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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2023

Jenny Meggs, Susan Young and Annette Mckeown

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental condition with community prevalence globally of 2%–7% (M = 5%; Sayal et al., 2018). Clinicians are…

Abstract

Purpose

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental condition with community prevalence globally of 2%–7% (M = 5%; Sayal et al., 2018). Clinicians are routinely encouraged to explain to children and young people the benefits of a healthy lifestyle, including exercise (NICE NG87, 2018). Exercise has been proposed as a safe and low-cost adjunctive approach for ADHD and is reported to be accompanied by positive effects on several aspects of executive functioning (EF). The purpose of this narrative review was to synthesise the contemporary randomised control trial (RCT) studies that examine the effect of sport, physical activity and movement on EF in children and adolescents with ADHD.

Design/methodology/approach

A narrative review approach with a systematic literature search using PRISMA guidelines for screening and selecting relevant systematic reviews was used. The final review included four peer-review systematic reviews (>2019).

Findings

The results identified four RCT meta-analyses and findings showed that children and adolescents with lower baseline cognitive performance demonstrated greater improvements in functioning after physical activity interventions, particularly for tasks with higher executive function demands, where baseline performance reaches an optimal level. Findings suggest that 10–20 min of acute moderate-high-intensity exercise interventions (cycling/running) appeared to have positive effects on indices of inhibitory control. Preliminary evidence suggests that as little as 5 min of jumping exercises improved inhibitory control. Sixty to eighty minutes of moderately intense, repeated (chronic) exercise appeared to demonstrate the greatest beneficial impact on selective attention.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this review is the first to present the extant literature on the effect of physical activity and sport on symptoms of young people with ADHD. It presents evidence to suggest that exercise with progressively increasing cognitive demands may have positive effects for children with ADHD, specifically in terms of improving cognitive flexibility. Further large-scale clinical trials are needed to confirm the positive effects of physical exercise on cognitive functioning in children with ADHD.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 August 2021

Eddie Chaplin, Amina Rawat, Bhathika Perera, Jane McCarthy, Ken Courtenay, Andrew Forrester, Susan Young, Hannah Hayward, Jess Sabet, Lisa Underwood, Richard Mills, Philip Asherson and Declan Murphy

This paper aims to examine effective diagnostic and treatment pathways for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in prison settings given the high prevalence of ADHD and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine effective diagnostic and treatment pathways for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in prison settings given the high prevalence of ADHD and comorbidities in the prison population.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were carried out in two separate prisons in London. Firstly, data were collected to understand the prevalence of ADHD and the comorbidities. The second study used quality improvement (QI) methodology to assess the impact of a diagnostic and treatment pathway for prisoners with ADHD.

Findings

Of the prisoners, 22.5% met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Nearly half of them were screened positive for autistic traits, with a higher prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners with ADHD compared to those without. The QI project led to a significant increase in the number of prisoners identified as requiring ADHD assessment but a modest increase in the number of prisoners diagnosed or treated for ADHD.

Originality/value

Despite various challenges, an ADHD diagnostic and treatment pathway was set up in a prison using adapted QI methodology. Further research is needed to explore the feasibility of routine screening for ADHD in prison and examine at a national level the effectiveness of current ADHD prison pathways.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Megan Paull, Maryam Omari, Judith MacCallum, Susan Young, Gabrielle Walker, Kirsten Holmes, Debbie Haski-Leventhal and Rowena Scott

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of expectation formation and matching for university student volunteers and their hosts.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of expectation formation and matching for university student volunteers and their hosts.

Design/methodology/approach

This research involved a multi-stage data collection process including interviews with student volunteers, and university and host representatives from six Australian universities. The project team undertook an iterative process of coding and interpretation to identify themes and develop understanding of the phenomenon.

Findings

University student volunteering has the potential to fail to meet the expectations of at least one of the parties to the relationship when the expectations of the parties are not clearly articulated. Universities operating volunteer programmes have an important role in facilitating expectation formation and matching, minimising the chances of mismatched expectations.

Research limitations/implications

The study confirms the operation of a psychological contract for university student volunteers and organisations who host them which is consistent with other research in volunteering demonstrating the importance of matching expectations.

Practical implications

The paper identifies the importance of expectation formation and matching for hosts and students, and highlights the role of universities in facilitating matchmaking.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the growing body of research on the role of the psychological contract in volunteering, in particular in university student volunteering and host organisations.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 59 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Susan Young and Kristina Lu

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the study results conducted at a four-year university in Hawaii investigating the impact of providing nursing students with an educational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the study results conducted at a four-year university in Hawaii investigating the impact of providing nursing students with an educational intervention session aimed at improving cultural competence.

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive-correlational research method was used to examine the correlations between a control group and experimental group using pre-and post-tests. The t-test for equality of means and Levene’s test for equality of variances were conducted for statistical analysis on pre-and post-test scores. In addition, a power analysis was conducted due to the small sample size.

Findings

The control group receiving no intervention scored lower on the post-test in overall competency by five points, while the experimental group increased their post-score by five points after receiving the intervention; however, this increase did not change the overall cultural competence score. The results indicate that the educational intervention of a two-hour didactic, discussion and presentation did not provide as robust as what was needed to increase domain scores for the experimental group. Further, the domains of awareness, skill, knowledge, encounter and desire cannot be taught by instruction alone and should be reinforced over time.

Research limitations/implications

The study was a convenience sample and limited by the small sample size. The sample may not be representative of all senior nursing students. The study is limited to one school of nursing in Hawaii; the results may not be generalized to other populations.

Practical implications

This research provides a foundation for future curriculum development and the evaluation of nursing programs. For instance, incorporating a value-added instructional project on cultural competence into each nursing class would increase cultural competence awareness and knowledge.

Social implications

This study also emphasizes the necessity of education in cultural competence for all health professionals, which has implications for improving quality, patient satisfaction and increased health outcomes.

Originality/value

This research is unique to examining and applying an educational intervention on cultural competence for nursing students in Hawaii. This research sheds light on studying the importance of culture competence for nursing students and other health professionals. This is not a skill that can be taught in one class or only even a single immersion experience and should be acquired over time where continuing education and encounters are necessary in order to become culturally competent; this will enable health professionals to provide meaningful and appropriate care to patients.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 21 February 2024

Sharon Alicia Simmons, Chong Kyoon Lee, Susan Young, Lois Shelton and MaQueba Massey

In this study, we question: how do the social costs of failure interact with gendered institutions to affect the early stage entrepreneurship activity? We address this question by…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, we question: how do the social costs of failure interact with gendered institutions to affect the early stage entrepreneurship activity? We address this question by employing the institutional theory and a unique dataset of 286,989 entrepreneurs across 35 countries.

Design/methodology/approach

To test our hypotheses, we use a multilevel modeling analysis that nests individual entrepreneurs within the countries. To capture individual and country-level variables, we constructed a unique dataset that combines data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), European Flash Barometer (EUFB), World Bank Development Indicator (WDI), World Bank Doing Business Report (WBDB) and World Economic Forum (WEF).

Findings

Our analysis confirms that higher levels of the country-level gender equality positively correlate with the early-stage entrepreneurship activity of women. Moreover, we find that this positive relationship is amplified in institutional environments with high social costs of failure, suggesting that societal intolerance for failure can exacerbate the negative effect of gender inequality on the participation of women in entrepreneurship.

Research limitations/implications

Our research contributes to academic interest on the role of legitimacy in women entrepreneurship and is of particular interest to international business scholars, seeking a better understanding of multidimensional construction of institutional frameworks across countries. In this study, we set out to address an important research question: how do the social costs of failure interact with gendered institutions to affect entrepreneurship activity? Our study provides a comprehensive portrait of gendered institutions by including the framework conditions of education, healthcare and political power. We found that in societies with gender equality, the likelihood of individuals engaging in the early-stage entrepreneurship activity is higher and that the positive relationship is strengthened in national environments with high social costs of failure.

Practical implications

Our study findings underscore the need for government policies addressing global gender gaps in economic empowerment. In particular, policies assisting women in obtaining education in high-growth industries like information technology or providing funding to women-dominated industries may foster activity for women seeking to do business in such industries. Such policies connect the early-stage entrepreneurship activities with gender equality concerns and initiatives.

Social implications

Regarding the social costs of failure construct, specifically, prior studies generally focus narrowly on the context of failed entrepreneurs. We cast a wider net on men and women entrepreneurs’ entry decisions (irrespective of prior experience with business failure) and provide new views on the effects of social costs of failure on entrepreneurial ecosystems. We also extend the research on the legitimacy of women as entrepreneurs with the gender equality construct.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies, which often focus on the “3Ms” of market, money and management, our research adopts a more holistic perspective. We recognize that the opportunities and challenges faced by entrepreneurs are shaped not only by individual skills and resources but also by the broader macroenvironment. By incorporating the framework conditions of education, healthcare and political power, alongside the intricate interplay of social costs and norms, our study paints a comprehensive picture of the landscape of female entrepreneurship.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Pedagogies of Possibility for Negotiating Sexuality Education with Young People
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-743-0

Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2008

Frederick Erickson

In the earliest decades of anthropological fieldwork in the late nineteenth century, fieldwork relationships with informants appear to have been anything but overly close. The…

Abstract

In the earliest decades of anthropological fieldwork in the late nineteenth century, fieldwork relationships with informants appear to have been anything but overly close. The stereotype of the anthropologist in the American Southwest is that of a white man who sat on the steps of the trading post and paid Indians to tell him words in their language. Attempts were made to elicit information on kinship systems through direct and imperious questioning: “What do you call your mother's brother?” The analogous British and German stereotypes were of those who sat on the verandah of the local colonial officer's house, conducting themselves similarly with “the natives.”

Details

Access, a Zone of Comprehension, and Intrusion
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-891-6

Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2011

Sara E. Green, Julia Barnhill, Sherri Green, Diana Torres Hawken, Loretta Sue Humphrey and Scott Sanderson

Purpose – The purpose of this work is to explore ways in which parents of children with disabilities actively seek to create a place for themselves and their children within…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this work is to explore ways in which parents of children with disabilities actively seek to create a place for themselves and their children within supportive communities of others – despite structural and attitudinal barriers.

Methodology – Semi-structured, interactive interviews were conducted with six mothers and six fathers of older teens and young adults with severe impairments. Interview transcripts were analyzed for themes related to barriers to social participation and strategies used to create and sustain communities of supportive others.

Findings – Results suggest that, while there are indeed many barriers to social participation, these mothers and fathers have successfully utilized a variety of strategies in order to create a sense of community for themselves and their children including: garnering support from family; creating enclaves of “wise” individuals; and active social networking. Findings also suggest that children with disabilities can provide opportunities for parental community involvement in unexpected ways.

Limitations, implications and value – The sample is small and selective and the study used retrospective interviews to examine parental memories. Despite these limitations, the narratives of these parents provide a provocative look at the potential role of personal agency in the community experiences of parents of children with disabilities. The stories told by these parents clearly suggest that it takes concerted effort to construct a village in the face of significant barriers to social participation. Once created, however, that village of supportive others can provide life enhancing support for children with disabilities and their families.

Details

Disability and Community
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-800-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2013

Juliette Koning and Can‐Seng Ooi

Researchers rarely present accounts of their awkward encounters in ethnographies. Awkwardness, however, does matter and affects the ethnographic accounts we write and our…

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Abstract

Purpose

Researchers rarely present accounts of their awkward encounters in ethnographies. Awkwardness, however, does matter and affects the ethnographic accounts we write and our understanding of social situations. The purpose is to bring these hidden sides of organizational ethnography to the fore, to discuss the consequences of ignoring awkward encounters, and to improve our understanding of organizational realities.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents awkward ethnographic encounters in the field: encounters with evangelizing ethnic Chinese business people in Indonesia (Koning), and visiting an artist village in China (Ooi). Based on analysing their awkwardness, and in the context of a critical assessment of the reflexive turn in ethnography, the authors propose a more inclusive reflexivity. The paper ends with formulating several points supportive of reaching inclusive reflexivity.

Findings

By investigating awkward encounters, the authors show that these experiences have been left out for political (publishing culture in academia, unwritten rules of ethnography), as well as personal (feelings of failure, unwelcome self‐revelations) reasons, while there is much to discover from these encounters. Un‐paralyzing reflexivity means to include the awkward, the emotional, and admit the non‐rational aspects of our ethnographic experiences; such inclusive reflexivity is incredibly insightful.

Research limitations/implications

Inclusive reflexivity not only allows room for the imperfectness of the researcher, but also enables a fuller and deeper representation of the groups and communities we aim to understand and, thus, will enhance the trustworthiness and quality of our ethnographic work.

Originality/value

Awkwardness is rarely acknowledged, not to mention discussed, in organizational ethnography.

Details

Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5648

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1996

Roseann Giarrusso, Du Feng, Qian‐wei Wang and Merril Silverstein

Increasing numbers of grandparents are raising their grandchildren because of problems within the parental generation such as drug and alcohol addiction, AIDS, divorce, and…

Abstract

Increasing numbers of grandparents are raising their grandchildren because of problems within the parental generation such as drug and alcohol addiction, AIDS, divorce, and unemployment. Yet little is known about how grandparents who “parent” or “co‐parent” then‐grandchildren differ from other grandparents, or the extent to which parenting or co‐parenting grandchildren affects grandparent's psychological, physical, or financial well‐being, or feelings of family solidarity. The purpose of this research is to: (1) compare the characteristics of grandparents who go on to parent or co‐parent their grandchildren to grandparents who do not, and (2) assess the effects of entering the two caregiving arrangements — parenting and co‐parenting — on changes in grandparent's psychological, physical, and financial well‐being, as well as their feelings of family solidarity. The data for this study came from 659 grandparents from the USC Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSG) who participated in at least two consecutive waves of data collection measured at three year intervals between 1985 to 1994: parenting grandparents (N = 12), co‐parenting grandparents (N = 27), and non‐parenting grandparents (N = 620). Analysis of the quantitative data reveals that grandparents who parent or co‐parent their grandchildren tend to be younger and less healthy than non‐parenting grandparents. Contrary to expectation, the data also indicate that there is no statistically significant decline in psychological, physical, or financial well‐being, nor in normative or marital solidarity after grandparents begin to caregive. Although the majority of grandparents show stability or improvement in overall psychological well‐being, some show decline. The qualitative data suggests that the extent to which grandparents can choose their level of involvement in caregiving influences and the age of the grandchild, whether they experience caregiving as positive or negative.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 16 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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