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Susan L. Slocum and Sally Everett
The purpose of this paper is to explore a resource-constrained Destination Marketing Organization (DMO) to assess the power struggles inherent in community tourism…
The purpose of this paper is to explore a resource-constrained Destination Marketing Organization (DMO) to assess the power struggles inherent in community tourism initiatives when leadership is weakened through shrinking resources.
Using a comparative instrumental case study approach, this paper analyses three separate studies within Experience Bedfordshire to develop a comprehensive picture of governance within a single tourism destination.
The results show that privately held attractions, hospitality businesses, and transportation authorities retain control over key marketing messages. Visitor and stakeholder surveys indicate that a more sustainable form of rural development, based on natural/cultural attractions and the development of bed and breakfast and artisan small businesses is the preferred development path. Unfortunately, the increasing use of Tourism Information Centres by local residents, as opposed to tourists, has reduced support by key power holders in the community, thereby forcing major industry restructure.
This research was conducted during the transitionary period as the Rural Development Agencies were being dissolved in the UK and the new Local Enterprise Partnership system was being implemented in early 2011. It is still too early to anticipate how this new system will affect destination marketing in the long run.
This paper argues that commercial interests ultimately control the destination image in this resource-constrained region, and its marketing messages which are currently focused on high adventure and large scale development are pursued to the detriment of local wishes and rural landscape development.
This paper is the first article to address the transition from the Rural Development Agencies to the Local Enterprise Partnerships within a tourism and destination marketing framework.
Susan L. Slocum, Kenneth F. Backman and Elisabeth Baldwin
Tourism is being utilized as a key economic development tool of the 21st century. Serious concern over the benefit of tourism for the poor has contributed to discussion on…
Tourism is being utilized as a key economic development tool of the 21st century. Serious concern over the benefit of tourism for the poor has contributed to discussion on community involvement and community participation in contemporary literature. In particular, sustainable development has become a way to address the long-term viability of income and employment in least-developed countries while attempting to preserve traditional customs and culture in the face of globalization. Sustainability refers to finding solutions to poverty without compromising the natural and cultural resource base needed by future generations to pursue their own economic goals. This task requires attention to the economic, cultural and social needs of all groups while focusing on solutions that are also viable for the long term (Bramwell, 2001; Davidson, 2007; Mfaume & Leonard, 2004). It is also important to note that social structures and cultural references vary noticeably within countries and regions. Therefore, three separate, independent instrumental case studies (also known as collective case studies) were conducted in three distinct Tanzanian communities in or around tourism destinations. The objective was to allow for the autonomy of specific cultural, social and business networks to be reflected in the research methodology.
Case studies allow for the investigation of constraints to economic participation within real-life experiences, as there is no clear distinction between the phenomenon and the context. Instrumental case studies strive to develop theory, or in this case, facilitate understanding of pervasive problems and do not require typical study populations (Stake, 1995). An instrumental case study is utilized where a ‘particular case is examined mainly to provide insight’ into a phenomenon and the case supports understanding of the phenomenon (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005). The emphasis is placed on specific issues rather than on the case itself. The case in then used as a vehicle to develop a better understanding of the situation or problem (Stake, 2003). Single case studies are ideal for investigating a phenomenon that has not been previously studied and can make a significant contribution to knowledge (Yin, 2003). Since constraints to economic participation within Tanzania have not yet been empirically studied, each individual case study is exploratory in nature.
Once the specific case studies were independently derived and themes developed, a cross-case comparison offered insight into reoccurring themes or case-specific constraints. Using an iterative process, the strength of this methodology lies in the inductive approach that provides suggestive rather than definitive analysis (Welch, 1994). The first phase of analysis results in ‘within’ themes specific to a particular region. Using cross-case comparisons, emergent patterns provide similarities and differences between the three communities.
Maria Amoamo is a post-doctoral fellow in Te Tumu, the School of Māori Pacific and Indigenous Studies at University of Otago in New Zealand. Maria's research interests…
Maria Amoamo is a post-doctoral fellow in Te Tumu, the School of Māori Pacific and Indigenous Studies at University of Otago in New Zealand. Maria's research interests include the representation of indigenous, cultural and heritage tourism. Her PhD thesis examined the issue of identity in relation to Māori regional tourism within a post-colonial framework. She is currently examining the economic value of identity in relation to determining ‘what is the profile of Māori tourism in Dunedin?’ Maria is also examining the issue of social vulnerability and resilience of Pacific Island communities in relation to tourism.
This paper proposes a framework for understanding the concept of a learning organization from a normative perspective. A questionnaire was developed to operationally…
This paper proposes a framework for understanding the concept of a learning organization from a normative perspective. A questionnaire was developed to operationally measure the described management practice attributes of a learning organization. Using a sample of four organizations and 612 subjects, support was found for three a priori predictive hypotheses derived from a conceptual framework. Implications of the results and further empirical research are discussed, especially for linking learning organization attributes to performance using larger samples and multiple measures.
Jagdip Singh and Argun Saatcioglu
V. Kumar, Ashley Goreczny and Todd Maurer
The purpose of this study is to understand how a salesperson’s preset goals, customer satisfaction levels and past performance affect the extent of goal achievement, as…
The purpose of this study is to understand how a salesperson’s preset goals, customer satisfaction levels and past performance affect the extent of goal achievement, as well as how job-specific attitudes and emotions affect the relationship between preset goals and goal achievement.
This study uses a modeling framework with both main, moderating and mediating effects, using transaction data and survey results from a telecommunications firm.
The results indicate that preset goals and customer satisfaction, interestingly, have an inverted-U relationships with goal achievement. Further, attitudes and emotions regarding workplace conduciveness and workplace ethics and diversity, reduce the effect preset goals have on goal achievement. However, attitudes and emotions regarding workplace philosophy strengthens the effect preset goals have on goal achievement, whereas with disagreement, this relationship diminishes.
Two of the primary limitations of this study are: one, because of the cross-sectional nature of the study, there is limited opportunity to control for unobserved heterogeneity; and two, performance goal achievement, though is important for the firm, is one of many potential goals that affect a salesperson. For example, customer satisfaction goals or a one-time special event goals could play a role. Therefore, only using performance goal achievement could be a limitation of this study.
This study contributes to academic literature in three ways. First, it demonstrates the diminishing effect of customer satisfaction on goal achievement. Second, it identifies an inverse U-shaped relationship between preset goals and goal achievement. Finally, it examines how attitudes and emotions regarding workplace culture (conduciveness, ethics and diversity and philosophy) affect the relationship between preset goals and goal achievement.
Leo Yat Ming Sin and Suk‐ching Ho
Looks at consumer research in Greater China including Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Maps out the contributions within this area and guides future research…
Looks at consumer research in Greater China including Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Maps out the contributions within this area and guides future research. Examines the state of the art over the 1979‐97 period, with particular emphasis on the topics that have been researched, the extent of the theory development in the field and the methodologies used in conducting research. Uses content analysis to review 75 relevant articles. Suggests that, while a considerable breadth of topics have been researched, there remains much to be done, there is further room for theoretical development in Chinese consumer behaviour studies; and the methodologies used need improvement and further refinement.
Kamel Mellahi and Jedrzej George Frynas
This paper explores the issue of transferring western human resource management (HRM) practices to Algeria. Drawing on a case study of a large industrial company, the…
This paper explores the issue of transferring western human resource management (HRM) practices to Algeria. Drawing on a case study of a large industrial company, the research identifies the motives for the transfer and examines the selection and implementation process of western HRM practices in Algeria. Evidence generated from the case study reveals that while management justifications for the transfer of western HRM practices capture the economic and technical rationale for western HRM practices, they fail to identify local conditions under which these HRM practices might be transferred. The applicability of western HRM is hindered by the unplanned and haphazard importation of western HRM practices.