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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2019

Fupeng Cheng, Jinglong Cui, Shuai Xu, Hongyu Wang, Pengchao Zhang and Juncai Sun

The purpose of this paper is to improve the surface electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance of AISI 430 stainless steel (430 SS) as bipolar plates for proton…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the surface electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance of AISI 430 stainless steel (430 SS) as bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), a protective Nb-modified layer is formed onto stainless steel via the plasma surface diffusion alloying method. The effect of diffusion alloying time on electrochemical behavior and surface conductivity is evaluated.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, the surface electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance of modified specimen are evaluated by the potentiodynamic and potentionstatic polarization tests. Moreover, the hydrophobicity is also investigated by contact angle measurement.

Findings

The Nb-modified 430 SS treated by 1.5 h (1.5Nb) presented a lower passivation current density, lower interfacial contact resistance and a higher hydrophobicity than other modified specimens. Moreover, the 1.5 Nb specimen presents a smoother surface than other modified specimens after potentionstatic polarization tests.

Originality/value

The effect of diffusion alloying time on electrochemical behavior, surface conductivity and hydrophobicity of modified specimen is evaluated. The probable anti-corrosion mechanism of Nb-modified specimen in simulated acid PEMFC cathode environment is presented.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2019

Jixin Han, Haibang Zhang, Juncai Sun, Wenyuan Zhao and Jinlong Cui

The purpose of this study is to improve the surface electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance of AISI430 stainless steel (430 SS) as bipolar plates for direct…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to improve the surface electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance of AISI430 stainless steel (430 SS) as bipolar plates for direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC).

Design/methodology/approach

The niobium diffusion layers have been successfully synthesized on 430 SS substrate by the plasma surface diffusion alloying technique under different diffusion alloying time.

Findings

The surface morphology of Nb-modified 430 SS prepared under the diffusion alloying time of 2 h is more homogeneous, relatively sleek and compact without surface micropore and other common surface blemishes. The potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization measurements manifest that Nb-modified 430 SS prepared under the diffusion alloying time of 2 h enormously ameliorate the corrosion resistance of bare 430 SS compared with other Nb-modified 430 SS samples and its corrosion current density is maintained at −1.4 µA cm−2 in simulated anodic environment of DFAFC (0.05 M H2SO4 + 2 ppm HF + 10 M formic acid at 50 °C).

Originality/value

The effect of diffusion alloying time on the corrosion resistance and surface conductivity of Nb-modified 430 SS has been carefully studied. The Nb-modified 430 SS samples prepared at the diffusion alloying time of 2 h have the best surface electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance in the simulated anodic environment of DFAFC.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Anwar Hossain and Rama Subba Reddy Gorla

The paper's aim is to investigate the mixed convection flow of an electrically conducting and viscous incompressible fluid past an isothermal vertical surface with Joule…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aim is to investigate the mixed convection flow of an electrically conducting and viscous incompressible fluid past an isothermal vertical surface with Joule heating in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field fixed relative to the surface. It was assumed that the electrical conductivity of the fluid varies linearly with the transverse velocity component.

Design/methodology/approach

The governing boundary layer equations were solved numerically. The boundary layer equations were first reduced to a convenient form by using two different formulations, namely, (i) the stream function formulation (SFF) and (ii) primitive variable formulation (PVF).

Findings

It was observed that both the local shear‐stress and Nusselt number increase with increasing value of local magnetic parameter, ξ.

Research limitations/implications

In the present investigation, we investigated the effects of Joule heating on MHD mixed convection boundary layer flow of an electrically conducting viscous incompressible fluid past an isothermal vertical flat plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field fixed relative to the surface of the plate. The analysis was valid for a steady, two dimensional laminar flow. An extension to three dimensional flow case is left for future work.

Practical implications

Here we have analyzed the problem of mixed convection flow of electrically conducting and viscous incompressible fluid past an isothermal vertical surface with viscous and Joule heating in presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field fixed relative to the surface. The work would be useful in the thermal management of heat transfer devices.

Originality/value

The results of this study may be of interest to engineers interested in heat exchanger design.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2008

George K. Stylios

Examines the fourteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched…

Abstract

Examines the fourteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

Fred Lacerda Amorim, Armin Lohrengel, Guenter Schaefer and Tiago Czelusniak

This work aims to investigate the direct production of electrical discharge machining (EDM) electrodes by means of the selective laser sintering (SLS) technique using a…

Abstract

Purpose

This work aims to investigate the direct production of electrical discharge machining (EDM) electrodes by means of the selective laser sintering (SLS) technique using a new non-conventional metal-matrix composite material (TiB2-CuNi). The influence and optimization of the main SLS parameters on the densification behavior and porosity is experimentally studied. EDM experiments are also performed to evaluate the electrodes performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The new EDM electrode material used was a powder system composed of TiB2 and CuNi. Making use of a designed systematic experimental methodology, the effects of layer thickness, laser scan speed and scan line spacing were optimized, where aspects such as densification behavior, porosity and surface morphology of the samples were analyzed through microstructural and surface analysis. EDM experiments were conducted under three different regimes in order to observe the electrodes behavior and performance. The results were compared with copper powder electrodes manufactured by SLS and EDMachined under the same conditions.

Findings

The experimental results showed that the direct SLS manufacturing of composite electrodes is feasible and promising. The laser scan speed has a high effect on the densification behavior of the samples, while the effect of scan line spacing on the porosity is more visible when the overlapping degree is considered. Surface morphology was not affected by the scan line spacing, whereas balling phenomenon was reported, regardless of the scan line spacing. The EDM results showed that the TiB2-CuNi electrodes had a much superior performance than the copper powder electrodes made by SLS, regardless of the EDM regime applied.

Research limitations/implications

Generally, the machine tool itself promotes some restrictions to the SLS process optimization. It is normally attributed to the characteristics of the laser type and the amount of energy that can be delivered to the powder bed. The present investigation could not cover all the optimization potential involved with the studied material due to limitations of the SLS machine tool used.

Originality/value

Significant results on the direct SLS manufacturing of a new non-conventional composite material, which has a great technological potential to be used as an EDM electrode material, are presented. Valuable guidelines are given in regard to the SLS optimization of TiB2-CuNi material and its performance as an EDM electrode. This work also provides a systematic methodology designed to be applied to the SLS process to produce EDM electrodes.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2009

George K. Stylios

Examines the fifthteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched…

Abstract

Examines the fifthteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2010

George K. Stylios

Examines the fifteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched…

Abstract

Examines the fifteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2008

G. Meunier, Y. Le Floch and C. Guérin

To model magneto‐harmonic devices including solid conductors with holes when the skin depth is very small.

Abstract

Purpose

To model magneto‐harmonic devices including solid conductors with holes when the skin depth is very small.

Design/methodology/approach

The 3D finite element magnetic scalar potential formulation combined with the surface impedance condition approximation is used. It allows the modelling of thin skin depth effect at low cost.

Findings

The paper shows how to use surface impedance condition for solid conductors with holes, when using the magnetic scalar potential. Specific equations must be added to respect Ampere's theorem. The paper establishes these equations and the coupling with the finite element formulation. The final system of equations is symmetric.

Research limitations/implications

The formulation allows to treat linear material in the magneto‐harmonic assumption.

Originality/value

The use of surface impedance condition with the 3D finite element magnetic scalar potential formulation is well known. The originality is to take into account holes (multiply connected conductors).

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

Carl J. Tautscher

This paper discusses the MIL‐P‐28809 Cleanliness Standard and Test, the reasons for testing, how to test, how much it will cost and what the benefits and limitations are.

Abstract

This paper discusses the MIL‐P‐28809 Cleanliness Standard and Test, the reasons for testing, how to test, how much it will cost and what the benefits and limitations are.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2019

Saeid Masoumi and Hassan Hajghassem

Smart biosensors that can perform sensitive and selective monitoring of target analytes are tremendously valuable for trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive detection. In this…

Abstract

Purpose

Smart biosensors that can perform sensitive and selective monitoring of target analytes are tremendously valuable for trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive detection. In this research, the pre-developed sensor was integrated with biological receptors in which they enhanced the sensitivity of the sensor. This is due to conjugated polydiacetylene onto a peptide-based molecular recognition element (Trp-His-Trp) for TNT molecules in graphene field-effect transistors (GR-FETs) as biosensor that is capable of responding to the presence of a TNT target with a colorimetric response. The authors confirmed the efficacy of the receptor while being attached to polydiacetylene (PDA) by observing the binding ability between the Trp-His-Trp and TNT to alter the electronic band structure of the PDA conjugated backbones. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a modular system capable of transducing small-molecule TNT binding into a detectable signal. The details of the real-time and selective TNT biosensor have been reported.

Design/methodology/approach

Following an introduction, this paper describes the way of fabrication GR-FETs with conventional photolithography techniques and the other processes, which is functionalized by the TNT peptide receptors. The authors first determined the essential TNT recognition elements from UV-visible spectrophotometry spectroscopy for PDA sensor unit fabrication. In particular, the blue percentage and the chromic response were used to characterize the polymerization parameter of the conjugated p backbone. A continuous-flow trace vapor source of nitroaromatics (two, four, six-TNT) was designed and evaluated in terms of temperature dependence. The TNT concentration was measured by liquid/gas extraction in acetonitrile using bubbling sequence. The sensor test is performed using a four-point probe and semiconductor analyzer. Finally, brief conclusions are drawn.

Findings

Because of their unique optical and stimuli-response properties, the polydiacetylene and peptide-based platforms have been explored as an alternative to complex mechanical and electrical sensing systems. Therefore, the authors have used GR-FETs with biological receptor-PDAs as a biosensor for achieving high sensitivity and selectivity that can detect explosive substances such as TNT. The transport property changed compared to that of the field-effect transistors made by intrinsic graphene, that is, the Dirac point position moved from positive Vg to negative Vg, indicating the transition of graphene from p-type to n-type after annealing in TNT, and when the device was tested from RT, the response of the device was found to increase linearly with increasing concentrations. Average shifting rate of the Dirac peak was obtained as 0.1-0.3 V/ppm. The resulting sensors exhibited at the limit ppm sensitivity toward TNT in real-time, with excellent selectivity over various similar aromatic compounds. The biological receptor coating may be useful for the development of sensitive and selective micro and nanoelectronic sensor devices for various other target analytes.

Originality/value

The detection of illegally transported explosives has become important as the global rise in terrorism subsequent to the events of September 11, 2001, and is at the forefront of current analytical problems. It is essential that a detection method has the selectivity to distinguish among compounds in a mixture of explosives. So, the authors are reporting a potential solution with the designing and manufacturing of electrochemical biosensor using polydiacetylene conjugated with peptide receptors coated on GR-FETs with the colorimetric response for real-time detection of TNT explosives specifically.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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