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It is not uncommon for the USA to be the origin of innovative retail formats. In recent years in the UK, the most recent retail out‐of‐town developments have their roots…
It is not uncommon for the USA to be the origin of innovative retail formats. In recent years in the UK, the most recent retail out‐of‐town developments have their roots in the USA, most notably warehouse clubs and factory outlet centres. Charts the growth of one of these formats, factory outlet centres, in the UK and discusses the prospects for development potential in other European markets. Semi‐structured interviews were carried out with major developers and development consultancies to ascertain the type of strategies pursued, the locational criteria for site selection, the role of tenants in this process and the degree of customization or standardization of the format in market entry strategies. Although the UK appeared to offer US developers the best opportunity for market penetration, planning policy has progressively worked against the development of this retail format. It is unlikely that any more than seven to eight US‐style factory outlet centres will be built out of a total of 26 developments by 2001. There has been a considerable downsizing of initial proposals, with the creation of smaller, more downmarket centres than in the USA. US developers have been forced to seek sites in the rest of Europe much earlier than originally intended. Their strategies have differed from the standardized, upmarket brand character of one operator compared with a more customized approach adopted by the market leader.
Explores the potential impact of recent changes in planning policy on the growth of a new UK retail format ‐ factory outlet centres. Factory outlet centres are a new…
Explores the potential impact of recent changes in planning policy on the growth of a new UK retail format ‐ factory outlet centres. Factory outlet centres are a new out‐of‐town shopping genre which has been imported from the USA. In 1993, there were two such centres in the UK; by 1994, there were proposals for 18. During the same time period, government policy towards out‐of‐town shopping developments changed, with successive guidance notes aimed at restraining out‐of‐town developments in a bid to enhance the vitality and viability of town centres. Examines the impact of changing policy on the development strategies of factory outlet centre developers and outlines the current and potential future shape of factory outlet centre retailing in the UK.
The purpose of this paper is to assess the empirical support for the use of assistive technology in the care of people with dementia as an intervention to improve…
The purpose of this paper is to assess the empirical support for the use of assistive technology in the care of people with dementia as an intervention to improve independence, safety, communication, wellbeing and carer support.
A total of 232 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Inclusion criteria were: studies published between 1995 and 2011, incorporated a control group, pre-test-post-test, cross sectional or survey design, type of interventions and types of participants. The 41 papers that met criteria were subjected to an assessment of their validity using the model provided by Forbes. Following the assessment seven papers were considered as strong, ten moderate and 24 weak. The review is presented around the following topics: independence, prompts and reminders; safety and security; leisure and lifestyle, communication and telehealth; and therapeutic interventions.
The literature exploring the use of assistive technologies for increasing independence and compensating for memory problems illustrate the problems of moving from the laboratory to real life. The studies are usually limited by very small samples, high drop-out rates, very basic statistical analyses and lack of adjustment for multiple comparisons and poor performance of the technology itself.
Research to date has been unable to establish a positive difference to the lives of people with dementia by the general use of the assistive technology reviewed here.