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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2011

M. Atar, H. Keskin, S. Korkut and D.S. Korkut

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how impregnation with boron compounds affects the surface hardness of varnished wood materials.

153

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how impregnation with boron compounds affects the surface hardness of varnished wood materials.

Design/methodology/approach

Test samples were prepared from Scotch pine, Oriental spruce, and Uludag fir, which met the requirements of ASTM D 358.These samples were impregnated with boric acid (Ba) and borax (Bx) using a vacuum technique, according to ASTM D 1413 guidelines. After impregnation, surfaces were coated with cellulosic, synthetic, polyurethane, water‐based, acrylic, and acid‐hardening varnishes in accordance with ASTM D 3023 guidelines. Surface hardnesses of specimens after the varnishing process were determined, in accordance with ASTM D 4366 guidelines.

Findings

Surface hardness was greatest for samples of spruce treated with Ba and polyurethane varnish, and lowest for samples of Scotch pine treated with Bx and synthetic varnish. With regard to wood type, impregnation material, and varnish type, surface hardness was greatest for Oriental spruce impregnated with Ba and polyurethane varnish and lowest for Scotch pine impregnated with Ba and synthetic varnish. Thus, impregnation with boron compounds increased the surface hardness of the varnished wood.

Research limitations/implications

A protective coating (such as varnish) has limited resistance to external effects and the lifetime of the coating will be determined by the type and severity of conditions to which it is exposed.

Practical implications

Types of varnishes, wood materials, and impregnation chemicals affect surface hardness and can influence the usefulness of wood materials, where surface hardness values are important.

Originality/value

The study results reported in the paper help address the lack of research in this field and should be informative, in particular, for manufacturers and consumers in the furniture and decoration sector.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Kankan Ji, Xingquan Zhang, Shubao Yang, Liping Shi, Shiyi Wang and Yuguo Wu

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate surface integrity of quenched steel 1045 ground drily by the brazed cubic boron nitride (CBN) grinding wheel and the black SiC…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate surface integrity of quenched steel 1045 ground drily by the brazed cubic boron nitride (CBN) grinding wheel and the black SiC wheel, respectively. Surface integrity, including surface roughness, sub-surface hardness, residual stresses and surface morphology, was investigated in detail, and the surface quality of samples ground by two grinding wheels was compared.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present work, surface integrity of quenched steel 1045 machined by the CBN grinding wheel and the SiC wheel was investigated systematically. All the specimens were machined with a single pass in the down-cutting mode of dry condition. Surface morphology of the ground specimen was observed by using OLYMPUS BX51M optical microscopy. Surface roughness of seven points was measured by using a surface roughness tester at a cut-off length of 1.8 mm and the measurement traces were perpendicular to the grinding direction. Sub-surface micro-hardness was measured by using HVS-1000 digital micro-hardness tester after the cross-section surface was polished. The residual stress was tested by using X-350A X-ray stress analyzer.

Findings

When the cut depth is increased from 0.01 to 0.07 mm, the steel surface machined by the CBN wheel remains clear grinding mark, lower roughness, higher micro-hardness and higher magnitude of compressive stress and fine microstructure, while the surface machined by the SiC grinding wheel becomes worse with increasing of cut depth. The value of micro-hardness decreases, and the surface roughness increases, and the surface compressive stress turns into tensile stress. Some micro-cracks and voids occur when the sample is processed by the SiC grinding wheel with cut depth 0.07 mm.

Originality/value

In this paper, the specimens of quenched steel 1045 were machined by the CBN grinding wheel and the SiC wheel with various cutting depths. The processing quality resulted from the CBN grinding wheel is better than that resulted from the SiC grinding wheel.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

Hakan Aydin, Ali Bayram and Şükrü Topçu

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study on friction characteristics of plasma, salt‐bath and gas nitrided layers produced in AISI 304 type…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study on friction characteristics of plasma, salt‐bath and gas nitrided layers produced in AISI 304 type austenitic and AISI 420 type martensitic stainless steels.

Design/methodology/approach

Plasma nitriding processes were carried out with DC‐pulsed plasma in 80% N2+20% H2 atmosphere at 450°C and 520°C for 8 h at a pressure of 2 mbar. Salt‐bath nitriding was performed in a cyanide‐cyanate salt‐bath at 570°C for 1.5 h. Gas nitriding was also conducted in NH3 and CO2 atmosphere at 570°C for 13 h. Characterization of all nitrided samples has been carried out by means of microstructure, microhardness, surface roughness measurement and friction coefficient. The morphologies of the worn surfaces of the nitrided samples were also observed using a scanning electron microscope. Friction characteristics of the nitrided samples have been investigated using a ball‐on‐disc friction and wear tester with a WC‐Co ball as the counterface under dry sliding conditions.

Findings

The plasma nitrided and salt‐bath nitrided layers on the 420 steel surfaces were much thicker than on the 304 steel surfaces. However, there was no obvious and homogeneous nitrided layer on the gas nitrided samples' surface. The plasma and salt‐bath nitriding techniques significantly increased the surface hardness of the 304 and 420 samples. The highest surface hardness of the 304 nitrided samples was obtained by the plasma nitrided technique at 520°C. On the other hand, the highest surface hardness of the 420 nitrided layers was observed in the 450°C plasma nitrided layer. Experimental friction test results showed that the salt‐bath and 450°C plasma nitrided layers were more effective in reducing the friction coefficient of the 304 and 420 stainless steels, respectively.

Originality/value

The relatively poor hardness and hence wear resistance of austenitic and martensitic stainless steels needs to be improved. Friction characteristic is a key property of performance for various applications of austenitic and martensitic stainless steels. This work has reported a comparison of friction characteristics of austenitic 304 and martensitic 420 stainless steels, modified using plasma, salt‐bath and gas nitriding processes. The paper is of significances for improving friction characteristics, indirectly wear performances, of austenitic and martensitic stainless steels.

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1996

D. Mukherjee

Carbon steels are abundantly employed in our day‐to‐day engineering services, the automotive industry, and in various domestic usages. Service life of carbon steel assumes…

Abstract

Carbon steels are abundantly employed in our day‐to‐day engineering services, the automotive industry, and in various domestic usages. Service life of carbon steel assumes importance, as faults bring either costly industrial downtime or embarrassing domestic inconvenience. It appears that these materials are dependent completely on the solubility of carbon in their solid‐solutions. Instabilities and destabilization mainly occur due to separation of various forms of carbides, which embrittles the matrix in the time domain. The presence of residual stress which is trapped inside the matrix, having originated from the previous deformation stresses of the wrought products, accelerates such precipitation. Thermal treatment, such as the subcritical stress relieving process, may also accelerate such an embrittlement process, although this exercise is meant for the relief of the matrix residual stresses only. Concludes that there is simultaneous precipitation of brittle phases and also deactivation of the matrix, owing to stress relieving. A surface becomes electrochemically more active when the precipitation component more than compensates the deactivation component and vice versa. Improvement of the matrix ductility also works against such deterioration processes. Suggests that imposition of the environmental constraints, such as aggressive and corrosive media, can only accelerate deterioration, by activating the brittle precipitation cycle.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Ferhat Ceritbinmez

Wire electric discharge machining (WEDM) is a non-conventional machining process, which is used for cutting parts of civil and military aircraft, rotorcraft, satellites…

Abstract

Purpose

Wire electric discharge machining (WEDM) is a non-conventional machining process, which is used for cutting parts of civil and military aircraft, rotorcraft, satellites and spacecraft. The cold work steel X153CrMoV12 is used in molds that are needed to produce plastic and metal parts used in these areas. It is only possible to produce parts with precise dimensions and quality with the use of mold steels with sensitive surfaces. The purpose of this study is to analyze X153CrMoV12 material by cutting it with WEDM method in precise dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

The effects of varying cutting parameters on the size of the finished product, surface roughness (SR) and surface hardness were determined by making rough in one pass and precision cuts in different passes. Nikon SMZ745T, Mitutoyo micrometer, Mitutoyo SJ-210 and Insize ISHL-P100 were used for macro-analysis, dimensional control, SR and surface hardness, respectively, to determine the cut qualities.

Findings

According to the hardness measurement results obtained from the steel surface before cutting and from the cut surfaces after cutting, there was no significant change in the surface hardness owing to the use of heat-treated steel. Increasing the wire tension as a result of the increase in the number of cutting passes and the decrease in the amount of rough stock left for the final cut increased the cut quality. Cutting precision has increased by preventing vibration of the wire with zero upper and lower water pressure required for slag cleaning.

Originality/value

There are many studies on WEDM in the literature, but there is no similar study emphasizing the importance of the processing parameters such as the number of cutting passes and rough stock amount. In this study, cold work steel with a hardness of 56–60 HRC was machined as rough cut in one pass, rough and fine cut in double pass, double fine cut after one roughing in three passes. As a result of the cuts, 3 µm measurement precision and 0.998 Ra SR were obtained as well as there was no hardness change in the cut surfaces.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Yajvinder Singh and Vishal Gulati

The paper aims to evaluate the influence of thermo-chemical cycles of oral fluids on the surface attributes (roughness and microhardness) of lithium disilicate…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to evaluate the influence of thermo-chemical cycles of oral fluids on the surface attributes (roughness and microhardness) of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LDC) crown restorations manufactured with CAD/CAM technology.

Design/methodology/approach

There have been 24 LDC crowns manufactured using the CAD/CAM process for their respective preparation dies ply methyl methacrylate (PMMA) of mandibular left second premolar tooth (n = 8 each group). The standard procedure was used to glaze 16 crown samples (Groups 2 and 3).Samples of Group 3 were aged with thermal (563°C and 5563°C) and pH (2–14) cycles. All 24 samples were tested with a Profilometer and a Vicker hardness tester was used for their surface roughness and hardness measurement, respectively.

Findings

In statistical examination on SPSS Statistics 20 (IBM) software, of surface roughness values (Ra) and Vicker hardness values from different groups, Tukey HSD test was executed in one-way ANOVA (a = 0.05). The means Ra for groups were accordingly Group 3 > Group1 > Group 2 (p < 0.001). Similarly, micro-hardness was in order of Group 2 > Group 1 > Group 3 (p < 0.001).

Research limitations/implications

The research work does not have any limitations.

Originality/value

Surrounding temperature and pH significantly impact the surface characteristics of lithium disilicate crown restoration. The study also reveals the inverse relationship between surface roughness and surface hardness parameters. The observed results and facts revealed well in agreement with the past research studies.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2019

Sandeep Kumar, Bedasruti Mitra and Naresh Kumar

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and optimize the roller burnishing process parameters using the design of experiments and grey relational analysis (GRA).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and optimize the roller burnishing process parameters using the design of experiments and grey relational analysis (GRA).

Design/methodology/approach

In this experimental work, the carbide burnishing tool has been selected for the machining of AISI-1040 high carbon steel to get better product quality and satisfactory machining characteristics. The material surface condition while machining, burnishing tool speed, feed rate, depth of penetration and No. of passes have been selected as process constraints to conduct experimental trials.

Findings

The surface roughness (SR) and surface hardness were considered as output responses. The experimental outcomes optimized by multi-parametric optimization showed considerable improvement in the process. The roller speed and number of passes are the most significant parameters for surface hardness, whereas the surface condition and roller penetration depth have the most significance on SR.

Research limitations/implications

The GRA method shows the 0.03376 improvement in grey relational grade between the experimental values and the predicted values.

Practical implications

The experimental outcomes optimized by multi-parametric optimization showed the considerable improvement in the process and will facilitate steel industries to enhance and improve productivity while burnishing high carbon steel (AISI-1040).

Originality/value

This research represents valid work, and the authors have no conflict of interests.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Boby John

The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to reduce the field failures of splined shafts. The paper also demonstrates the application of Mahalanobis-Taguchi…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to reduce the field failures of splined shafts. The paper also demonstrates the application of Mahalanobis-Taguchi system (MTS) for identifying the optimum hardness profile to avoid failures.

Design/methodology/approach

Through the usage profile analysis and comparison between the failed and good shafts, the major reason for shaft failure was identified as hardness variation. Then MTS approach was used to identify the optimum hardness profile for the shafts. An experiment was designed with power, feed and the gap between inductor and quench ring representing the heat transfer rate, heat removal rate and the time between heat transfer and removal of induction hardening process as factors. Based on experimental results, the optimum combination factors that would reduce the variation around the optimum hardness profile were identified.

Findings

The study showed that the shaft failures can be reduced by optimizing the hardness profile of the shafts rather than warning customers on overloading, changing the raw material or investing on machining operation to achieve better shaft finish. The study suggested heat transfer rate, heat removal rate and the time between heat transfer and removal had significant impact on the shaft's hardness profile. The study resulted in reducing the field failures from 0.32 to 0.029 percent.

Practical implications

This study provides valuable information on how to identify optimum hardness profile using MTS methodology to reduce shaft failures and how to minimize the variation around the optimum hardness profile using design of experiments.

Originality/value

To the best of author's knowledge, no study has been conducted to identify optimum hardness profile using MTS methodology. The study also provides an approach to minimize the variation around a non-linear hardness profile using design of experiments.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 December 2021

Li Cui and Yin Su

Rolling bearings often cause engineering accidents due to early fatigue failure. The study of early fatigue failure mechanism and fatigue life prediction does not consider…

Abstract

Purpose

Rolling bearings often cause engineering accidents due to early fatigue failure. The study of early fatigue failure mechanism and fatigue life prediction does not consider the integrity of the bearing surface. The purpose of this paper is to find new rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life model of rolling bearing.

Design/methodology/approach

An elastic-plastic finite element (FE) fatigue damage accumulation model based on continuous damage mechanics is established. Surface roughness, surface residual stress and surface hardness of bearing rollers are considered. The fatigue damage and cumulative plastic strain during RCF process are obtained. Mechanism of early fatigue failure of the bearing is studied. RCF life of the bearing under different surface roughness, hardness and residual stress is predicted.

Findings

To obtain a more accurate calculation result of bearing fatigue life, the bearing surface integrity parameters should be considered and the elastic-plastic FE fatigue damage accumulation model should be used. There exist the optimal surface parameters corresponding to the maximum RCF life.

Originality/value

The elastic-plastic FE fatigue damage accumulation model can be used to obtain the optimized surface integrity parameters in the design stage of bearing and is helpful for promote the development of RCF theory of rolling bearing.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 74 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Zhongliang Xie, Zhu-shi Rao, Na Ta and Ling Liu

As the companion paper of Part I, this paper aims to get more insight into the essence of lambda and to reveal its nature and role in the transition of lubrication states…

Abstract

Purpose

As the companion paper of Part I, this paper aims to get more insight into the essence of lambda and to reveal its nature and role in the transition of lubrication states. Mixed lubrication (ML) model with micro-asperities contacts has been discussed in details in Part I.

Design/methodology/approach

Mimetic algorithm is used to get numerical solutions. Relationships between film thickness ratios and lubrication states transition with different external loads, rotating speeds, radial clearances, elastic modulus, surface hardness and roughness parameters are obtained.

Findings

The characteristic parameters of transitions from boundary lubrication (BL) to ML and ML to hydrodynamic lubrication (HL) are studied to determine how these parameters change with above factors. Finally, the essence and major influencing factors of lambda are summarized for such bearings.

Originality/value

In Part II, the authors believe that the paper presents for the first time: further insight into the essence of the lambda ratio, and its role in the lubrication states transition are given; the determinations of the characteristic parameters of transition from BL to ML and ML to HL are investigated for the first time; the characteristic parameters of transitions from BL to ML and ML to HL are also studied to determine how parameters (external load, rotating speed, radial clearance, elastic modulus, surface hardness and roughness parameter) change with above factors; a summary of the essence and major influencing factors of lambda for such bearings is given.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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