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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 17 November 2021

Terry Yuan-Fang Chen, Yu-Lung Lo, Ze-Hong Lin and Jui-Yu Lin

The purpose of this study was expected to simultaneously monitor the surface roughness of each solidified layer, the surface roughness of the metal powder, the outline of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was expected to simultaneously monitor the surface roughness of each solidified layer, the surface roughness of the metal powder, the outline of the solidified layer, and the height difference between the solidified layer and the metal powder.

Design/methodology/approach

In the proposed approach, color images with red, green and blue fringes are used to measure the shape of the built object using a three-step phase-shift algorithm and phase-unwrapping method. In addition, the surface roughness is extracted from the speckle information in the captured image using a predetermined autocorrelation function.

Findings

The feasibility and accuracy of the proposed system were validated by comparing it with a commercial system for an identical set of samples fabricated by a selective laser melting process. The maximum and minimum errors between the two systems are approximately 24% and 0.8%, respectively.

Originality/value

In the additive manufacturing field, the authors are the first to use fringe detection technology to simultaneously measure the profile of the printed layer and its surface roughness.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 May 2007

Jirˇí Militký and Miroslav Mazal

The main aim of this paper is description of new apparatus and approach for contact less evaluation of surface roughness. For characterization of surface roughness, the…

1240

Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this paper is description of new apparatus and approach for contact less evaluation of surface roughness. For characterization of surface roughness, the procedures based on classical and non‐classical (complexity) parameters are proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

For obtaining the roughness profile in the selected direction (on the line transect of the surface), the special arrangements of textile bend around sharp edge is used. The image analysis is used for extraction of surface profile. The system of controlled movement allows one to obtain surface roughness profile in two dimensions.

Findings

By using aggregation (cut length principle), the roughness resolution is decreased and roughness profile is created without local roughness variation. After application of cut length principle, the direct combination of slices leads to the creation of roughness surface.

Research limitations/implications

There exists plenty of roughness characteristics based on standard statistics or analysis of spatial processes. For evaluation of suitability of these characteristics, it will be necessary to compare results from sets of textile surfaces.

Practical implications

The measurement of fabric roughness by an RCM device is useful as simple tool for description of roughness in individual slices and in the whole rough plane. This method replaces the traditional contact stylus profiling methods

Originality/value

The reconstruction of surface roughness from individual slices. The utilization of aggregation principle for creation of micro and macro roughness. The evaluation of roughness parameters based on the geometrical characteristics, harmonic analysis and complexity indices.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 19 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 January 2015

B. M. Kumar and M. M. Ratnam

– This paper aims to propose a non-contact method using machine vision for measuring the surface roughness of a rotating workpiece at speeds of up to 4,000 rpm.

1078

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a non-contact method using machine vision for measuring the surface roughness of a rotating workpiece at speeds of up to 4,000 rpm.

Design/methodology/approach

A commercial digital single-lens-reflex camera with high shutter speed and backlight was used to capture a silhouette of the rotating workpiece profile. The roughness profile was extracted at sub-pixel accuracy from the captured images using the moment invariant method of edge detection. The average (Ra), root-mean square (Rq) and peak-to-valley (Rt) roughness parameters were measured for ten different specimens at spindle speeds of up to 4,000 rpm. The roughness values measured using the proposed machine vision system were verified using the stylus profilometer.

Findings

The roughness values measured using the proposed method show high correlation (up to 0.997 for Ra) with those determined using the profilometer. The mean differences in Ra, Rq and Rt between the two methods were only 4.66, 3.29 and 3.70 per cent, respectively.

Practical implications

The proposed method has significant potential for application in the in-process roughness measurement and tool condition monitoring from workpiece profile signature during turning, thus, obviating the need to stop the machine.

Originality/value

The machine vision method combined with sub-pixel edge detection has not been applied to measure the roughness of a rotating workpiece.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Fred F. Farshad and Thomas C. Pesacreta

The objectives of this study were to determine: the type of coating that minimized pipe surface roughness and how the choice of metrological instrument could influence…

1756

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to determine: the type of coating that minimized pipe surface roughness and how the choice of metrological instrument could influence pipe surface roughness data. The internal surface of pipe was coated with either phenolic, modified novalac, epoxy, or nylon material. Roughness of coated pipe was assessed with two linear surface profilers, a Dektak3ST® and a Hommel T1000, and a Dimension 3000® atomic force microscope (AFM). Arithmetic roughness (Ra), root mean square roughness (Rq), and mean peak‐to‐valley height (RZD), were statistically analyzed. The ability of RZD to focus on the extremes of height and depth on the surface made it a significant parameter for detecting features that would affect fluid flow in pipes.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2011

Ramiro Martins, Cristiano Locatelli and Jorge Seabra

The purpose of this paper is to get a better understanding of roughness evolution and micropitting initiation on the tooth flank, as well as the evolution of surface

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to get a better understanding of roughness evolution and micropitting initiation on the tooth flank, as well as the evolution of surface topography during the test load stages in a modified DGMK short micropitting test procedure.

Design/methodology/approach

A modified DGMK short micropitting test procedure was performed, using an increased number of surface observations (three times more) in order to understand the evolution of the surface during each load stage performed. Each of these surface observations consists in the evaluation of surface roughness, surface topography, visual inspection and also weigh measurements as well as lubricant analysis.

Findings

This work showed that the larger modifications on surface took place in the beginning of tests, especially during load stage K3 (lowest load, considered as running‐in) and on the first period of load stage K6, that is, during the first 200,000 cycles of the test. The 3D roughness parameters (St and Sv), obtained from the surface topographies, gave a more precise indication about surface roughness evolution and micropitting generation than the 2D parameters, especially in what concerns to inferring the depth of micropits and the reduction of roughness. Tooth flank topography allows to identify local changes on the surface and the appearance of first micropits.

Research limitations/implications

This work was performed with gears holding a high surface roughness and with a ester‐based lubricant. It was interesting to see the differences observed for surface evolution, for other base oils and also for gears with lower roughness.

Practical implications

The main implication of this work is the understanding that major changes in the surface took place in the first cycles, indicating that the running‐in procedure could be very important for the surface fatigue life. This work also showed that micropitting depends on local contact conditions. Depending on the roughness of the counter surface, micropitting can appear on the bottom of the deep valleys and/or do not appear on the tip of the roughness peaks. The surface topography, and implicitly 3D roughness parameters, is very useful for the observation of surface evolution.

Originality/value

This paper shows in detail the evolution of the tooth surface during a micropitting test. The micropits generation and evolution and also surface wear evolution are presented.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 63 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 February 2022

Kura Alemayehu Beyene

Modeling helps to determine how structural parameters of fabric affect the surface of a fabric and also identify the way they influence fabric properties. Moreover, it…

Abstract

Purpose

Modeling helps to determine how structural parameters of fabric affect the surface of a fabric and also identify the way they influence fabric properties. Moreover, it helps to estimate and evaluate without the complexity and time-consuming experimental procedures. The purpose of this study is to develop and select the best regression model equations for the prediction and evaluation of surface roughness of plain-woven fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, a linear and quadratic regression model was developed for the prediction and evaluation of surface roughness of plain-woven fabrics, and the capability in accuracy and reliability of the two-model equation was determined by the root mean square error (RMSE). The Design-Expert AE11 software was used for developing the two model equations and analysis of variance “ANOVA.” The count and density were used for developing linear model equation one “SMD1” as well as for quadratic model equation two “SMD2.”

Findings

From results and findings, the effects of count and density and their interactions on the roughness of plain-woven fabric were found statistically significant for both linear and quadratic models at a confidence interval of 95%. The count has a positive correlation with surface roughness, while density has a negative correlation. The correlations revealed that models were strongly correlated at a confidence interval of 95% with adjusted R² of 0.8483 and R² of 0.9079, respectively. The RMSE values of the quadratic model equation and linear model equation were 0.1596 and 0.0747, respectively.

Originality/value

Thus, the quadratic model equation has better capability accuracy and reliability in predictions and evaluations of surface roughness than a linear model. These models can be used to select a suitable fabric for various end applications, and it was also used for tests and predicts surface roughness of plain-woven fabrics. The regression model helps to reduce the gap between the subjective and objective surface roughness measurement methods.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Savvas G. Vassiliadis and Christopher G. Provatidis

The surface of the textile fabrics is not absolutely flat and smooth. Its geometrical roughness within certain extents is considerable. The surface roughness influences…

1297

Abstract

The surface of the textile fabrics is not absolutely flat and smooth. Its geometrical roughness within certain extents is considerable. The surface roughness influences the fabric hand and it plays a significant role in the end use of the fabric. In parallel, the periodic variations of the fabric surface level due to the regular interlaced patterns of the yarns cause a respective variation of the geometrical roughness measurement. Thus, the fabric roughness data measured using the Kawabata Evaluation System for Fabrics and imposed to a certain process of numerical calculations result into the retrieval of the structural parameters of the fabric. The principle of the method has a non‐destructive character and can be applied to woven or knitted fabrics.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

M.P. Jenarthanan, Venkata Sai Sunil Gujjalapudi and Venkatraman V.

The purpose of this paper is to originate a statistical model for delamination factor, surface roughness, machining force and also to determine and compare the effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to originate a statistical model for delamination factor, surface roughness, machining force and also to determine and compare the effects of machining parameters (spindle speed, fiber orientation angle, helix angle and feed rate) on the output responses during end-milling of glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) by using desirability functional analysis (DFA) and grey relational analysis (GRA).

Design/methodology/approach

Based on Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array, milling experiments were carried on GFRP composite plates employing solid carbide end mills with different helix angles. The machining parameters were optimized by an approach based on DFA and GRA, which were useful tools for optimizing multi-response considerations, namely, machining force, surface roughness and delamination factor. A composite desirability index was obtained for multi-responses using individual desirability values from DFA. Based on this index and grey relational grade the optimum levels of parameters were identified and significant contribution of parameters was ascertained by analysis of variance.

Findings

Fiber orientation angle (66.75 percent) was the significant parameter preceded by feed rate (15.05 percent), helix angle (7.76 percent) and spindle speed (0.30 percent) for GFRP composite plates.

Originality/value

Multi-objective optimization in end-milling of GFRP composites using DFA and GRA has not been performed yet.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 April 2014

Ismail Durgun and Rukiye Ertan

The mechanical properties and surface finish of functional parts are important consideration in rapid prototyping, and the selection of proper parameters is essential to…

4828

Abstract

Purpose

The mechanical properties and surface finish of functional parts are important consideration in rapid prototyping, and the selection of proper parameters is essential to improve manufacturing solutions. The purpose of this paper is to describe how parts manufactured by fused deposition modelling (FDM), with different part orientations and raster angles, were examined experimentally and evaluated to achieve the desired properties of the parts while shortening the manufacturing times due to maintenance costs.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, five different raster angles (0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°) for three part orientations (horizontal, vertical and perpendicular) have been manufactured by the FDM method and tested for surface roughness, tensile strength and flexural strength. Also, behaviour of the mechanical properties was clarified with scanning electron microscopy images of fracture surfaces.

Findings

The research results suggest that the orientation has a more significant influence than the raster angle on the surface roughness and mechanical behaviour of the resulting fused deposition part. The results indicate that there is close relationship between the surface roughness and the mechanical properties.

Originality/value

The results of this paper are useful in defining the most appropriate raster angle and part orientation in minimum production cost for FDM components on the basis of their expected in-service loading.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

M.P. Jenarthanan, A. Ajay Subramanian and R. Jeyapaul

This paper aims to study the comparison between a response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) in the modelling and prediction of surface

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the comparison between a response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) in the modelling and prediction of surface roughness during endmilling of glass-fibre-reinforced polymer composites.

Design/methodology/approach

Aiming to achieve this goal, several milling experiments were performed with polycrystalline diamond inserts at different machining parameters, namely, feed rate, cutting speed, depth of cut and fibre orientation angle. Mathematical model is created using central composite face-centred second-order in RSM and the adequacy of the model was verified using analysis of variance. ANN model is created using the back propagation algorithm.

Findings

With regard to the machining test, it was observed that feed rate is the dominant parameter that affects the surface roughness, followed by the fibre orientation. The comparison results show that models provide accurate prediction of surface roughness in which ANN performs better than RSM.

Originality/value

The data predicted from ANN are very nearer to experimental results compared to RSM; therefore, this ANN model can be used to determine the surface roughness for various fibre-reinforced polymer composites and also for various machining parameters.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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