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Article

Jan-Erik Vahlne, Inge Ivarsson and Claes G. Alvstam

This paper aims to contribute to the debate concerning the asserted end of the globalization process.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to the debate concerning the asserted end of the globalization process.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a description of the evolution of all Swedish MNEs, the 50 largest companies and the ten truly global MNEs, building on data compiled by the authors, mainly from annual reports.

Findings

The largest Swedish MNEs have continued to globalize and have at the same time improved their financial performance during the period of study, 2010-2016.

Practical implications

The proposition that multinationals are heading home cannot be confirmed in the Swedish case. There is therefore a need to compare Swedish experiences with other national examples to better generalize the findings.

Social implications

The political decisions regarding external trade and foreign direct investment should support continuous liberalization and facilitation of cross-border economic interaction.

Originality/value

As Swedish MNEs are more globalized than the average in advanced economies, this study offers insight into the contemporary internationalization process.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Article

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article

Prabuddha Sanyal

This paper explores the determinants of R&D location of US multinational enterprises (MNE). The major aim is to determine the impact of intellectual property rights…

Abstract

This paper explores the determinants of R&D location of US multinational enterprises (MNE). The major aim is to determine the impact of intellectual property rights protection on R&D investment by US multinationals in a sample of developed and developing economies. Some of the major findings show that in developing economies, MNEs primarily rely on the scope of foreign direct investment, while locating their R&D facilities overseas. On the other hand, for developed countries, the scope of patent protection laws is a major factor for MNEs to undertake R&D investment. Another finding is that in developing economies, location of R&D is motivated by the need to adapt products and processes to conditions in foreign markets. Further, in the food and chemical industry, evidence shows that weaker patent protection may be desirable for technology to flow to these sectors in developing economies. An important policy implication is that entry of firms enhances global innovations.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Book part

Ulf Elg and Pervez Ghauri

Lately, a number of authors have applied institutional theory when discussing global marketing and emerging market specificities. It has also been argued that the…

Abstract

Lately, a number of authors have applied institutional theory when discussing global marketing and emerging market specificities. It has also been argued that the institutional forces influencing a firm will differ between markets and that firms can approach them in different ways. In this paper we conduct a qualitative analysis, based upon NVIVO, of three Swedish firms as they position themselves on the Chinese and Brazilian markets. We compare the institutional context as perceived by the firms in China and Brazil and we also analyse to what extent they have a proactive or a reactive approach when managing their institutional environment, and to what extent their actions are governed by local practices and corporate practices. As a result we present a country institutional profile including a set of issue-specific factors that concern firms’ positioning on emerging markets.

Details

Entrepreneurship in International Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-448-1

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Article

Irina Ervits

The purpose of this paper is to identify major developments in corporate innovation. The author focuses on the behavioral differences between MNEs from developed and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify major developments in corporate innovation. The author focuses on the behavioral differences between MNEs from developed and emerging markets in the way they locate their R&D activities.

Design/methodology/approach

With the help of descriptive statistics, the paper identifies major trends in the global distribution of innovative activity. The novel source of patent statistics, Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) applications, is used as a proxy for innovative effort by leading MNEs. This paper is among the first attempts to analyze the global geography of innovation based on PCT statistics.

Findings

The analysis underscores differences in the patenting activities of MNEs from emerging and advanced markets. It confirms that innovative activity by major MNEs remains largely home-based, which contradicts the premise of the global nature of corporate innovation. At the same time, the growing importance of China as a research center attracts MNEs from a variety of developed markets. Emerging MNEs also file patent applications domestically. Most Chinese R&D subsidiaries of MNEs from advanced economies in our sample do not pursue technological specialization, as they produce patents in the same technological areas as the corporate headquarters or other subsidiaries.

Originality/value

A number of assumptions about the innovation geography of major MNEs were empirically tested. An attempt was made to fill the gaps in our understanding of innovation strategies pursued by MNEs in emerging markets. The author uses the concept of MNEs as meta-integrators to explain the observed dynamics. Its explanatory power is more convincing as applied to our data than the concept of national systems of innovation.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Article

Håkan Pihl

The purpose of this paper is to present a synthesis of transnational tendencies in multinational enterprises (MNEs), to theoretically analyse the result and to study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a synthesis of transnational tendencies in multinational enterprises (MNEs), to theoretically analyse the result and to study whether managers in MNEs have experienced the predicted tendencies.

Design/methodology/approach

The synthesis is based on an extensive literature review which is analysed by transaction cost economics. Identified tendencies are studied in a survey of managers in MNEs.

Research limitations/implications

The study provides an overview of a fragmented research area and suggests explanations for new tendencies described in the literature. The empirical study suggests that some tendencies have been more prevalent than others.

Practical implications

The survey was conducted with MNEs with substantial activities in Sweden. It investigates how managers perceive changes that have occurred during the past several years.

Originality/value

The paper analyses a synthesized view of transnational tendencies in MNEs and the results of a survey of how managers have perceived the tendencies described in literature.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

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Article

Tamir Agmon

The research proposition of this paper is that multinational enterprises (MNEs) were important in the process of growth and divergence that took place in the world in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The research proposition of this paper is that multinational enterprises (MNEs) were important in the process of growth and divergence that took place in the world in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The rate of growth of GDP per capita was unprecedented, but it was coupled with an increasing gap between the developed and the developing countries. MNEs are even more important in the growth and convergence process that started at the beginning of the twenty-first century where the gap is closing. Global sourcing is the strategy that has led to closing the gap while high growth continues. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on macroeconomics general equilibrium model in an imperfect market and on looking at the inventive process as the driving process of the development and the location of MNEs. Using a financial economics model of assets and liabilities, it is shown that MNEs affect the geopolitical distribution of income and wealth through expanding their liabilities. The methodology is a combination of applying economic model and using historical and current data to motivate the use of the model and to validate the models and the conclusions derived from them.

Findings

MNEs and major global companies before the name MNE was used were shaped by major macroeconomic processes like the inventive process and the same time they were the prime movers of the two major economic processes of the last 200 years: growth and divergence and growth and convergence. The ideas-led growth model shows why MNEs are becoming larger. As MNEs became bigger they start to import inputs through value maximizing strategy of global sourcing. This led to transfer of value to suppliers in emerging markets that grow over time and eventually it led to new MNEs from emerging markets large countries like China and from smaller countries in Asia and elsewhere. The growth convergence process and the resulting changes in the geopolitical distribution of MNEs is assisted by rapid changes in technology that reduces transactions cost. The continuation of rapid changes in transactions costs is likely to change the current structure, strategy and the location of MNEs and may reverse the growth convergence process once more.

Originality/value

The study begins with aggregate macroeconomic processes and relates them to the development of MNEs and in particular to the development of MNEs from emerging markets. It highlights the importance of global value chains and global sourcing in the process of growth and divergence and the turning of the “Wheel for Fortune” toward China and India as it has been prior to the sixteenth century.

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Article

Violetta Khoreva and Edyta Kostanek

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evolving patterns and challenges of talent management (TM) in the emerging markets of Russia and Kazakhstan from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evolving patterns and challenges of talent management (TM) in the emerging markets of Russia and Kazakhstan from the employer perspective. Increasing the understanding of how TM is recognized from the employer perspective may better equip us to address how to effectively manage and lead the available talents in these and other emerging markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a qualitative study comprising 50 semi-structured interviews, with 37 business leaders from Russian subsidiaries, and 13 from Kazakh subsidiaries, in all cases of Nordic Multinational enterprises (MNEs).

Findings

The study supports the object approach to TM in the emerging markets of Russia and Kazakhstan. The authors reveal that the exclusive and developable talent philosophy is predominant in these emerging markets, where TM faces the challenges of fierce competition for talents and an insufficient supply, so business leaders tend to be reluctant to inform employees of their talent pool membership. The results demonstrate that MNEs do not act independently of context, thus supporting calls for consideration of the local institutional context.

Originality/value

TM is still a somewhat novel idea in many emerging economies, and challenges related to managing talents are believed to be far more complex in such settings. Furthermore, to the best of authors’ knowledge, no studies have investigated the notion of talent and TM conceptualization in the emerging markets from an employer perspective.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article

Georgios Zekos

The analysis of the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the emergence and development of digital economy.

Abstract

Purpose

The analysis of the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the emergence and development of digital economy.

Design/methodology/approach

Examination of the developments of FDI and the new destinations explained by the liberalization measures undertaken by governments and inward investment agencies in globalization.

Findings

While FDI does displace some exports, it also creates a number of reverse imports. Companies are forced to improve their managerial efficiency. The elimination of internal barriers to trade and capital mobility has been accompanied by a rapid growth of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in EU.

Originality/value

The development of e‐MNEs will bring different utilization of the production plants and use of logistics to distribute tangible goods, while intangible goods will be distributed by very advanced technology centres based on home locations. The digital economy should not be confined just to e‐business and e‐commerce.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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Book part

Yi Wang and Jorma Larimo

In this study, we analyze the general effect of acquirers’ ownership strategy on the survival in foreign acquisitions. Furthermore, we attempt to address five potential…

Abstract

In this study, we analyze the general effect of acquirers’ ownership strategy on the survival in foreign acquisitions. Furthermore, we attempt to address five potential moderating effects: international, regional, target country experience, cultural distance, as well as host country development. The developed hypotheses are tested on a sample of 1,345 acquisitions made by 174 Finnish firms in 59 countries during 1980–2005. The results indicate that in general WOS increases the probability of survival of foreign acquired units. We further find that the impact of WOS on the survival of foreign acquired units is contingent upon cultural distance and host country development but not on the experience of buying firms.

Details

Distance in International Business: Concept, Cost and Value
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-718-0

Keywords

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