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Govind Umarji, Supriya Ketkar, Ranjit Hawaldar, Suresh Gosavi, Kashinath Patil, Uttam Mulik and Dinesh Amalnerkar
The purpose of this paper is to ascertain chemical changes occurring at various stages involved in processing of silver‐based photoimageable thick films; and to determine…
The purpose of this paper is to ascertain chemical changes occurring at various stages involved in processing of silver‐based photoimageable thick films; and to determine ensuing topographical features which other wise appeared to be hindered in 2D scanning electron microscopy.
Surface sensitive techniques, viz. X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used.
Interfacial adhesion of silver film with substrate (Al2O3) was specifically looked into with respect to role played by photoimaging (before and after exposure to ultra‐violet light). XPS results revealed occurrence of subtle chemical changes in terms of unsaturation to saturation in C−C bonding and also an interesting C−Al bonding which presumably improves mechanical adhesion of unfired film with the alumina substrate. AFM was carried out to examine the surface roughness, particle size, and microstructure of film which are very important from the standpoint of high‐frequency applications.
Surface sensitive techniques like XPS and AFM were exclusively used in order to characterize silver‐based photoimageable thick films.
In part-I of this review series, research from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka was reviewed. The purpose of this paper which is part-II of…
In part-I of this review series, research from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka was reviewed. The purpose of this paper which is part-II of the series, is to review management research from India and Pakistan over a 25-year period from 1990 to 2014.
A systematic review approach was adopted for this research. As a quality standard for inclusion, articles were restricted to journals rated A*, A, or B by the Australian Business Deans Council in 2013 and either Q1 or Q2 in the Scopus/Imago classification system. The divisions and interest groups of the Academy of Management were used as framework to organize the search results.
A total of 1,039 articles related to India (n = 930) and Pakistan (n = 112) emerged from the search process, with three articles being related to both countries. The research was published in 163 different journals that met the quality criteria. The period under review coincides with the advent of economic liberalization in India and this emerged as a major theme in the India-related research. Other context-specific insights for these two countries are also derived from an ecological and institutional theory perspective.
This research represents the first comprehensive and systematic review of management research in India and Pakistan. As in part-I, the unique review approach allows for strict adherence to a predetermined quality standard while including a wide variety of journals and research traditions.