This paper describes supported employment, its growth as an alternative to traditional day services and research which indicates potentially beneficial outcomes in the areas of increased employee income, social integration, satisfaction, engagement in activity, employer satisfaction, and in the relationship between financial costs and savings. Outcomes may be reduced due to welfare benefit restrictions that hamper transition into employment, and more part‐time jobs are found as a result in the UK compared to the USA. Providers face problems with low expectations among carers, lack of knowledge of disability among employers, and their funding is precarious. If people with severe disabilities are not to be excluded from supported employment, commissioners need to consider the outcomes they require and the priority needs of clients when setting day service contracts.
Work is good for one’s health and well-being. Work for people with disabilities should be encouraged because it is therapeutic and improves participation in the society…
Work is good for one’s health and well-being. Work for people with disabilities should be encouraged because it is therapeutic and improves participation in the society, leading to better health outcomes. It develops interpersonal relationships and enhances life quality. Work is an aspiration for many people with intellectual disability. Within research literature, there appears to be a lack of research into the experience of occupational therapists in Ireland who refer adults with intellectual disabilities to supported employment services. The purpose of this paper was to explore the experience of Irish occupational therapists who refer adults with intellectual disabilities to supported employment services.
Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with four occupational therapists recruited through the Association of Occupational Therapists of Ireland (AOTI). Data were analysed using thematic analysis.
Themes that emerged were as follows: occupational therapy participants did not directly refer adults to supported employment but received referrals; occupational therapy roles included assessments, task analysis and development of client’s skills are major components of current practice; pragmatics involved factors that facilitate and challenge; and future roles.
This paper contributes to occupational therapy practice knowledge by providing a perspective on supported employment in Ireland. Occupational therapists should continue to work in the area of supported employment to support social inclusion and enable participation. Further research with occupational therapists working in this field is required to inform practice.
This paper revisits the aspirations of the authors for supported employment development from 1997 against a changing policy context with the introduction of Valuing People…
This paper revisits the aspirations of the authors for supported employment development from 1997 against a changing policy context with the introduction of Valuing People and Valuing People Now. It reviews developments in employment policy, innovation, the framework for funding supported employment and changes in the level of employment for people with learning disabilities since 1997. It summarises the progress in this area over the period, and suggests the need for further action to deliver the Government's vision of employment inclusion and to secure the rights of people with learning disabilities to a place in the workplace.
This article arises from the authors’ experience of undertaking research on behalf of the Scottish Executive, following the deliberations of a national working group…
This article arises from the authors’ experience of undertaking research on behalf of the Scottish Executive, following the deliberations of a national working group focusing on employment (Scottish Executive, 2003) set up to progress the recommendations of the Same as You? review (Scottish Executive, 2000), Scotland's equivalent of Valuing People (DoH, 2001). The detailed findings of the research study and its methodology can be found elsewhere(Ridley et al, 2005); only a brief summary is given here. The main purpose of this article is to contribute to a debate about the achievements and under‐achievements of supported employment in the contemporary Scottish context. The research findings are used to discuss where we are now, some of the main problems, and how policy and practice need to move forward and develop. We suggest that the time is ripe to initiate strategic change in policy and professional practice. Supported employment must be firmly embedded in the wider employment landscape and the practice agenda of professionals, in order to ensure that real, paid jobs in integrated settings become a routine option for people with learning disabilities who express these aspirations.
This is a case study of an employment strategy for adults with learning disabilities developed in a local authority in a rural area in the South West of England. It…
This is a case study of an employment strategy for adults with learning disabilities developed in a local authority in a rural area in the South West of England. It describes a structured approach to work‐based training modelled on principles and practices associated with supported employment. It argues that this represents a more effective route into employment than day‐centre training or unstructured work experience. It provides a detailed account of the experience of one service user, based on interviews. It places this development in the context of the authority's strategic response to Valuing People.
Although work has a fundamental role in the individual’s psychological well-being, the vast majority of mental health service users are not in employment. This is the…
Although work has a fundamental role in the individual’s psychological well-being, the vast majority of mental health service users are not in employment. This is the result of various barriers that impede their work re-integration process despite their desire to work. Apart from the illness’ symptoms, these barriers are strongly associated with the negative effects of long-term unemployment, the negative stereotypes and attitudes towards mental health service users and the fear of losing disability benefits. There are several occupational intervention models aiming at vocational rehabilitation of mental health service users. Arguably, the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model of supported employment has proved to be more effective compared to other models. This chapter presents an innovative career counselling approach that combines elements from the IPS model and from the newly emerged career theories that have been developed to address today’s world of work challenges. This model was developed by the Pan-Hellenic Association for Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Work Integration (PEPSAEE) in Greece during the recent major economic crisis. Further implications of the model’s implementation regarding vocational rehabilitation of mental health users as means for social inclusion are discussed.
Supported employment enterprises (SEEs) are commercial enterprises that provide meaningful, gainful employment, training and development opportunities for people with a…
Supported employment enterprises (SEEs) are commercial enterprises that provide meaningful, gainful employment, training and development opportunities for people with a disability. Hence, SEEs are run specifically to provide employment. SEEs, with the exception of Remploy, represent a unique sector of SMEs owned and run by local authorities and charities. The Supported Employment Procurement and Consultancy Service (SEPACS) provides SEEs with per capita funding for disabled employees, capital grants for premises and equipment, grants for marketing research, business advice and performance monitoring. SEPACS is part of the Department for Education and Employment (DfEE). This paper presents some case studies of SEEs in the Yorkshire area. The work explains the complex dificulties facing these organisations and illustrates the different approaches used to cope with these situations. Many SEEs are under threat of closure or radical change in their function as employers of disabled people. This work investigates these issues through selected illustrative case studies. The general weakness of marketing strategies and plans in these organisations is highlighted and related to the impact of SEPACS and local authority policies and practices. This work establishes the important role that marketing strategies and plans could have in ensuring the future survival and growth of these companies.
What does it mean to say there's an evidence base for supported employment? One approach, known as Individual placement and support or IPS for short, has been extensively evaluated and proven to help high numbers of people with severe mental health problems into work. But there is still little evidence of this approach being put into practice here in the UK. This article recalls a visit this year to the UK by Professor Bob Drake and colleagues from Dartmouth, New Hampshire, USA where the approach was developed, and explains the principles of supported employment and what it can mean for service users, staff, families and employers.
The Real Opportunities project set out to implement a number of the approaches identified through research that can assist transition to adulthood in nine local authority…
The Real Opportunities project set out to implement a number of the approaches identified through research that can assist transition to adulthood in nine local authority areas in Wales. Supported work experience was delivered by small job coaching teams in each area. The purpose of this paper is to establish the impact of the work experience and employment teams by describing the placements provided, any change in the skills of young people, and the responses to the placements by employers, young people and their families.
Data were collected over 24 months by participating employment services. Questionnaires were administered to employers. Interviews were carried out with a sub-sample of young people (24) participating and a family member (25).
Over a 24-month period 297 young people received supported work experience. In total, 262 young people had an intellectual disability, 35 an autistic spectrum disorder. Up to three placements were delivered to each person, averaging five weeks per placement, with 405 placements in total. In total, 62 per cent of those with two placements had a different category of second work placement to their first. These numbers demonstrated that work experience in community placements is possible with support. Young people improved work skills significantly between first and second placements. Employers reported high satisfaction rates with the young person’s work in a range of key performance areas and company benefits from participation for other staff, company image and customer relations. Interviews with 24 young people and 25 of their family members reported satisfaction with support and placements. Six young people had paid work now, and 33 per cent said they would get a job at some future time. Families reported changes in young person’s outlook but their view of prospects of employment remained pessimistic due to the external environment.
Implications for future research are discussed.
Implications for transition are discussed.
The paper provides new insight into the impact of a large number of supported work experience placements.
There is an established international evidence base on supported employment for people with severe and enduring mental health problems, and now a growing evidence base on…
There is an established international evidence base on supported employment for people with severe and enduring mental health problems, and now a growing evidence base on how to successfully implement this into practice. The process involves substantial organisational development and change, and therefore effective leadership is critical. This article outlines some of the challenges to implementing supported employment services and explores what recent leadership theory could contribute to this process, as the Sainsbury Centre embarks on its Centres of Excellence Programme in England and seeks to build a wider learning community from our partnerships formed through the International Initiative for Mental Health Leadership (IIMHL).