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The origin and applications of learning curves. Learning curves were first noticed by aircraft producers before World War II. The time taken to assemble a new type of aircraft diminished with each successive airframe built. Typically, the time taken for assembly had dropped by 20% each time the cumulative output had doubled. Later, similar “start up effects” were noticed in many other industries, and were used for contract negotiations and for cost control. Prices of new products, especially chemicals, often fell with time and output according to some kind of “learning curve”. However exceptions to the “learning curve” were sometimes found. Assembly times sometimes ceased to drop, or dropped at different rates at different sites.
Reports on a survey which asked 82 experienced managers from various functions, business levels, and industries to value case studies which were in effect real options on…
Reports on a survey which asked 82 experienced managers from various functions, business levels, and industries to value case studies which were in effect real options on growth. Compares these empirical valuations with theoretical values derived from a specific real options model (European non‐dividend paying). In a questionnaire survey, participating managers showed high levels of agreement with various statements needed as assumptions in the real options model. They also accepted as realistic most of the parameter settings used in the experiment. Results imply that training is needed and likely to be acceptable to managers, and underinvestment could be explained by an inability to perceive option values. Choosing teams of decision makers may reduce the variance (but not the bias) of intuitive option valuations.
The purpose of this paper is to identify, clarify and tabulate the various managerial issues encountered, to aid in the management of the complex health and safety…
The purpose of this paper is to identify, clarify and tabulate the various managerial issues encountered, to aid in the management of the complex health and safety concerns which occur within a confined construction site environment.
This is achieved through conducting extensive qualitative and qualitative research in the form of case studies, interviews and questionnaire survey.
The leading managerial issues in the management of health and safety on a confined construction site are found to be: “Difficulty to move materials around site safely”; “Lack of adequate room for the effective handling of materials”; “Difficulty in ensuring site is tidy and all plant and materials are stored safely”; “Close proximity of individuals to operation of large plant and machinery”; and joint fifth “Difficulty in ensuring proper arrangement and collection of waste materials on‐site” along with “Difficulty in controlling hazardous materials and equipment on site”.
The resulting implication for practice of these results can be summarised by identifying that with sustained development of urban centres on a global scale, coupled with the increasing complexity of architectural designs, the majority of on‐site project management professionals are faced with the onerous task of completing often intricate designs within a limited spatial environment, under strict health and safety parameters.
The subsequent value of the findings are such that just as on‐site management professionals successfully identify the various managerial issues highlighted, the successful management of health and safety on a confined construction site is attainable.
This chapter lays contextual foundations for the study and application of technology-enhanced learning design. Key drivers for the integration of technology into learning…
This chapter lays contextual foundations for the study and application of technology-enhanced learning design. Key drivers for the integration of technology into learning are identified, including the intrinsic desire to improve learning outcomes, the development of student digital learning skills, curriculum and syllabus specifications, professional requirements, providing greater access to learning, and catering to student dispositions. The need for a critical approach is established, for instance, by avoiding misconceptions such as ‘digital natives’ and ‘technological determinism.’ A ‘scholarship of teaching’ perspective that uses research evidence as a basis for technology-enhanced learning design is selected as the means for further inquiry.
Discusses feasibility, desirability and value of Japanesemanagement strategies in a Western context. Major Japanese companies areat the leading edge in refining management…
Discusses feasibility, desirability and value of Japanese management strategies in a Western context. Major Japanese companies are at the leading edge in refining management strategies, techniques and styles, for example, with regard to having a long‐term perspective and the continuous improvement of quality, stock control, skill formation, communications, training and employee development. As possible models can these approaches be transferred to different cultures?
The purpose of this paper is to understand projectification processes of the global organization, based on the example of the Catholic Church’s activities. The Catholic…
The purpose of this paper is to understand projectification processes of the global organization, based on the example of the Catholic Church’s activities. The Catholic Church is the oldest and the largest international organisation to be assessed also from the longue durée perspective. The Church as both a large and supranational organisation and a religious community has carried out a lot of social tasks. A part of its activity relating to the Church’s basic mission is carried out in these days in the form of various projects. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that seemingly unchanging structure, such as the Catholic Church, based on a determined hierarchy, strict principles and rules of conduct, is affected by the projectification processes.
The authors chose the method of a single case study. To analyse the projectification processes in the Church, the authors focussed on flagship mega-events of WYD programme, from which the following were selected: Rome (1985), Manila (1995), Sydney (2008), Rio de Janeiro (2013) and Krakow (2016).
The study demonstrates that organisational projectification processes can have a real impact on the strategic changes in the global organisation. Under the influence of significant projects, organisations can change internally and also redefine their way of interacting with the stakeholders. Projectification at the same time is a change and leads to it. The research also shows that projectification of a global organisation can intensify internal learning processes. On the one hand, “projectification agents” transfer project practices to various regions of the world, and, on the other, draw on local practices. Therefore, the projectification process is not simply transplanting the project “virus” into new places, but also a process of change and adaptation to the stimuli flowing from the environment.
The particularities, the distinctiveness of the projects of the Catholic Church can be an inspiration for others realizing projects. The experience of the Catholic Church in the implementation of WYD can be valuable for organisations implementing other projects that require involvement and activation of many, diverse stakeholders, for example, charitable projects or the so-called community engagement projects implemented by large international organisations, such as the World Bank, UNICEF, the UN, the Red Cross or humanitarian projects organised by NGOs in different parts of the world.