This chapter proposes a multiobjective model to design a Closed Loop Supply Chain (CLSC) network. The first objective is to minimize the total cost of the network, while…
This chapter proposes a multiobjective model to design a Closed Loop Supply Chain (CLSC) network. The first objective is to minimize the total cost of the network, while the second objective is to minimize the carbon emission resulting from production, transportation, and disposal processes using carbon cap and carbon tax regularity policies. In the third objective, we maximize the service level of retailers by using maximum covering location as a measure of service level. To model the proposed problem, a physical programming approach is developed. This work contributes to the literature in designing an optimum CLSC network considering the service level objective and product substitution.
Disturbing increase in the use of virgin resources to produce new products has threatened the environment. Many countries have reacted to this situation through…
Disturbing increase in the use of virgin resources to produce new products has threatened the environment. Many countries have reacted to this situation through regulations which aim to eliminate negative impact of products on the environment shaping the concept of environmentally conscious manufacturing and product recovery (ECMPRO). The first crucial and the most time-consuming step of product recovery is disassembly. The best productivity rate is achieved via a disassembly line in an automated disassembly process. In this chapter, we consider a sequence-dependent disassembly line balancing problem (SDDLBP) with multiple objectives that is concerned with the assignment of disassembly tasks to a set of ordered disassembly workstations while satisfying the disassembly precedence constraints and optimizing the effectiveness of several measures considering sequence-dependent time increments among disassembly tasks. Due to the high complexity of the SDDLBP, there is currently no known way to optimally solve even moderately sized instances of the problem. Therefore, an efficient methodology based on the simulated annealing (SA) is proposed to solve the SDDLBP. Case scenarios are considered and comparisons with ant colony optimization (ACO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), river formation dynamics (RFD), and tabu search (TS) approaches are provided to demonstrate the superior functionality of the proposed algorithm.
In this chapter, a case of reverse supply chain is considered, where a product recovery facility receives sensors and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags embedded…
In this chapter, a case of reverse supply chain is considered, where a product recovery facility receives sensors and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags embedded End-Of-Life (EOL) products. Sensors and RFID tags can capture and store component’s life cycle information during its economic life. This technology can provide data about contents and conditions of products and components without the need of actual disassembly and inspection. It also determines the remaining lives of the components which eventually translate into their quality levels.
The example considered here presents an advanced-repair-to-order-and-disassembly-to-order system. It disassembles the components to meet the components’ demands, repairs the products to meet the products’ demands and recycles the materials to meet the materials’ demands. The received EOL products may have different design alternatives. The objective of the proposed multi-criteria decision-making model is to determine which of the design alternatives is best in fulfilling the various criteria.
This chapter studies the integration of quantitative and qualitative attributes of a particular issue in the strategic “designing” level of the reverse supply chain (RSC…
This chapter studies the integration of quantitative and qualitative attributes of a particular issue in the strategic “designing” level of the reverse supply chain (RSC) process in a multicriteria decision-making environment. The study employs an analytical network process (ANP) to determine the performance indices of the collection centers derived through qualitative criteria from the remanufacturing facilities that are interested in buying used products. The evaluating criteria are comprised as a four-level hierarchy: the first level contains the objective of evaluating the collection centers, the second level involves the main evaluation criteria taken from the perspective of a remanufacturing facility, the third level contains the subcriteria under the main evaluation criteria, and the fourth level has the collection centers. ANP is presented herein as a matrix that comprises a list of all facets listed horizontally and vertically. This particular method is of value when key elements of a decision are difficult to quantify and contrast, and thus the identification of important facets and their incorporation into a linear physical programing (LPP) environment is of value. To determine the quality of end-of-life (EOL) products for transport from collection centers to remanufacturing facilities, a physical programming approach is adopted. Four criteria and their satisfaction are focused upon: (1) maximizing the total value of purchase; (2) minimizing the total cost of transportation; (3) minimizing the disposal cost; and (4) minimizing the purchase cost. A numerical example is considered in which three collection center locations are evaluated to identify the optimal collection center.
Economic incentives, government regulations, and customer perspective on environmental consciousness (EC) are driving more and more companies into product recovery…
Economic incentives, government regulations, and customer perspective on environmental consciousness (EC) are driving more and more companies into product recovery business, which forms the basis for a reverse supply chain. A reverse supply chain consists a series of activities that involves retrieving used products from consumers and remanufacturing (closed-loop) or recycling (open-loop) them to recover their leftover market value. Much work has been done in the areas of designing forward and reverse supply chains; however, not many models deal with the transshipment of products in multiperiods. Linear physical programming (LPP) is a newly developed method whose most significant advantage is that it allows a decision-maker to express his/her preferences for values of criteria for decision-making in terms of ranges of different degrees of desirability but not in traditional form of weights as in techniques such as analytic hierarchy process, which is criticized for its unbalanced scale of judgment and failure to precisely handle the inherent uncertainty and vagueness in carrying out pair-wise comparisons. In this chapter, two multiperiod models are proposed for a remanufacturing system, which is an element of a Reverse Supply Chain (RSC), and illustrated with numerical examples. The first model is solved using mixed integer linear programming (MILP), while the second model is solved using linear physical programming. The proposed models deliver the optimal transportation quantities of remanufactured products for N-periods within the reverse supply chain.
The purpose of this paper is to efficiently solve disassembly line balancing problem (DLBP) and the sequence-dependent disassembly line balancing problem (SDDLBP) which…
The purpose of this paper is to efficiently solve disassembly line balancing problem (DLBP) and the sequence-dependent disassembly line balancing problem (SDDLBP) which are both known to be NP-complete.
This manuscript utilizes a well-proven metaheuristics solution methodology, namely, variable neighborhood search (VNS), to address the problem.
DLBPs are analyzed using the numerical instances from the literature to show the efficiency of the proposed approach. The proposed algorithm showed superior performance compared to other techniques provided in the literature in terms of robustness to reach better solutions.
Since disassembly is the most critical step in end-of-life product treatment, every step toward improving disassembly line balancing brings us closer to cost savings and compelling practicality.
This paper is the first adaptation of VNS algorithm for solving DLBP and SDDLBP.
The purpose of this paper is to introduce sequence‐dependent disassembly line balancing problem (SDDLBP) to the literature and propose an efficient metaheuristic solution…
The purpose of this paper is to introduce sequence‐dependent disassembly line balancing problem (SDDLBP) to the literature and propose an efficient metaheuristic solution methodology to this NP‐complete problem.
This manuscript utilizes a well‐proven metaheuristics solution methodology, namely, ant colony optimization, to address the problem.
Since SDDLBP is NP‐complete, finding an optimal balance becomes computationally prohibitive due to exponential growth of the solution space with the increase in the number of parts. The proposed methodology is very fast, generates (near) optimal solutions, preserves precedence requirements and is easy to implement.
Since development of cost effective and profitable disassembly systems is an important issue in end‐of‐life product treatment, every step towards improving disassembly line balancing brings us closer to cost savings and compelling practicality.
This paper introduces a new problem (SDDLBP) and an efficient solution to the literature.
Reverse supply chain (RSC) is an extension of the traditional supply chain (TSC) motivated by environmental requirements and economic incentives. TSC management deals with…
Reverse supply chain (RSC) is an extension of the traditional supply chain (TSC) motivated by environmental requirements and economic incentives. TSC management deals with planning, executing, monitoring, and controlling a collection of organizations, activities, resources, people, technology, and information as the materials and products move from manufacturers to the consumers. Except for a short warranty period, TSC excludes most of the responsibilities toward the product beyond the point of sale. However, because of growing environmental awareness and regulations (e.g. product stewardship statute), TSC alone is no longer an adequate industrial practice. New regulations and public awareness have forced manufacturers to take responsibilities of products when they reach their end of lives. This has necessitated the creation of an infrastructure, known as RSC, which includes collection, transportation, and management of end-of-life products (EOLPs). The advantages of implementing RSC include the reduction in the use of virgin resources, the decrease in the materials sent to landfills and the cost savings stemming from the reuse of EOLPs, disassembled components, and recycled materials. TSC and RSC together represent a closed loop of materials flow. The whole system of organizations, activities, resources, people, technology, and information flowing in this closed loop is known as the closed-loop supply chain (CLSC).
In RSC, the management of EOLPs includes cleaning, disassembly, sorting, inspecting, and recovery or disposal. The recovery could take several forms depending on the condition of EOLPs, namely, product recovery (refurbishing, remanufacturing, repairing), component recovery (cannibalization), and material recovery (recycling). However, neither the quality nor the quantity of returning EOLPs is predictable. This unpredictable nature of RSC is what makes its management challenging and necessitates innovative management science solutions to control it.
In this chapter, we address the order-driven component and product recovery (ODCPR) problem for sensor-embedded products (SEPs) in an RSC. SEPs contain sensors and radio-frequency identification tags implanted in them at the time of their production to monitor their critical components throughout their lives. By facilitating data collection during product usage, these embedded sensors enable one to predict product/component failures and estimate the remaining life of components as the products reach their end of lives. In an ODCPR system, EOLPs are either cannibalized or refurbished. Refurbishment activities are carried out to meet the demand for products and may require reusable components. The purpose of cannibalization is to recover a limited number of reusable components for customers and internal use. Internal component demand stems from the component requirements in the refurbishment operation. It is assumed that the customers have specific remaining-life requirements on components and products. Therefore, the problem is to find the optimal subset and sequence of the EOLPs to cannibalize and refurbish so that (1) the remaining-life-based demands are satisfied while making sure that the necessary reusable components are extracted before attempting to refurbish an EOLP and (2) the total system cost is minimized. We show that the problem could be formulated as an integer nonlinear program. We then develop a hybrid genetic algorithm to solve the problem that is shown to provide excellent results. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the methodology.
Disassembly takes place in remanufacturing, recycling, and disposal, with a line being the best choice for automation. The disassembly line balancing problem seeks a…
Disassembly takes place in remanufacturing, recycling, and disposal, with a line being the best choice for automation. The disassembly line balancing problem seeks a sequence that is feasible, minimizes the number of workstations, and ensures similar idle times, as well as other end-of-life specific concerns. Finding the optimal balance is computationally intensive due to exponential growth. Combinatorial optimization methods hold promise for providing solutions to the problem, which is proven here to be NP-hard. Stochastic (genetic algorithm) and deterministic (greedy/hill-climbing hybrid heuristic) methods are presented and compared. Numerical results are obtained using a recent electronic product case study.
There is a rich body of literature on sequencing assembly and on sequencing disassembly, but little that either fuses or contrasts the two, which may be valuable for…
There is a rich body of literature on sequencing assembly and on sequencing disassembly, but little that either fuses or contrasts the two, which may be valuable for long-range planning in the closed-loop supply chain and simply convenient in terms of consistency in nomenclature and mathematical formulations. The purpose of this paper is to concisely unify and summarize assembly and disassembly formulae – as well as to add new formulations for completeness – and then demonstrate the similarities and differences between assembly and disassembly.
Along with several familiar assembly-line formulae which are adapted here for disassembly, five (two specific and three general) metrics and a comparative performance formula from disassembly-line balancing are proposed for use in assembly- and disassembly-line sequencing and balancing either directly, through generalization, or with some extension. The size of assembly and disassembly search spaces are also quantified and formulated. Three new metrics are then developed from each of the general metrics to demonstrate the process of using these general formulae as prototypes.
The three new metrics along with several of the original metrics are selectively applied to a simple, notional case study product to be sequenced on an assembly line and then on a disassembly line. Using these analytical results, the inherent differences between assembly and disassembly, even for a seemingly trivial product, are illustrated.
The research adds several new assembly/disassembly metrics, a case study, unifies the evaluation formulae that assembly and disassembly hold in common as well as structuring prototype formulae for flexibility in generating new evaluation criteria for both, and quantifies (using the case study) how assembly and disassembly – while certainly possessing similarities – also demonstrate measurable differences that can be expected to affect product design, planning, production, and end-of-life processing.