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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2007

Jirˇí Militký and Miroslav Mazal

The main aim of this paper is description of new apparatus and approach for contact less evaluation of surface roughness. For characterization of surface roughness, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this paper is description of new apparatus and approach for contact less evaluation of surface roughness. For characterization of surface roughness, the procedures based on classical and non‐classical (complexity) parameters are proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

For obtaining the roughness profile in the selected direction (on the line transect of the surface), the special arrangements of textile bend around sharp edge is used. The image analysis is used for extraction of surface profile. The system of controlled movement allows one to obtain surface roughness profile in two dimensions.

Findings

By using aggregation (cut length principle), the roughness resolution is decreased and roughness profile is created without local roughness variation. After application of cut length principle, the direct combination of slices leads to the creation of roughness surface.

Research limitations/implications

There exists plenty of roughness characteristics based on standard statistics or analysis of spatial processes. For evaluation of suitability of these characteristics, it will be necessary to compare results from sets of textile surfaces.

Practical implications

The measurement of fabric roughness by an RCM device is useful as simple tool for description of roughness in individual slices and in the whole rough plane. This method replaces the traditional contact stylus profiling methods

Originality/value

The reconstruction of surface roughness from individual slices. The utilization of aggregation principle for creation of micro and macro roughness. The evaluation of roughness parameters based on the geometrical characteristics, harmonic analysis and complexity indices.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 19 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 19 January 2015

B. M. Kumar and M. M. Ratnam

– This paper aims to propose a non-contact method using machine vision for measuring the surface roughness of a rotating workpiece at speeds of up to 4,000 rpm.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a non-contact method using machine vision for measuring the surface roughness of a rotating workpiece at speeds of up to 4,000 rpm.

Design/methodology/approach

A commercial digital single-lens-reflex camera with high shutter speed and backlight was used to capture a silhouette of the rotating workpiece profile. The roughness profile was extracted at sub-pixel accuracy from the captured images using the moment invariant method of edge detection. The average (Ra), root-mean square (Rq) and peak-to-valley (Rt) roughness parameters were measured for ten different specimens at spindle speeds of up to 4,000 rpm. The roughness values measured using the proposed machine vision system were verified using the stylus profilometer.

Findings

The roughness values measured using the proposed method show high correlation (up to 0.997 for Ra) with those determined using the profilometer. The mean differences in Ra, Rq and Rt between the two methods were only 4.66, 3.29 and 3.70 per cent, respectively.

Practical implications

The proposed method has significant potential for application in the in-process roughness measurement and tool condition monitoring from workpiece profile signature during turning, thus, obviating the need to stop the machine.

Originality/value

The machine vision method combined with sub-pixel edge detection has not been applied to measure the roughness of a rotating workpiece.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Fred F. Farshad and Thomas C. Pesacreta

The objectives of this study were to determine: the type of coating that minimized pipe surface roughness and how the choice of metrological instrument could influence…

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to determine: the type of coating that minimized pipe surface roughness and how the choice of metrological instrument could influence pipe surface roughness data. The internal surface of pipe was coated with either phenolic, modified novalac, epoxy, or nylon material. Roughness of coated pipe was assessed with two linear surface profilers, a Dektak3ST® and a Hommel T1000, and a Dimension 3000® atomic force microscope (AFM). Arithmetic roughness (Ra), root mean square roughness (Rq), and mean peak‐to‐valley height (RZD), were statistically analyzed. The ability of RZD to focus on the extremes of height and depth on the surface made it a significant parameter for detecting features that would affect fluid flow in pipes.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2011

Ramiro Martins, Cristiano Locatelli and Jorge Seabra

The purpose of this paper is to get a better understanding of roughness evolution and micropitting initiation on the tooth flank, as well as the evolution of surface

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to get a better understanding of roughness evolution and micropitting initiation on the tooth flank, as well as the evolution of surface topography during the test load stages in a modified DGMK short micropitting test procedure.

Design/methodology/approach

A modified DGMK short micropitting test procedure was performed, using an increased number of surface observations (three times more) in order to understand the evolution of the surface during each load stage performed. Each of these surface observations consists in the evaluation of surface roughness, surface topography, visual inspection and also weigh measurements as well as lubricant analysis.

Findings

This work showed that the larger modifications on surface took place in the beginning of tests, especially during load stage K3 (lowest load, considered as running‐in) and on the first period of load stage K6, that is, during the first 200,000 cycles of the test. The 3D roughness parameters (St and Sv), obtained from the surface topographies, gave a more precise indication about surface roughness evolution and micropitting generation than the 2D parameters, especially in what concerns to inferring the depth of micropits and the reduction of roughness. Tooth flank topography allows to identify local changes on the surface and the appearance of first micropits.

Research limitations/implications

This work was performed with gears holding a high surface roughness and with a ester‐based lubricant. It was interesting to see the differences observed for surface evolution, for other base oils and also for gears with lower roughness.

Practical implications

The main implication of this work is the understanding that major changes in the surface took place in the first cycles, indicating that the running‐in procedure could be very important for the surface fatigue life. This work also showed that micropitting depends on local contact conditions. Depending on the roughness of the counter surface, micropitting can appear on the bottom of the deep valleys and/or do not appear on the tip of the roughness peaks. The surface topography, and implicitly 3D roughness parameters, is very useful for the observation of surface evolution.

Originality/value

This paper shows in detail the evolution of the tooth surface during a micropitting test. The micropits generation and evolution and also surface wear evolution are presented.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 63 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Savvas G. Vassiliadis and Christopher G. Provatidis

The surface of the textile fabrics is not absolutely flat and smooth. Its geometrical roughness within certain extents is considerable. The surface roughness influences…

Abstract

The surface of the textile fabrics is not absolutely flat and smooth. Its geometrical roughness within certain extents is considerable. The surface roughness influences the fabric hand and it plays a significant role in the end use of the fabric. In parallel, the periodic variations of the fabric surface level due to the regular interlaced patterns of the yarns cause a respective variation of the geometrical roughness measurement. Thus, the fabric roughness data measured using the Kawabata Evaluation System for Fabrics and imposed to a certain process of numerical calculations result into the retrieval of the structural parameters of the fabric. The principle of the method has a non‐destructive character and can be applied to woven or knitted fabrics.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

M.P. Jenarthanan, Venkata Sai Sunil Gujjalapudi and Venkatraman V.

The purpose of this paper is to originate a statistical model for delamination factor, surface roughness, machining force and also to determine and compare the effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to originate a statistical model for delamination factor, surface roughness, machining force and also to determine and compare the effects of machining parameters (spindle speed, fiber orientation angle, helix angle and feed rate) on the output responses during end-milling of glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) by using desirability functional analysis (DFA) and grey relational analysis (GRA).

Design/methodology/approach

Based on Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array, milling experiments were carried on GFRP composite plates employing solid carbide end mills with different helix angles. The machining parameters were optimized by an approach based on DFA and GRA, which were useful tools for optimizing multi-response considerations, namely, machining force, surface roughness and delamination factor. A composite desirability index was obtained for multi-responses using individual desirability values from DFA. Based on this index and grey relational grade the optimum levels of parameters were identified and significant contribution of parameters was ascertained by analysis of variance.

Findings

Fiber orientation angle (66.75 percent) was the significant parameter preceded by feed rate (15.05 percent), helix angle (7.76 percent) and spindle speed (0.30 percent) for GFRP composite plates.

Originality/value

Multi-objective optimization in end-milling of GFRP composites using DFA and GRA has not been performed yet.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 14 April 2014

Ismail Durgun and Rukiye Ertan

The mechanical properties and surface finish of functional parts are important consideration in rapid prototyping, and the selection of proper parameters is essential to…

Abstract

Purpose

The mechanical properties and surface finish of functional parts are important consideration in rapid prototyping, and the selection of proper parameters is essential to improve manufacturing solutions. The purpose of this paper is to describe how parts manufactured by fused deposition modelling (FDM), with different part orientations and raster angles, were examined experimentally and evaluated to achieve the desired properties of the parts while shortening the manufacturing times due to maintenance costs.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, five different raster angles (0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°) for three part orientations (horizontal, vertical and perpendicular) have been manufactured by the FDM method and tested for surface roughness, tensile strength and flexural strength. Also, behaviour of the mechanical properties was clarified with scanning electron microscopy images of fracture surfaces.

Findings

The research results suggest that the orientation has a more significant influence than the raster angle on the surface roughness and mechanical behaviour of the resulting fused deposition part. The results indicate that there is close relationship between the surface roughness and the mechanical properties.

Originality/value

The results of this paper are useful in defining the most appropriate raster angle and part orientation in minimum production cost for FDM components on the basis of their expected in-service loading.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

M.P. Jenarthanan, A. Ajay Subramanian and R. Jeyapaul

This paper aims to study the comparison between a response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) in the modelling and prediction of surface

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the comparison between a response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) in the modelling and prediction of surface roughness during endmilling of glass-fibre-reinforced polymer composites.

Design/methodology/approach

Aiming to achieve this goal, several milling experiments were performed with polycrystalline diamond inserts at different machining parameters, namely, feed rate, cutting speed, depth of cut and fibre orientation angle. Mathematical model is created using central composite face-centred second-order in RSM and the adequacy of the model was verified using analysis of variance. ANN model is created using the back propagation algorithm.

Findings

With regard to the machining test, it was observed that feed rate is the dominant parameter that affects the surface roughness, followed by the fibre orientation. The comparison results show that models provide accurate prediction of surface roughness in which ANN performs better than RSM.

Originality/value

The data predicted from ANN are very nearer to experimental results compared to RSM; therefore, this ANN model can be used to determine the surface roughness for various fibre-reinforced polymer composites and also for various machining parameters.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2017

Ashu Garg, Anirban Bhattacharya and Ajay Batish

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of low-cost chemical vapour treatment process on geometric accuracy and surface roughness of different curved and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of low-cost chemical vapour treatment process on geometric accuracy and surface roughness of different curved and freeform surfaces of fused deposition modelling (FDM) specimens build at different part building orientations.

Design/methodology/approach

Parts with different primitive and curved surfaces are designed and modelled to build at three different part orientations along X orientation (vertical position resting on side face), Y orientation (horizontal position resting on base) and Z orientation (upright position). Later, the parts are post-processed by cold vapours of acetone. Geometric accuracy and surface roughness are measured both before and after the chemical treatment to investigate the change in geometric accuracy, surface roughness of FDM parts.

Findings

The results indicate that surface roughness is reduced immensely after cold vapour treatment with minimum variation in geometric accuracy of parts. Parts build vertically over its side face (X orientation) provides the overall better surface finish and geometric accuracy.

Originality/value

The present study provides an approach of post-built treatment for FDM parts and observes a significant improvement in surface finish of the components. The present approach of post-built treatment can be adopted to enhance the surface quality as well as to achieve desired geometric accuracy for different primitive, freeform/curved surfaces of FDM samples suitable for functional components as well as prototypes.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Alberto Boschetto, Veronica Giordano and Francesco Veniali

The paper aims to predict the surface roughness of fused deposition modelling prototypes. Since average roughness is not comprehensive, this study aims to extend the…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to predict the surface roughness of fused deposition modelling prototypes. Since average roughness is not comprehensive, this study aims to extend the characterization to all the roughness parameters obtainable by a profilometric analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical model of the 3D profile is supplied as a function of process parameters and part shape. A suitable geometry was designed and prototyped for validation. Data were measured by a profilometer and complemented by microscopic analysis. A methodology based on the proposed model was applied to optimise prototype fabrication in two practical cases.

Findings

The proposed profile is effective in describing the micro‐geometrical surface of fused deposition modelling prototypes. The third dimension enables the calculation of amplitude, spatial and hybrid roughness parameters.

Research limitations/implications

Because of mathematical assumptions and technological aspects, the validity of the model presents limitations related to the deposition angle.

Practical implications

The method is an effective tool in the process planning stage: it enables knowing in advance how to assure part specifications delivering a set of technical choices. Two practical applications point out the usability in the product development and process parameters optimisation.

Originality/value

This work fulfils an identified need to predict a complete surface characterization of fused deposition modelling technology.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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