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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

Fauziah Rabbani, S.M. Wasim Jafri, Farhat Abbas, Firdous Jahan, Nadir Ali Syed, Gregory Pappas, Syed Iqbal Azam, Mats Brommels and Göran Tomson

Organizational culture is a determinant for quality improvement. This paper aims to assess organizational culture in a hospital setting, understand its relationship with…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizational culture is a determinant for quality improvement. This paper aims to assess organizational culture in a hospital setting, understand its relationship with perceptions about quality of care and identify areas for improvement.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a cross‐sectional survey in a large clinical department that used two validated questionnaires. The first contained 20 items addressing perceptions of cultural typology (64 respondents). The second one assessed staff views on quality improvement implementation (48 faculty) in three domains: leadership, information and analysis and human resource utilization (employee satisfaction).

Findings

All four cultural types received scoring, from a mean of 17.5 (group), 13.7 (developmental), 31.2 (rational) to 37.2 (hierarchical). The latter was the dominant cultural type. Group (participatory) and developmental (open) culture types had significant positive correlation with optimistic perceptions about leadership (r=0.48 and 0.55 respectively, p<0.00). Hierarchical (bureaucratic) culture was significantly negatively correlated with domains; leadership (r=−0.61, p<0.00), information and analysis (−0.50, p<0.00) and employee satisfaction (r=−0.55, p<0.00). Responses reveal a need for leadership to better utilize suggestions for improving quality of care, strengthening the process of information analysis and encouraging reward and recognition for employees.

Research limitations/implications

It is likely that, by adopting a participatory and open culture, staff views about organizational leadership will improve and employee satisfaction will be enhanced. This finding has implications for quality care implementation in other hospital settings.

Originality/value

The paper bridges an important gap in the literature by addressing the relationship between culture and quality care perceptions in a Pakistani hospital. As such a new and informative perspective is added.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Fauziah Rabbani, Nousheen Akber Pradhan, Shehla Zaidi, Syed Iqbal Azam and Farheen Yousuf

The purpose of this paper is to explore the readiness of contracted and non-contracted first-level healthcare facilities in Pakistan to deliver quality maternal and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the readiness of contracted and non-contracted first-level healthcare facilities in Pakistan to deliver quality maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. A balanced scorecard (BSC) was used as the assessment framework.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a cross-sectional study design, two rural health centers (RHCs) contracted out to Aga Khan Health Service, Pakistan were compared with four government managed RHCs. A BSC was designed to assess RHC readiness to deliver good quality MNH care. In total 20 indicators were developed, representing five BSC domains: health facility functionality, service provision, staff capacity, staff and patient satisfaction. Validated data collection tools were used to collect information. Pearson χ2, Fisher’s Exact and the Mann-Whitney tests were applied as appropriate to detect significant service quality differences among the two facilities.

Findings

Contracted facilities were generally found to be better than non-contracted facilities in all five BSC domains. Patients’ inclination for facility-based delivery at contracted facilities was, however, significantly higher than non-contracted facilities (80 percent contracted vs 43 percent non-contracted, p=0.006).

Practical implications

The study shows that contracting out initiatives have the potential to improve MNH care.

Originality/value

This is the first study to compare MNH service delivery quality across contracted and non-contracted facilities using BSC as the assessment framework.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2019

Faiza Syed, Malik Shah Zaman Latif, Iftikhar Ahmed, Sadia Bibi, Saif Ullah and Nauman Khalid

The purpose of this paper is to access the present situation of the Pakistani population that suffers from vitamin D deficiency.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to access the present situation of the Pakistani population that suffers from vitamin D deficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

A review-based study was conducted based on publications from Pakistan between the years 2008 and 2018. The publications were archived from Pub Med and Google Scholar databases. A total of 18 publications were shortlisted, based on the cutoff values of vitamin D sufficiency, insufficiency and deficiency.

Findings

As per the data, 38.5 per cent of the participants were males, 48.7 per cent were females and 12.8 per cent of the studies have not mentioned the genders of the participants. The cumulative results show that 58.17 per cent (95 per cent CI: 52.17, 64.16) of the population is vitamin D-deficient and 26.65 per cent (95 per cent CI: 21.63, 31.66) is insufficient in vitamin D. The highest level of vitamin D deficiency was reported from Sindh (62.15 per cent), followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (60.57 per cent), Punjab (51.75 per cent) and the Federal Capital (49.25 per cent). Moreover, Cochran’s Q test indicated considerable heterogeneity (p = >0.001) with regard to Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) prevalence found among samples from the selected studies.

Originality/value

The present analysis suggests that more than half of the Pakistani population suffers from VDD, which, thus, should be considered as an epidemic and treated likewise.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

Hamid Saeed, Muhammad Asghar, Muhammad Anwar and Muhammad Ramzan

The study examines the status and use of the Internet in university libraries of Pakistan. A questionnaire was distributed among the university libraries including the…

Abstract

The study examines the status and use of the Internet in university libraries of Pakistan. A questionnaire was distributed among the university libraries including the degree granting institutions. The data derived from this study indicated that half the university libraries in Pakistan have access to the Internet and it has become an essential part of library services. The Internet is also being heavily used for performing various library functions such as reference work, classification and cataloguing, document delivery service, subscription to online journals, etc. The study also discusses the problems that are preventing wider use of the Internet in the higher educational institutions of Pakistan.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1999

Khalid Mahmood

Computer technology in libraries has revolutionised the concept of rapid and accurate information services. In Pakistan, though, computer technology is new and is being…

Abstract

Computer technology in libraries has revolutionised the concept of rapid and accurate information services. In Pakistan, though, computer technology is new and is being successfully introduced in all types of libraries and information centres. This article reviews the literature on the use of computers in Pakistan’s libraries. The literature includes monographs, journal articles, reports, etc. published inside and outside Pakistan, discussing information technology, specific library applications, the activities of individual libraries and automation education. The need for library automation and the problems faced by Pakistani professionals in this respect are also discussed.

Details

Asian Libraries, vol. 8 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1017-6748

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Syed Jalaluddin Haider

Surveying the growth of public libraries in Pakistan prior to and following independence, this paper shows that development has been at best a piecemeal affair and at…

Abstract

Surveying the growth of public libraries in Pakistan prior to and following independence, this paper shows that development has been at best a piecemeal affair and at worst non‐existent. Although some libraries seek to fulfil their goal of providing quality service to the public, most are hampered by overwhelming economic, social and educational problems. Notwithstanding this gloomy scenario, it is suggested that library planning based on awareness of indigenous needs and with realistic aims can achieve far more than has been the case in the past. Six factors are suggested as essential in any effective public library planning process in Pakistan; these may be valid in other developing countries as well.

Details

Asian Libraries, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1017-6748

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Muhammad Jamal Haider, Gao Changchun, Tayyaba Akram and Syed Talib Hussain

Tremendous growth and worldwide expansion of Islamic banking industry has gained widespread attention of economist, bankers, investors and financial experts regardless of…

Abstract

Purpose

Tremendous growth and worldwide expansion of Islamic banking industry has gained widespread attention of economist, bankers, investors and financial experts regardless of economic and political volatility in global banking industry. To compete with conventional banking, Islamic banks are setting up themselves with innovative technologies to gain competitive edge and market share. The establishment of mobile banking has been proven a technological wonder by eliminating time and space boundaries, and one can access financial services anywhere and at any time. For effective market segmentation, recognizing gender differences in factors affecting the adoption patterns of m-banking may provide competitive edge. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate how gender differences impact the intention to adopt Islamic mobile banking in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses extended technology acceptance model (TAM) on final 243 participants from Pakistan. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) methodology has been applied for data analysis using SPSS 21 and AMOS 21.

Findings

Results have identified two interesting and different models for males and females in intention to adopt Islamic mobile banking. It is inferred that males are more task driven and desire for personality, value and status, so their intention is significantly impacted by perceived usefulness and perceived self-expressiveness. Whereas, females have found lack of IT knowledge and trust; therefore, their intention is significantly impacted by perceived credibility. However, the perceived financial cost was found of no concern for both males and females and social norms influenced the adoption, but there existed no significant gender differences.

Originality/value

The contribution of this study to existing literature is twofold. First, the existing research on mobile banking has mainly applied TAM on conventional banking overlooking the important ethnic group, the Muslims, who prefer Islamic banking. Second, the impact of gender differences is investigated in factors affecting intention to adopt Islamic mobile banking that has not been studied previously. The study fills the gap.

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Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2011

Riaz Ahmed Shaikh

Pakistan's present war against extremists has many folds and sheds. The country's initial participation in the Afghan War in 1979 later gave birth to different extremist…

Abstract

Pakistan's present war against extremists has many folds and sheds. The country's initial participation in the Afghan War in 1979 later gave birth to different extremist trends in the country. State patronage of the extremist Wahabi Islamists during the Afghan jihad opened another conflict in Pakistan, and things became more complicated. The combination of external and internal factors gave birth to the worst kind of conflict, which now has not only become dangerous for the country's own existence but also a major threat for global peace. The Afghan jihad initially started as a war against Soviet occupation and later became the hub of global jihad-war against infidels.

This chapter analyzes how external factors promoted internal contradictions in Pakistan due to which the country became not only an exporter of jihadis for the world but also the worst kind of sectarian conflicts, including. Shia–Sunni, Deobandi–Wahabi clashes, entered into in the past two decades. Such a strong link exists with Pakistan's official support to global jihad. Draft sectarian groups now head to head with their opponents have killed thousands of members of rival sectors, have strong support from external sympathizers, and have spread in the country. The well planned terrorist activities of these groups reflect the fact that support to these groups in the past is now leading to a severe crisis in Pakistan. The nexuses of these indigenous extremists like Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan, and Hizb-ul-Mujahideen with external terrorist organizations like Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, and Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan of Tahir Yuldasher Chechen Guerilla War has led to several bloody clashes in the country and outside.

Details

Governance, Development and Conflict
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-896-1

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2020

Syed Faheem Hasan Bukhari, Frances M. Woodside, Rumman Hassan, Omar Massoud Salim Hassan Ali, Saima Hussain and Rabail Waqas

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the key attributes that drive Muslim consumer purchase behavior in the context of imported Western food in Pakistan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the key attributes that drive Muslim consumer purchase behavior in the context of imported Western food in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used as a data collection tool. In this research, the in-depth interview data were analysed by using the manual content analysis (MCA) technique. Moreover, Leximancer software was used to reanalyse the data to enhance the trustworthiness of the MCA results. A total sample of 43 Muslim consumers from three metropolitan cities in Pakistan participated in the research. The sample comprises professionals, housewives and both college and university students.

Findings

Muslim consumers in Pakistan look at both the intrinsic and extrinsic attributes when purchasing imported Western food. The ruling factors explored were product taste, ingredients, freshness, hygiene, brand name and overall product quality. However, product packaging and labeling also play a significant role. Participants were of the view that imported Western food provides a better, unique consumption experience and an opportunity to choose from a wide variety of food options. Interestingly, interview findings reveal that Western food product attributes surpass the Islamic concept of moderate spending, thus convincing Muslim consumers to engage in the consumption of imported Western food.

Social implications

The presence of imported Western food may improve quality of life by having more opportunities and healthier options for the nation. If the Western food products are stamped Halal or made with Halal ingredients the product has a fair chance of adoption and penetration in the society. Further, it may result in overall health improvements within the society, which is already a major concern in the Pakistani consumer market. Also, food products coming from the Western world induces mindfulness; people are more aware about innovative and useful ingredients that can satisfy their taste buds.

Originality/value

This paper found that Pakistani Muslim consumers are not really concerned about the Islamic concept of moderate spending, and thus, established that Pakistani Muslim consumers are more concerned about product value rather than their Islamic teaching of moderate spending. From a population, with 97 per cent Muslim majority, product packaging and labeling were found to be a dominant and deciding factor, which, in itself, is an interesting finding. Further, established Western brand names help Muslim consumers to recognize products and plays a vital role in their purchase decisions. However, within product labeling, the element of halal ingredients was found to be a deciding factor, but not a leading factor, in purchase decisions.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Nadeem Yousaf

Jinnah was, to some extent, a successful leader in obtaining his goals of becoming the only spokesperson for Muslims in India and gaining a piece of land for Pakistan but…

Abstract

Purpose

Jinnah was, to some extent, a successful leader in obtaining his goals of becoming the only spokesperson for Muslims in India and gaining a piece of land for Pakistan but the main question is whether these achievements can be attributed to transactional or transformational strategies. Has he managed transactional or transformational change in terms of political culture? This point will be discussed in the paper. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A documentary analysis of behaviors, statements and incidents of Jinnah and other relevant personages.

Findings

The research shows that Jinnah was neither a transformational nor a charismatic leader. Therefore, his success cannot be attributed to his transformational ideology or charismatic personality. The political maneuvers that he adopted by frequently changing his espoused values and theories-in-use are the sources of his transactional success. Moreover, it is the international events and the vested political interests of the British are among the significant reasons that brought him success.

Research limitations/implications

In this work, a detailed comparison has not been made between voluminous theories of leadership because it is beyond the scope of this research. Moreover, it is not the intention of the paper to compare his leadership with that of other leaders; however, the future research in this direction might be useful. Indeed, the relevant leadership examples have been selected from the All India Congress with the major point of reference being the All India Muslim League – the party that brought him real recognition and fame.

Practical implications

It is stressed in the research that overt success is not a sufficient criterion to categorize a leader in a specific category without analyzing espoused theory and theories-in-use. The study will help those researchers who are interested in understanding the current political culture of Pakistan. The research will be helpful in enhancing the debate within the theme of leadership, especially transformational, transactional and charismatic. Moreover, the paper will encourage other researchers to compare Jinnah's leadership with that of other political leaders of the world.

Originality/value

The research is original as Jinnah's leadership from the perspectives of transformational and transactional leadership styles and the espoused theory and theories-in-use has, so far, not been discussed. It presents significant new arguments and information, which will be in the interest of researchers.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

Keywords

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