per cent, top 40 per cent and top 50 per cent.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the ARDL econometric approach.

Findings

The findings indicated that cryptocurrency and gold standard monetary systems contributed significantly to reducing global inequality of income and wealth distribution. Conversely, the traditional fiat money system contributes positively to global income and wealth inequality while also contributing significantly to their fluctuation.

Practical implications

This suggests that the fiat monetary system results in the coercive redistribution of income and wealth if governments pursue a social welfare policy. They must resolve this conflict between the current fiat monetary system and social policy by opting for an alternative monetary system such as cryptocurrency or gold standard. These alternative monetary systems offer the promise of resolving the income and wealth inequality associated with the traditional monetary system which are accompanied with the channels of inflation, lack of financial inclusion and debt creation, and to offer a more sustainable financial system.

Originality/value

The study recommends that monetary policy must be revisited to account for its direct effect on income and wealth redistribution to achieve social welfare goals.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2020

Latifah Algabry, Syed Musa Alhabshi, Younes Soualhi and Anwar Hasan Abdullah Othman

This study aims to explore and assess the key Sharīʿah governance factors that may have an influence on the internal Sharīʿah audit structure and its practices in Islamic…

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1595

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore and assess the key Sharīʿah governance factors that may have an influence on the internal Sharīʿah audit structure and its practices in Islamic financial Institutions in Yemen, particularly in the Islamic banking sector.

Design/methodology/approach

To do so, the study adopts a qualitative approach employing case study analysis, and both primary and secondary data are used to formulate the appropriate interview questions and achieve the objectives of the study.

Findings

The authors observed that the key factors that help in assessing the internal Sharīʿah audit structure and its practices are Sharīʿah auditor charter, audit plan and audit manual. In addition, the authors observed that, in general, internal Sharīʿah audit tends to be subjective in Yemeni banks because they depend on the internal Sharīʿah auditor’s qualifications and experience more than formal guidelines and regulations. This is because there are no detailed internal Sharīʿah audit plans or detailed audit manual. Moreover, the internal Sharīʿah auditor charter is not comprehensive in explaining the duties required of the internal Sharīʿah auditor, and it is mixed with the Sharīʿah Supervisory Board (SSB) duties. This means the internal Sharīʿah auditor lacks the critical tools that enable him to achieve the desired audit manual objectives where the effectiveness of internal Sharīʿah audit can be measured.

Practical implications

One of the important implications of this study is providing very important guidance about enhancing the areas where shortfalls are found within the Sharīʿah governance process in the Yemeni banking system. This enhancement process of the internal factors of Sharīʿah governance can be achieved by increasing the awareness of the enhancing internal Sharīʿah audit structure as it reflects ultimately on the internal Sharīʿah auditor’s role and his practices.

Originality/value

Understanding the effectiveness of internal Sharīʿah audit structure among internal auditors will improve the Sharīʿah audit framework standards, enhance the Sharīʿah knowledge among internal auditors and provide general guidelines to design audit programmes for Sharīʿah governance auditing process.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2443-4175

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2019

Anwar Hasan Abdullah Othman, Syed Musa Alhabshi, Salina Kassim and Ashurov Sharofiddin

With the continuing development of the financial technology revolution, a better understanding of bank deposits variability has become necessary for bank management and…

Abstract

Purpose

With the continuing development of the financial technology revolution, a better understanding of bank deposits variability has become necessary for bank management and policymakers, especially central banks. This is because the novel innovations of cryptocurrencies operate beyond the realm of the banking system, which may impact the performance of banks and their deposits variability. This study aims to investigate the long- and short-run effects of cryptocurrencies’ market capitalization development on the banks’ deposit variability in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the Johansen–Juselius (1990) cointegration test with vector error correction model was applied to examine the long-run relationships, while the Engle and Granger (1987) and the Granger (1969) causality tests were used to detect causal relationships in the short term.

Findings

The findings of Johansen–Juselius cointegration test indicate that the banks’ deposits variability in all six states of the Gulf region share negative long-run equilibrium association with the development of global cryptocurrencies market capitalization, but with different statistically significant levels. For the short-run analysis, the study found that the development of cryptocurrencies market capitalization has significant unidirectional causal effects on bank deposits variabilities in only four states, namely, UAE, Qatar, Kuwait and Bahrain. The findings of the study therefore suggest that to eradicate the effects of cryptocurrencies industry and its threats to the banking industry, banks in GCC region are encouraged to either consider cryptocurrencies as an alternative investment asset for their portfolio investment diversification strategies or adopt the blockchain technology in their operation system to facilitate their customers with low transaction cost, high level of security and ease of use and real-time settlement.

Research limitations/implications

The empirical findings of the study will provide valuable input for policymakers, especially central banks and bank managements, to evaluate the current situation and the threats of the cryptocurrencies market growth and its effect on the banking industry’s performance, future survival and their deposits variability for better regulation and policy planning and investment strategies.

Originality/value

This is a pioneering study that empirically explores the phenomenon of bank deposits variability as a consequence of expansion in cryptocurrencies market capitalization, where the findings proved evidence of a drastic decline in banks’ deposits size due to the substantial growth in cryptocurrencies market capitalization.

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