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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2013

A.B. Khalaf, Y. Hamam, Y. Alayli and K. Djouani

Studying the availability of medical equipment based on various maintenance types has been a major concern for hospitals. Most of the methodologies used are empirical and…

Abstract

Purpose

Studying the availability of medical equipment based on various maintenance types has been a major concern for hospitals. Most of the methodologies used are empirical and few are based on mathematical modelling. The objective of this paper is to present a mathematical maintenance model that analyses the effect of maintenance on the survival probability of medical equipment based on maintenance history and age of that equipment.

Design/methodology/approach

A global model is proposed to measure the probability of equipment being available using real data extracted from maintenance history of infusion pumps and ventilators and analysed using Matlab. To confirm the validity of the developed model, the survival analysis approach is used to develop a model that measures the survival of equipment as a function of maintenance and age of equipment. The method is first tested using simulated data and the findings confirm the validity of the proposed approach.

Findings

The analysis using survival approach reveals that conducting preventive maintenance (PM) on the selected medical equipment had an impact on survival of equipment. However, the manufacturer's recommended PM intervals do not correlate to the failure rate encountered. This will contribute to the debate on PM manufacturer's recommended intervals and might lead to the revision of maintenance strategies implemented by hospitals and clinical engineering (CE) practitioners.

Research limitations/implications

Although the data collected for the infusion pumps were quite sufficient, that collected for the ventilators were more limited. The major difficulty is that of the availability of historical maintenance data and the effect of user errors may cause uncertainty in the analysis. A closer collaboration with the medical professional should facilitate the recording and access to such information.

Practical implications

The use of mathematical modelling to analyse the effect of maintenance on the survival of medical equipment is a beneficial tool that is not exploited in the medical equipment industry. It will provide CE practitioners with scientific tool to analyse the effect of PM on the survival of medical equipment.

Originality/value

This paper presents a mathematical approach to analyse the effect of maintenance on the survival of medical equipment, which is crucial in the assessment of maintenance strategies implemented in the medical equipment industry.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Bernardí Cabrer-Borrás, Paz Rico Belda and Dolores Botella Carrubi

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the determinants of the survival of Spanish companies.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the determinants of the survival of Spanish companies.

Design/methodology/approach

Two approaches are used and they are complementary. The first approach analyses the determinants of survival probability. For this purpose, a binary choice model is built and estimated using a sample of companies from the main economic sectors taken from the SABI database. Likewise, the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition is applied to quantify the difference between companies with employees and without employees and the proportion of this difference that owes to observed factors or unobserved factors. Finally, the second approach is a survival analysis carried out through the Cox proportional hazard model that identifies the determinants of the duration of business activity.

Findings

The results of the empirical analysis show that companies without employees present less favourable conditions for survival at all stages of their evolution than companies with employees.

Originality/value

The contribution of this study to the empirical literature consists in analysing the difference between companies with and without employees. Due to the structure of Spanish companies, this aspect and the determinants of such difference are essential for policymakers to increase the survival for companies.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Scott Dellana and David West

The purpose of this paper is to apply survival analysis, using Cox proportional hazards regression (CPHR), to the problem of predicting if and when supply chain (SC…

3025

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply survival analysis, using Cox proportional hazards regression (CPHR), to the problem of predicting if and when supply chain (SC) customers or suppliers might file a petition for bankruptcy so that proactive steps may be taken to avoid a SC disruption.

Design/methodology/approach

CPHR is first compared to multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) and logistic regression (LR) to assess its suitability and accuracy to SC applications using three years of financial quarterly data for 69 non-bankrupt and 74 bankrupt organizations. A k-means clustering approach is then applied to the survival curves of all 143 organizations to explore heuristics for predicting the timing of bankruptcy petitions.

Findings

CPHR makes bankruptcy predictions at least as accurately as MDA and LR. The survival function also provides valuable information on when bankruptcy might occur. This information allows SC members to be prioritized into three groups: financially healthy companies of no immediate risk, companies with imminent risk of bankruptcy and companies with intermediate levels of risk that need monitoring.

Originality/value

The current paper proposes a new analytical approach to scanning and assessing the financial risk of SC members (suppliers or customers). Traditional models are able to predict if but not when a financial failure will occur. Lacking this information, it is impossible for SC managers to prioritize risk mitigation activities. A simple decision rule is developed to guide SC managers in setting these priorities.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Erkki K. Laitinen

Survival analysis is statistical technique that uses longitudinal data to model the process that allows an individual or firm to survive to a particular point in time…

1182

Abstract

Survival analysis is statistical technique that uses longitudinal data to model the process that allows an individual or firm to survive to a particular point in time. Despite a large number of studies that use survival analysis to model the duration of time that precedes financial distress, some criticism has suggested that the application of survival analysis to financial distress research provides limited incremental knowledge. This study uses survival analysis to model the duration of time that precedes a firm's initial payment default. The data set consists of firm financial information obtained from a large credit information company in Finland for a five‐year period split into estimation and holdout samples. Financial ratios, size, industry, and age are used as covariates to model the survival process preceding the initial payment default. The hazard is compared to a logistic risk measure estimated from data one year prior to default. The proportional hazards model is shown to give a more accurate forecast of default for the earlier years prior to the onset of financial distress.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2022

Ba Hung Nguyen, Nhat Bao Quyen Pham and Thi Hong Ha Do

As small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) rely on board heterogeneity to raise capital and establish credit relationships with suppliers, it is crucial to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

As small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) rely on board heterogeneity to raise capital and establish credit relationships with suppliers, it is crucial to investigate the board heterogeneity effect on their survival. In this study, the first research objective is to provide further insights on the discriminatory power of survival approaches, specifically on semiparametric approaches in survival analysis that take into consideration both fixed and time-varying covariates. The second objective is to examine the relationship between board size and SME liquidation by using resource-based theories that focus on measuring board heterogeneity through board size.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses survival approaches for modelling SMEs survival by examining the survival of more than 68,000 SMEs in the UK covering the before, onset and post 2008 crisis periods and with firms’ demographic characteristics and financial indicators. Survival analysis is effective to examine multiple causes of default/failure and how do particular circumstances or characteristics increase or decrease the probability of survival. Survival analysis brings more advantages than linear-based regression approaches by effectively handling the censoring of observations.

Findings

Motivated by resource-based theories, the authors find that the likelihood of a firm being liquidated robustly increases with a reduction in its board heterogeneity measured through board size. This finding is held under non-parametric, parametric, and semiparametric approaches using survival analysis. The research shows better causal explanation and discriminatory power on using the semiparametric-based survival analysis approach considering both fixed and time-varying covariates.

Practical implications

This study demonstrates the better performance and causal explanation of the survival model using time-varying covariates compared with those using fixed covariates. In addition, the authors delve into board heterogeneity, measuring through the board size to investigate how the number of board directors affects the firm liquidation, it is also a factor worth considering when a small and medium firm is forming its board.

Originality/value

This research investigates the board heterogeneity effect on firm survival using survival analysis approaches. The authors contribute to the knowledge on board heterogeneity of SMEs. Specifically, the size of more than three directors could help reduce SMEs liquidation risk. This result gives a recommendation to firms or start-ups when forming their director board. This research also provides further insights on the applicability of survival models with unique UK SMEs data covering the before, onset and post 2008 crisis periods.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 January 2010

Nil Gunsel

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the timing of bank failure in North Cyprus over the period of 1984‐2002 using a discrete‐time logistic…

1576

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the timing of bank failure in North Cyprus over the period of 1984‐2002 using a discrete‐time logistic survival analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical methodology employed in the paper allows for the determination of the factors that influence the time to bank failure. The model links the time of bank failure to a set of bank‐specific factors and macro‐environment that may have exacerbated the internal troubles of the financial institutions.

Findings

An empirical examination of the results on survival analysis reveal that the three variables, namely: low asset quality (total loan as a percentage of total assets), low liquidity (total liquid asset as a percentage of total assets), and high credit extended to the private sector (ratio of the private credit to gross domestic product) are the main factors that explain the survival time of banks in North Cyprus.

Research limitations/implications

For further research this paper may better distinguish time to bank failure if it extends the time period and if it uses exchange pressure from Turkey that may have a direct effect on bank failure in North Cyprus.

Practical implications

Nowadays bank failure is an important problem in the world. Using time technique to investigate bank failure will help to learn the factors that determine time to bank failure, which will further help to take precautions and prevent the cost of bank failure.

Originality/value

The analysis would appear to be the first to provide evidence and investigate the time to bank failure in the North Cyprus banking sector.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Rafa Madariaga, Ramon Oller and Joan Carles Martori

The purpose of this paper is to assess the capacity of two methodological approaches – discrete choice and survival analysis models – to investigate the relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the capacity of two methodological approaches – discrete choice and survival analysis models – to investigate the relationship between socio-economic characteristics and turnover in a retailing company. A comparison of the estimation results under each model and their interpretation is carried out. The study provides a guide to determine, assess and interpret the effects of different driving factors behind turnover.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a data set containing information about 1,199 workers followed up between January 2007 and December 2009. First, not distinguishing voluntary and involuntary resignation, a binary logistic regression model and a Cox proportional hazards (PH) model for univariate survival data are set up and estimated. Second, distinguishing voluntary and involuntary resignation, a multinomial logistic regression model and a Cox PH model for competing risk data are set up and estimated.

Findings

When no distinction is made, the results point that wage and age exert a negative effect on turnover. Risk of resignation is higher for male, single, not married and Spanish nationals. When the distinction is made, previous results hold for voluntary turnover: wage, age, gender, marital status and nationality are significant. However, when explaining involuntary turnover, all variables except wage lose explaining power. The survival analysis approach is better suited as it measures risk of resignation in a longitudinal way. Discrete choice models only study the risk at a particular cut-off point (24 months in case of this study).

Originality/value

This paper is a systematic application, evaluation and comparison of four different statistical models for analysing employee turnover in a single firm. This work is original because no systematic comparison has been done in the context of turnover.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2004

Philippe Very, Louis Hébert and Paul W Beamish

Few studies have explored how multinational firms (MNCs) use their experience when expanding abroad. According to the “knowledge projection” model of the MNC…

Abstract

Few studies have explored how multinational firms (MNCs) use their experience when expanding abroad. According to the “knowledge projection” model of the MNC, appropriately disseminating industry experience, country experience and mode experience can a priori increase the chances of success of new subsidiaries. However, with inconsistent findings, prior research is of limited assistance in understanding this relationship. We argue that this situation can be explained by a focus on firm’s potential for experience accumulation, rather than on the actual transfer of experience. Deploying expatriate managers enable MNCs to apply organizational experience in foreign markets. It should also have an impact on foreign subsidiary’s chances of success and survival. Therefore, this paper examines how the use of expatriates to transfer experience can affect subsidiary survival.

Details

"Theories of the Multinational Enterprise: Diversity, Complexity and Relevance"
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-285-6

Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2014

David S. DeGeest and Ernest H. O’Boyle

To review and address current approaches and limitations to modeling change over time in social entrepreneurship research.

Abstract

Purpose

To review and address current approaches and limitations to modeling change over time in social entrepreneurship research.

Methodology

The article provides a narrative review of different practices used to assess change over time. It also shows how different research questions require different methodologies for assessing changes over time. Finally, it presents worked examples for modeling these changes.

Findings

Our review suggests that there is a lack of research in social entrepreneurship that takes into account the many different considerations for addressing how time influences outcomes.

Originality/value

This chapter introduces an analytic technique to social entrepreneurship that effectively models changes in predictors and outcomes even when data are non-normal or nested across time or levels of analysis.

Details

Social Entrepreneurship and Research Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-141-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Xavier Piulachs, Ramon Alemany and Montserrat Guillen

This paper aimed to study the price of health insurance for individuals aged 65 years and over.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aimed to study the price of health insurance for individuals aged 65 years and over.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of private health policyholders in Spain is analysed. Joint models are estimated for men and women, separately. A log-linear model of the transformed cumulated number of claims associated with emergency room occupation, ambulance use and hospitalization is estimated, together with a proportional hazard survival model.

Findings

The association between the longitudinal process of severe medical care and the survival time process is positive and highly significant for both men and women. An increase in the price of health insurance because of the effect of a larger number of emergency care demand events is slightly offset by the decrease in expected longevity.

Research limitations/implications

The effect of an increase in the number of claims is small compared to the reduction in survival, so age still plays a central role in ratemaking.

Practical implications

High rates of health insurance for elderly insureds should be compensated with younger insureds in the portfolio.

Social implications

Affordable health insurance premiums for elderly people are difficult to obtain only with strict actuarial principles.

Originality/value

The proposed methodology allows dynamic rates to be designed, so that the price of health insurance can change as new usage information becomes available.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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