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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Huda Khan, Susan Freeman and Richard Lee

Ambidexterity’s effects on exploration and exploitation have been widely studied in the innovation literature. However, to date, no studies have determined how combining…

Abstract

Purpose

Ambidexterity’s effects on exploration and exploitation have been widely studied in the innovation literature. However, to date, no studies have determined how combining or balancing the two strategic marketing foci may improve new product performance outcomes. This is an important issue in emerging markets, which have considerable potential to introduce new products, given the rising affordability and intense competition between Western and local firms. These challenges compel managers to offer new products and solutions in these markets. However, firms may adopt different strategic marketing foci for new product development. Using Pakistan as an emerging-market context, this paper aims to provide novel insights into how managers can choose the right balance of a customer-driving versus customer-driven strategy to optimise new-product performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-industry approach surveyed senior strategy managers (N = 106) of Pakistani businesses.

Findings

Using polynomial regression and surface test analyses, the findings showed that balancing the two strategies influenced new-product performance more than either strategy alone. Surprisingly, the imbalance of greater customer-driving over customer-driven strategy or vice versa did not improve new-product performance. Moreover, new-product performance was greater when the level of balance was higher compared to when it was lower.

Originality/value

Grounded in behavioural and strategic adaptation theory, this study extends ambidexterity’s theoretical foundations in marketing by empirically determining the optimal balance of an orientation and performance implication model. The findings can assist emerging market managers in choosing the right balance and combination of the two strategies for better performance of new products.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2018

Hung Trong Hoang, Sally Rao Hill, Vinh Nhat Lu and Susan Freeman

Drawing on social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to develop and test an integrative model of internal and external factors determining employee perceptions…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to develop and test an integrative model of internal and external factors determining employee perceptions of their organizational service climate.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected from a sample of 549 service employees in local and foreign-owned service firms in the emerging market of Vietnam. Structural equation modeling is used to test the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

Leadership commitment to service quality, internal processes and service standards, work facilitation resources and service-oriented human resource practices are positively associated with service climate. Internal customer service mediates the effects of these variables on service climate, with the exception of work facilitation resources. Furthermore, competitive intensity negatively moderates the impact of the internal drivers on service climate. The results also suggest that, depending on the ownership types (local vs foreign firms), the influences of the internal drivers of service climate might differ.

Originality/value

Despite the recognition of the role of organizational resources in fostering service climate, the integration and processes by which such resources influence service climate have not been fully examined. In particular, little is known about the external factors facilitating or hindering service climate, especially from an emerging market perspective. By examining both internal and external drivers of service climate under different ownership types, this paper enriches the existing knowledge on service climate and provides important implications for service firms operating in emerging markets.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2019

Muhammad Ali, Shen Lei, Susan Freeman and Mubbsher Munawar Khan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of high-performance work systems (HPWS) on unit performance relative to the mediating roles of collective human…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of high-performance work systems (HPWS) on unit performance relative to the mediating roles of collective human capital (CHC) at the unit level and perceived HPWS at the employee level.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 181 branch managers and 504 employees. The proposed path model was tested using the statistical package M-plus (v. 7) using a 2-1-2 multilevel approach for mediation analysis.

Findings

Generally, branch managers actively implement HPWS, and employees perceive a fairly high level of HPWS. Further, the path model indicated that CHC at the unit level and perceived HPWS at the employee level partially mediate the relationship between implemented HPWS and unit performance.

Originality/value

This study is the first to explore multilevel mediating mechanisms in the context of the largest four state-owned banks in China. A 2-1-2 multilevel analysis procedure was used to separate measurement error into relevant employee- and branch-level components to create more precise assessments of multivariate associations. Such analyses have not yet been conducted in research on HPWS prior to this study of the Chinese banking sector, but they are essential for teasing out the micro- and macro-level effects of HPWS.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2021

Shen Lei, Cuijuan Qin, Muhammad Ali, Susan Freeman and Zheng Shi-Jie

The purpose of this study is to develop and test a multilevel conceptual model which explains how authentic leadership (AL), through an innovative team atmosphere and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop and test a multilevel conceptual model which explains how authentic leadership (AL), through an innovative team atmosphere and promotion of self-efficacy, influences creativity. The study delineates two pathways from AL to creativity. The first pathway is an indirect effect through an innovative atmosphere at the team level and self-efficacy at the individual level, while the second pathway focuses on the moderating effect of AL between self-efficacy and individual creativity.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 58 team leaders and 283 employees in a creative industry park in the Yangtze River Delta region from China. Path analysis was conducted to test the proposed hypotheses using the statistical package M-plus (v. 7).

Findings

The results reveal that AL is an important antecedent of creativity. Furthermore, an innovation-based atmosphere at the team level mediates the theorized relationship between AL and individual creativity. However, creative self-efficacy at the individual level does not mediate this relationship. Finally, the study found that AL moderates the relationship between creative self-efficacy and individual creativity.

Originality/value

The implications of this study highlight important considerations for enterprises in creative industry parks within and beyond China. This study provides industry leaders with a clearer and more insightful and coherent means of understanding the mediating mechanism between AL and creativity, and the moderating effects of AL between individual self-efficacy and creativity through a new linkage model.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Elyse Shane, MD Wahid Murad and Susan Freeman

The purpose of this paper is to determine and analyse that factors that could potentially influence price premiums of Australian wine in the UK market. The authors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine and analyse that factors that could potentially influence price premiums of Australian wine in the UK market. The authors integrated the economic-based hedonic pricing theory and marketing export pricing literature. The authors demonstrate a potential solution to limitations in knowledge of market-level data and industry wide competition, currently lacking in export pricing studies.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data extracted from wine-searcher.com and using multiple regression as the main analytical technique, the authors examined the relationships between actual retail prices UK consumers pay for Australian wine and product attributes. The authors compared the moderating influence of distribution channel (retail choice) on these relationships.

Findings

The results provide insights in export pricing literature, and the authors support better theoretical explanations for hedonic pricing studies in export marketing. The authors found two types of wine attributes – “brand” and “region of origin” – that attract price premiums. While relationships between variety and retail price, as well as age and retail price are less clear, the authors provide some support.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this hedonic pricing study is the inability to explain why certain relationships between product attributes and price premiums exist. Studies such as these could be improved by utilising both consumer- and firm-level data.

Practical implications

Whilst final prices paid by consumers are beyond the control of producers, understanding the relationships between retail prices, retail choices and product attributes are of strategic importance. Understanding the role consumer preferences play in determining prices they ultimately pay is of great value when determining export/retail pricing strategies.

Social implications

Consumers and firm managers are jointly able to provide comprehensive explanations on why certain attributes attract price premiums. The integration of economic and consumer-based theories provides a holistic understanding of the influence of retail choices and product attributes on retail prices.

Originality/value

The authors drew on the hedonic pricing theory linking product attributes with retail prices, which is vital for understanding market share and brand image. The authors identified which product attributes and which distribution channels (retail choices) are valuable to consumers. Deeper understanding of these issues is important for producers.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Book part
Publication date: 26 October 2016

Cristina Neesham and Susan Freeman

In this paper we propose a typology of firm-stakeholder relationships based on four different states of consumption, leading to a new model of business commitment to…

Abstract

In this paper we propose a typology of firm-stakeholder relationships based on four different states of consumption, leading to a new model of business commitment to responsible consumption. In developing this typology, we apply a physiological theory of consumption to define business as a nexus of activities capable of producing four different types of value: subsistence, growth, indifference and excess. The model represents a more coherent conceptualization of business management, drawing upon long-term multi-dimensional value management in firm-stakeholder relations. Thus, in our model, we establish normative connections between value creation and responsible consumption, and indicate more specific measures of value creation for stakeholders, by promoting subsistence and growth, and discouraging indifference and excess. We are thus taking value creation stakeholder theory one step further, by exploring how different levels of value or utility could inform integrative, convergent value creation processes within the firm as a network of stakeholders.

Details

The Contribution of Love, and Hate, to Organizational Ethics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-503-4

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Susan Freeman, Axèle Giroud, Paul Kalfadellis and Pervez Ghauri

The purpose of this study is to provide a theoretical driven model, explaining the interaction between psychic distance and environment on increased (subsequent) resource…

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2469

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to provide a theoretical driven model, explaining the interaction between psychic distance and environment on increased (subsequent) resource commitment decisions made by firms in their internationalization process. Increasingly, contrary to the Uppsala internationalization process (IP) model, firms are engaging in direct investment, rather than exporting as an initial step into overseas markets. Yet, it remains unclear how psychic distance affects firms engaged in increased resource commitment, especially in the initial phase of their international expansion when uncertainty is higher.

Design/methodology/approach

Building theory by integrating two key theories of internationalisation (IP model and eclectic paradigm), the paper explains increased resource commitment. Comparing firm types, the study also fills the research gap of recognising multinational enterprises (MNEs) as heterogeneous in their internationalization experience. Psychic distance and environment are analysed across three groups of firms (born‐global, recent and older entrants) to observe the moderating effects of firm experience and related uncertainty. A model and propositions of the relationships between psychic distance and environment, providing an increased commitment perspective, are presented.

Findings

There are mixed responses to the three groups of firms for psychic distance factors (political, geographic, social, information and commercial and economic development); and environmental factors (near‐market effects and sunk costs). Surprisingly born‐global and recent entrants are less affected by psychic distance, and more influenced by external factors, but for different reasons, in making early increased resource commitment decisions in the host market, than are older entrants.

Practical implications

Firms need to consider the strategic objectives of the parent company, psychic distance, local environment and international experience when engaging in increase resource commitment in host economies.

Originality/value

The paper provides theoretical insights and practical implications for those involved in international business and marketing.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Luísa Campos, Catherine Axinn, Susan Freeman and Gabriele Suder

The motivation for a firm to operate overseas can vary significantly among smaller firms. The reasons why firms internationalise, rather than remain in the domestic…

Abstract

The motivation for a firm to operate overseas can vary significantly among smaller firms. The reasons why firms internationalise, rather than remain in the domestic market, vary depending upon: their industry, their home country, their managers’ perceptions and decision-making orientation. Companies are influenced by different motivations to reach foreign markets and use different strategies including different entry modes. These motivations can be internal or external, reactive or proactive. This chapter begins by focusing on how different motivations of firms can influence their success in foreign markets from a generic perspective. The authors then present a case study of Brazilian small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the shoe industry, a traditional, low-technology sector, which play an important role in the Brazilian economy. The shoe industry changed significantly over time, until the 1970s had little international experience, in the 1990s was impacted by new Asian market competition, illustrating with firm examples taken from interviews, how SMEs have had to evolve and change their international strategic approaches and motivations over time. The authors conclude with perspectives on SME specificities. Understanding what motivates shoe firms to go abroad and their internationalisation behaviour allows us to provide some suggestions to SME managers in their process of expansion into international markets.

Details

Key Success Factors of SME Internationalisation: A Cross-Country Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-277-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2007

Susan Freeman, David Cray and Mark Sandwell

To understand better how professional services firms (PSFs) use networks to gain entry into newly emerging markets (NEMs), to analyze how such firms are assisted in this…

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1434

Abstract

Purpose

To understand better how professional services firms (PSFs) use networks to gain entry into newly emerging markets (NEMs), to analyze how such firms are assisted in this process by prior networks and to provide a framework of this process.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology utilised in this study is qualitative and exploratory. Ten interviews across three large firms (legal, finance and media consulting) were used for the data gathering. Analysis incorporated open, axial and selective coding.

Findings

Prior networks provide impetus to the foreign entry aspirations of PSFs and are critical to the process. The specific functions of network actors in the entry process are to influence the firm and to provide intelligence‐gathering, arising from their participatory role in the foreign market. A framework is presented, supporting network theory as a key theoretical underpinning of strategy formulation, decision‐making and implementation by PSFs entering NEMs.

Research limitations/implications

The framework presented in this paper could be tested most appropriately by analysing an extended number of cases, still within a qualitative approach, prior to survey‐testing the extent of the phenomena. Within the scope of the current study, however, the framework is supported by these preliminary findings.

Practical implications

Networks are perceived by PSFs as a medium for capturing market knowledge and as a basis for strategic decision‐making in NEMs.

Originality/value

Network theory is posited as a key theoretical underpinning of core strategy formulation, decision‐making and implementation by professional services entering NEMs.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Susan Freeman, Seyda Deligonul and Tamer Cavusgil

Current conceptualizations of born‐globals lack a full theoretical explanation of strategic re‐structuring through the use of outward and inward‐oriented activity and the…

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3316

Abstract

Purpose

Current conceptualizations of born‐globals lack a full theoretical explanation of strategic re‐structuring through the use of outward and inward‐oriented activity and the processes of de‐internationalization and re‐internationalization. Strategy and internationalization processes are created by entrepreneurial behaviour. If one wants to understand various international behaviours and strategic changes in firms one needs to focus on entrepreneurs – individual managers. The purpose of this paper is to unify the theoretical framework on born‐globals by addressing two questions. How do managers move through the de‐internationalization (exit) to re‐internationalization (re‐entry) process? How do they choose their patterns of internationalization?

Design/methodology/approach

To address these research gaps, this study draws on 26 in‐depth interviews with senior managers across nine Australian born‐globals.

Findings

Moving between outward and inward‐oriented activity as they de‐internationalize and re‐internationalize is used as proactive strategic re‐structuring by born‐global managers for survival during periods of global economic decline or changing competitive conditions.

Originality/value

This study provides new theoretical insights where the entrepreneur is central to the internationalization process and provides practical implications for those involved in international business and marketing.

1 – 10 of 304