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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2011

Suzy Fox and Arthur Freeman

We link counterproductive work behavior (CWB) (particularly workplace bullying) and organizational citizenship behavior to individual narcissism and organizational…

Abstract

We link counterproductive work behavior (CWB) (particularly workplace bullying) and organizational citizenship behavior to individual narcissism and organizational culture. We link counterproductive work culture in turn to organizations' leader(s), enumerating multiple roles an executive may play: actor, target, ignorer, enabler, rewarder, or, ultimately, champion of change. Both positive (citizenship) and negative (counterproductive) behaviors are associated with narcissism, a complex, multifaceted set of personality characteristics, primarily based on the individual's cognitive interpretation of self and the world. Theoretical interpretations of reactive CWB (stressor-emotion-control theory) and instrumental CWB (theory of planned behavior) support the development of coaching and counseling interventions. Cognitive behavioral theory (CBT)-based prescriptive executive coaching is proposed as a promising mechanism for redirecting narcissistic organizational players from counterproductive to citizenship schemas and behaviors.

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The Role of Individual Differences in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-711-7

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Book part
Publication date: 27 March 2006

Suzy Fox and Paul E. Spector

The Stressor-Emotion model of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) is based on prevalent approaches to emotions, the stress process in general and job stress in…

Abstract

The Stressor-Emotion model of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) is based on prevalent approaches to emotions, the stress process in general and job stress in particular. The sense of control is key to the appraised coping capacity. A combination of perceived stressors and insufficient control is likely to trigger negative emotions, which in turn increase the likelihood the employee will engage in CWB, which we view as a special case of behavioral strain. We highlight the centrality of several conceptualizations of control in theories of general stress, work stress, and CWB. A critical concern is the paucity of empirical support for the interactive stressor-control effects posited by models at all three levels of stress theory.

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Employee Health, Coping and Methodologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-289-4

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Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2015

Nathan A. Bowling, Kelly A. Camus and Caitlin E. Blackmore

Workplace abuse, interpersonal mistreatment that occurs within the victim’s work environment, has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In this chapter, we…

Abstract

Workplace abuse, interpersonal mistreatment that occurs within the victim’s work environment, has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In this chapter, we argue that problems with the conceptualization and measurement of workplace abuse have thwarted scientific progress. We identify two needs that we believe are especially pressing: (a) the need to consider the construct breadth of workplace abuse scales and (b) the need to test whether the measures of various types of workplace abuse effectively capture the unique qualities of the constructs they purport to assess. To guide our discussion of these issues, we conducted a review of the item content of several workplace abuse measures. We offer suggestions for addressing these and other conceptualization and measurement issues, and we discuss the possible implications of these issues on the study of the hypothesized predictors and consequences of workplace abuse.

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Renee L. Cowan and Suzy Fox

The purpose of this paper is to clarify how human resource professionals (HRPs) in the United States (US) understand their roles in bullying situations and how they…

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1550

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify how human resource professionals (HRPs) in the United States (US) understand their roles in bullying situations and how they perceive others (targeted employees and senior management) understand their roles. It is important to understand these role expectations as HRPs are integral actors in bullying situations and are often evaluated negatively by those in bullying situations.

Design/methodology/approach

Strauss & Corbin’s grounded theory approach was used to uncover HRPs role perceptions. Narrative and respondent in-depth interviews were conducted with HRPs and revealed an evolving HR role that clashed with perceived target and senior management role expectations.

Findings

This research has revealed a theoretical model of the progressive role HRPs play in bullying situations. The authors discovered HRPs play several important roles in bullying situations and they link these roles in a temporal and situational manner. They first play the role of first, a trust listener; second, an objective, neutral third-party investigator; third, a management advisor; and fourth, a mediator/trainer/coach. Throughout this role execution they also became an emotional laborer. This model was often in contention with the HRP’s perceptions of targets and senior management expectations in bullying situations.

Originality/value

This research revealed a more detailed, nuanced view of the roles HRPs play in bullying situations and called existing research on US HRPs and their roles in bullying situations into question. How HRPs view their roles and role expectations is revealing of why and how they deal with allegations of bullying the way they do. This research has practical value for HR, management, targets, and organizations in general.

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Personnel Review, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Jo Ann Duffy, Suzy Fox, Betty Jane Punnett, Ann Gregory, Terri Lituchy, Silvia Inés Monserrat, Miguel R. Olivas‐Luján, Neusa Maria Bastos F. Santos and John Miller

The intent of this cross‐national research is to study the personal and cultural characteristics of successful professional women. High‐achieving women may share certain…

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2000

Abstract

Purpose

The intent of this cross‐national research is to study the personal and cultural characteristics of successful professional women. High‐achieving women may share certain personal characteristics, beliefs, and experiences, regardless of the countries in which they live. However, every individual is socialized within a particular national culture, and may be expected to share certain values and expectations with other members of that culture.

Design/methodology/approach

Over 1,100 professionally “successful women” (including high‐level managers, entrepreneurs, academics, government personnel, and professionals) and 531 undergraduate business students in nine countries – Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Mexico, the USA and the West Indies (Barbados, Jamaica, St. Vincent, and the Grenadines) completed surveys containing two sets of variables: national/cultural (collectivism/individualism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance) and personal (self‐efficacy, locus of control, need for achievement).

Findings

There were significant differences in the personal characteristics between successful women and the student comparison samples, with successful women consistently higher on self‐efficacy and need for achievement, and more internal on locus of control. There were some significant but smaller than expected differences in cultural characteristics between national samples.

Originality/value

This contrast of successful women living in the Americas provides new insights for managers of international companies seeking to be gender inclusive.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 29 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2009

Silvia Inés Monserrat, Jo Ann Duffy, Miguel R. Olivas‐Luján, John M. Miller, Ann Gregory, Suzy Fox, Terri R. Lituchy, Betty Jane Punnett and Neusa María Bastos F. Santos

The purpose of this paper is to compare women's mentoring experience in nine countries within the Americas, and to explore linkages between personal characteristics…

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1384

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare women's mentoring experience in nine countries within the Americas, and to explore linkages between personal characteristics, mentoring practices, mentoring functions, and consequences of being mentee.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 1,146 successful women are questioned about their mentoring experiences as a mentee: 105 from Argentina, 210 from Brazil, 199 from Canada, 84 from Chile, 232 from Mexico, 126 from the USA, and 190 from three countries in the West Indies (Barbados, Jamaica, and St Vincent).

Findings

Most of the women have more than one mentor. Across all countries mentoring practices are more strongly linked to career mentoring function while the age and gender of the mentor are more strongly linked to psychosocial mentoring. Mentoring from the perspective of mentee has the same directional relationship with situational and individual variables, but the significance of those relationships vary by country. A possible cultural difference is detected between Spanish and non‐Spanish speaking countries on the issue of mentoring practice.

Research limitations/implications

The fact that the paper focuses only on successful women in this paper means the findings are not necessarily generalizable to other groups of women or men. The paper is also limited because mentoring functions are constrained to two: psychosocial and career. There may be more functions that mentoring could fulfill for the mentee.

Practical implications

Companies' interest in fostering mentoring among their members, particularly women, should be aware that different mentoring functions are influenced by different factors. For example, formal mentoring programs appear to have a greater impact on career mentoring functions than on psychosocial mentoring functions. To support women in their careers, companies should institute formal mentoring programs; this is especially important in South American countries. Moreover, mentoring programs must be designed to be adaptive since the analyses indicated that there are significant differences by country in terms of many mentoring issues.

Originality/value

In the literature review, the paper finds linkages between culture, mentoring practices, characteristics of mentors and mentees, and mentoring functions, but no evidence that these linkages have been studied with a group of professionally successful women from different American countries, particularly non‐English speaking American countries.

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Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2007

Pamela Lirio, Terri R. Lituchy, Silvia Ines Monserrat, Miguel R. Olivas‐Lujan, Jo Ann Duffy, Suzy Fox, Ann Gregory, B.J. Punnett and Neusa Santos

The purpose of this paper is to examine career‐life issues of successful women in the Americas.

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3833

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine career‐life issues of successful women in the Americas.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 30 interviews were conducted with successful women in Canada, Argentina and Mexico. Themes were pulled from the interview transcripts for each country, analyzed and then compared across countries, looking at universalities and differences of experiences.

Findings

The women in all three countries conveyed more subjective measures of career success, such as contributing to society and learning in their work, with Canada and Mexico particularly emphasizing receiving recognition as a hallmark of career success.

Practical implications

This research provides insight into the experiences of successful women in the Americas, which can inform the career development of women in business.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the literature on women's careers, highlighting successful women's experiences across cultures and in an under‐researched area: Latin America.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2007

Betty Jane Punnett, Jo Ann Duffy, Suzy Fox, Ann Gregory, Terri Lituchy, John Miller, Silvia Inés Monserrat, Miguel R. Olivas‐Luján and Neusa Maria Bastos F. Santos

This project aims to examine levels of career and life satisfaction among successful women in nine countries in the Americas.

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2681

Abstract

Purpose

This project aims to examine levels of career and life satisfaction among successful women in nine countries in the Americas.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured survey and in‐depth interviews were used, and a variety of occupations, demographics, and personality characteristics assessed – 1,146 successful women from nine countries in the USA responded the survey: 105 from Argentina, 210 from Brazil, 199 from Canada, 84 from Chile, 232 from Mexico, 126 from the USA, and 190 from three countries in the West Indies (Barbados, Jamaica, SVG).

Findings

Results show no differences in satisfaction based on occupation or country and most demographic variables investigated did not have a significant relationship with satisfaction. Age had a small, significant, relationship, with satisfaction increasing with age; married women were significantly more satisfied than single women. Higher scores on self efficacy and need for achievement, and a greater internal locus of control were all related to higher levels of satisfaction. The relationship between career satisfaction and general life satisfaction was stronger in Argentina and Chile that in the other countries.

Originality/value

Extends understanding of professional success and satisfaction, in terms of demographic variables and personality, as well as geographically.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2011

Samantha K. Baard holds a University Distinguished Fellowship in Michigan State University's Ph.D. program in organizational psychology. Her research interests include…

Abstract

Samantha K. Baard holds a University Distinguished Fellowship in Michigan State University's Ph.D. program in organizational psychology. Her research interests include individual and team adaptability, leadership, motivation, cross-cultural differences, and stress. She is also examining, from a statistical and methodological perspective, the dynamic processes of motivation, feedback, and performance. As a University Scholar at George Mason University, she investigated the interactive effects of leadership and motivation on individual performance. She spent three years working as a research fellow at the Consortium of Research Fellows Program where she worked with the U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences studying team effectiveness, cross-cultural competence, leadership, and motivation. She has served as a guest lecturer at several colleges, and has presented her research at the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology's Annual Conference.

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The Role of Individual Differences in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-711-7

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Book part
Publication date: 27 March 2006

Occupational stress and well-being continues to be an intriguing and exciting area for researchers. In our 5th volume of Research in Occupational Stress and Well Being, we…

Abstract

Occupational stress and well-being continues to be an intriguing and exciting area for researchers. In our 5th volume of Research in Occupational Stress and Well Being, we offer outstanding papers that examine several key issues in occupational stress. The theme for this volume is employee health, coping, and methodologies. The first four chapters take an in-depth look at the role of stress in physiological reactions and health consequences. The last three chapters examine the role of control and cynicism in occupational stress and also call for some new methodologies and the examination of nonlinear relationships in the study of occupational stress and well-being.

Details

Employee Health, Coping and Methodologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-289-4

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