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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Ewan Wright and Hugo Horta

Global participation in higher education has expanded greatly since the late twentieth century. The implications for the cultural, social, and economic fabric of societies…

Abstract

Purpose

Global participation in higher education has expanded greatly since the late twentieth century. The implications for the cultural, social, and economic fabric of societies have been substantial. To explain transitions from elite to mass higher education systems, theoretical insights from Technical-functionalism, Neo-institutionalism, World Academic System, and Credentialism perspectives have been put forward. It is the contention of this paper that there are emerging and complementary factors driving steadily growing participation in “high-income” universal higher education systems. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

With reference to Ulrich Beck’s concept of the “risk society”, it is discussed how higher education participation is increasingly a response by young people (and their families) seeking to mitigate heightened instability in work and employment under a “risk regime”. Publicly available data from national and supra-national organisations are used to evidence trends and support the arguments put forward by this paper.

Findings

Participation is perceived as quasi-compulsory to “survive” amid concern that those without higher education attainment are being “left behind” in modern labour markets. This environment has contributed to more students from more diverse backgrounds viewing higher education as the only viable option to secure a livelihood regardless of rising private costs of participation and rising uncertainty over graduate employment outcomes. The expansion of higher education has therefore potentially developed a self-perpetuating dynamic as the perceived cost of non-participation escalates.

Originality/value

It is shown that to better understand higher education participation in “high-income” countries with universal higher education systems, one needs to consider the conceptual idea of “survivalism”, that underlines risk and the vulnerabilities of modern societies.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2009

John Barry and Stephen Quilley

The ‘Transition Town’ (TT) movement pioneered by Rob Hopkins initially in Kinsale (Ireland) and Totnes (United Kingdom) has become the fastest growing environmental…

Abstract

The ‘Transition Town’ (TT) movement pioneered by Rob Hopkins initially in Kinsale (Ireland) and Totnes (United Kingdom) has become the fastest growing environmental movement in the global north (Hopkins, 2008). With over 30 official TT initiatives in the United Kingdom, the concept is now spreading into New Zealand, Canada, and many more countries.1 The movement starts from two premises: (i) the reality and implications of rapid and potentially catastrophic climate change; (ii) the reality of ‘peak oil’ – an imminent, permanent short fall in oil supply, increasing year on year with massive geo-political, economic and social consequences.2 Whilst supporting national and multilateral efforts to reduce emissions and to develop new energy technologies and infrastructures, TT leaves climate change protest to environmental campaigning groups, NGOs and activists oriented towards a global civil society. Acknowledging the need for ‘government and business responses [to climate change and peak oil] at all levels’, the role of TT is to ‘create [a] sense of anticipation, elation and a collective call to adventure’ and that this grass-roots bottom-up, local activism could potentially prepare the way for more directly political action at the level of national government (Hopkins, 2008, p. 15).

Details

The Transition to Sustainable Living and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-641-0

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2008

John Barry and Stephen Quilley

Abstract

Details

Advances in Ecopolitics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-669-0

Abstract

Details

Architecture as a Global System: Scavengers, Tribes, Warlords and Megafirms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-655-1

Abstract

Details

Utopias, Ecotopias and Green Communities: Exploring the Activism, Settlements and Living Patterns of Green Idealists
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-667-6

Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2009

Liam Leonard

This chapter examines the ecotopian activist tradition through an exploration of existing literature, within a context of the processes of activism, identity and place…

Abstract

This chapter examines the ecotopian activist tradition through an exploration of existing literature, within a context of the processes of activism, identity and place which arise from the communitarian impulse. The initial part of the chapter sets out utopian communitarianism into separate phases. Each phase is examined for the exogenous and internalised motivations that compel people in different eras to participate in intentional living projects be they religious, autonomous, or environmental. The chapter develops these themes further by applying Sargisson's study of intentional communities to the discussion. The chapter attempts to ground this discussion within the context of the wider understandings of green utopian practice, such as Barry's ‘Concrete Utopian’ realism or de Geus's ‘utopia of sufficiency’.

Details

The Transition to Sustainable Living and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-641-0

Case study
Publication date: 14 July 2014

Manoj Joshi and Apoorva Srivastava

Entrepreneurship, strategy, family business.

Abstract

Subject area

Entrepreneurship, strategy, family business.

Study level/applicability

MBA, PhD (Mgmt)

Case overview

DK Dies and Tools was set up initially as a tool room by its founder Krishna Verma. It manufactured machine parts, sheet metal tools, jigs and fixtures, plastic/rubber moulds and metal fabrications. The firm came to be known as DK Exports (henceforth DKX) when it was professionalized in the year 2003 for merchant exporting. Lately, after the founder's demise, professionalization had become a dire need when the firm faced with loss of customers, the market share was taken over by the Chinese, workers' expectations had risen, poor internal communications, search for dynamic capabilities and finally a need to diversify had arisen. Unexpected death of the founder had pushed the firm into doldrums. It was because of the founder's relationship and reputation in the market that the business prospered. Unfortunately, the tacit knowledge he possessed could not be handed over to his son Kunal, which led to complexes in business. Hence, there arose a need for internationalization for finding new customers and markets. Entrepreneurial orientation needed a change. The new Chairman, Kunal, had expertise in operations management, with his wife, Priyanka, looking after development via overseas collaborations. The firm had been struggling to create a two-tier top-level management to decide on operational issues, besides search for newer destinations for increasing the scale of operations.

Expected learning outcomes

To understand how multilevel entrepreneurship happens and the importance of translating tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge, especially at times when the founder has to pass the baton to the second generation.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Teacher Preparation in Singapore
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-401-9

Book part
Publication date: 6 January 2016

Lynette Shultz

This chapter uses two recent Canadian policies to frame and discuss emerging topics in Canadian comparative and international education. The first policy is the Accord on

Abstract

This chapter uses two recent Canadian policies to frame and discuss emerging topics in Canadian comparative and international education. The first policy is the Accord on the Internationalization of Education (AIE) (ACDE, 2014) prepared by the Association of Canadian Deans of Education. The second policy is the Canadian government policy on higher education: Canada’s International Education Strategy: Harnessing our knowledge advantage to drive innovation and prosperity (CIES) (Government of Canada, 2014). Given Canada’s traditionally decentralized education system with universities working autonomously, a joint Deans’ Association policy, a federal government policy on education, and the substantially enhanced role of the corporate sector in setting education goals provide a very different and contested context for conducting comparative and international education research. This chapter provides some insight into how Canadian comparative and international education researchers are approaching this context.

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2015
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-297-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1974

C.P. Harris

The term “consumerism” may be taken at first sight to mean what appears to be two concepts, the doctrine of consumer sovereignty, and the urge to consume enshrined in the…

Abstract

The term “consumerism” may be taken at first sight to mean what appears to be two concepts, the doctrine of consumer sovereignty, and the urge to consume enshrined in the value system that identifies greater production as a social virtue. On examination, however, it may be seen that these two concepts are in fact related and interdependent aspects of the following economic and social problems—who determines what commodities are produced; who determines the quantities of commodities that are produced; and who determines how the supply of commodities is distributed or allocated among the members who make up the society.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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