In this research, the authors examine the relationships between findings from several potentially‐related literature streams including a prescriptive body of communication…
In this research, the authors examine the relationships between findings from several potentially‐related literature streams including a prescriptive body of communication theory involving supervisor‐subordinate communication, contingency ideas involving use of coaching/directive vs counselling/participative leader communication styles, and leader‐member exchange (LMX) theory from the management literature. LMX suggests that supervisors may afford differing treatment, and thus possibly use different communications tactics, with subordinates in higherquality exchange relationships than with those in lower‐quality relationships. This literature, however, leaves unresolved whether supervisors should treat employees differently. In contrast, much of the communication literature has emphasised development of “best” practices which, presumably, should be used with all employees. In this research the authors consider whether there are consistencies between leader communication practices and the perceived quality of the leader‐member exchange. They report evidence that employees perceive differences, especially in the level of participation‐related communication, depending upon whether they believe they are in a higher‐ or lower‐quality LMX relationship. Moreover, they find weak evidence for congruence between supervisor and subordinate perceptions of the quality of the exchange and no significant evidence that similarity of the dyad influences the quality of the exchange.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the structure of leader communication style in the context of organizational change. In doing so, the authors intend to shed more…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the structure of leader communication style in the context of organizational change. In doing so, the authors intend to shed more light on how leaders can effectively communicate change projects to their subordinates, which is viewed as the key to implementing change initiatives.
This paper builds an integrated conceptual model for understanding leader’s communication style and subordinates’ commitment to change. By analyzing subordinates’ different fears of change, the paper further proposes a multidimensional structure of leader communication style in the context of change. The authors then develop a scale to measure these different dimensions and test the relationship between the proposed communication style and subordinates’ affective commitment to change.
Leader communication style in the context of change is found to be composed of five dimensions: hope orientation, reality orientation, subordinate orientation, support orientation, and enforcement orientation. A cross-level field study of 31 teams and 194 members shows that hope orientation, subordinate orientation, and support orientation are positively associated with subordinates’ affective commitment to change.
This paper identifies a new structure of leader communication style that will lead to a richer understanding of how leaders communicate to their subordinates in the context of change. It also contributes to the leadership literature by implying effective ways of communicating change projects.
Diversity in the workforce has become a demographic reality across the globe. There has been some debate amongst academics and practitioners over how to deal with employee…
Diversity in the workforce has become a demographic reality across the globe. There has been some debate amongst academics and practitioners over how to deal with employee diversity. Many agree that organizations should aim to manage diversity rather than simply value it or rely on affirmative action policies. Proposes that improvements in supervisor‐subordinate communication will assist organizations toward the goal of managing diversity by promoting integration and equality in the workplace. Recommends two strategies for accomplishing better supervisor‐subordinate communication: managing personal growth and mentoring. The former may be implemented successfully in the short term while the latter takes a long‐term focus. Concludes that in order for any managing diversity program to succeed, managers and supervisors need to demonstrate their commitment to the program and to communicate the relevance, importance and benefits of such programs to all employees throughout the organization.
Recently, ethical leadership has become a widely studied research topic. Simultaneously, many studies have begun to emphasise the role of interpersonal communication…
Recently, ethical leadership has become a widely studied research topic. Simultaneously, many studies have begun to emphasise the role of interpersonal communication competence (ICC) in successful leadership. However, there has been little discussion on the links between ethical leadership and leaders’ ICC. To address this research gap, this study aims to compare and combine the research traditions of ethical leadership and leaders’ ICC. The study is based on two literature reviews examining (a) ethical leadership (substudy 1; N = 27) and (b) leaders’ ICC (substudy 2; N = 18). The research questions are as follows: (a) How are the requirements of leaders’ ICC noticed in the literature of ethical leadership? (substudy 1) (b) How are the requirements of ethical leadership noticed in the literature of leaders’ ICC? (substudy 2) The findings reveal that (a) studies in ethical leadership rarely pay attention to leaders’ ICC and (b) studies in leaders’ ICC do not often discuss ethical aspects of ICC, at least explicitly. While a larger sample would have been preferred, the study contributes to previous research by addressing a research gap between ethical leadership and leaders’ ICC and suggests integrating these research traditions to better understand the nature of ethics and ICC in leadership. By promoting novel interdisciplinary research perspectives, the study provides a foundation for further research and development of (a) a competence-based approach to ethical leadership and (b) an ethics-focused approach to competent leadership communication.
Following the call of DeNisi and Smith Sockbeson (this issue) to integrate the literatures on feedback and feedback-seeking, the authors propose to view feedback and feedback-seeking as behaviors falling on a conversation continuum ranging from telling subordinates something about their behavior (feedback) to listening. The authors develop a model according to which listening creates a special type of supervisor–subordinate relationship (an I–thou experience), which in turn allows subordinates to recognize faults and strengths in their behavior as to facilitate performance improvement, without the costs of formal feedback.
Theory development and narrative research review.
Feedback and feedback-seeking are communication behaviors emitted by a supervisor, or a subordinate, that can be conceptualized as points on a continuum ranging from telling (i.e. supervisor or subordinate giving feedback), through question-asking (i.e. supervisor’s or subordinate’s feedback-seeking), to listening (e.g. supervisor or subordinate listening to one another).
Under many circumstances, listening can address organizational needs much better than feedback.
The feedforward interview in Listening Circles can be used to enhance performance at work.
Shifting the attention from feedback to listening by managers and researchers could facilitate a host of positive outcomes including better performance, lower burnout, higher job satisfaction and less extremism.
This paper shows that listening is found on the other pole of feedback (telling) and exposes the benefits of considering listening, and not only telling.
Atendiendo a la llamada de DeNisi y Smith Sockbeson (este número) para integrar las literaturas de feedback y búsqueda de feedback, ofrecemos algunas aportaciones teóricas que extienden el estudio del fenómeno en cuestión. Nuestro objetivo con esta contribución es la de señalar formas más efectivas, aunque largamente ignoradas, de mejorar la comunicación supervisor-subordinado, y el rendimiento resultante.
Aproximación teórica y metodológica
Sugerimos dos cambios teóricos a la hora de aproximarse al feedback y la búsqueda de feedback: viéndolos como un proceso de comunicación relacional (diádico), y ampliando los comportamientos de comunicación para incluir la escucha. A continuación revisamos los resultados existentes para evaluar nuestra teoría.
Nuestra teoría sugiere que el feedback y la búsqueda de feedback son comportamientos son parte de un continuo que va desde el decir a los subordinados algo sobre su comportamiento (feedback) hasta la escucha. Con esta visión, la escucha crea un tipo especial de relación supervisor-subordinado conocido como experiencia yo-tu, mientras que el feedback es más probable que genere una experiencia yo-eso, en la que el supervisor trata al subordinado como un objeto. La experiencia yo-tu, por el contrario, permite a los subordinados reconocer las debilidades y fortalezas de su comportamiento sin necesidad de un feedback formal. Además, el modelo teórico especifica condiciones de contorno. Específicamente, los beneficios de escuchar (a) se manifiestan principalmente cuando supervisor y subordinado forma una relación sobre una base segura, y (b) se ven comprometidos cuando las partes se relacionan de forma insegura.
La revisión de la literatura confirma los beneficios de escuchar, en relación al feedback y el feedback buscado, pero sugiere que el papel del estilo de relación es más complejo que el planteado en el modelo teórico.
Teóricamente, explicamos porqué el feedback, y en menor medida el grado de feedback buscado, crean problemas de comunicación que evitan que el rendimiento mejore. En la práctica, señalamos algunas técnicas para escuchar al empleado, tales como los círculos de escucha, y la entrevista de feedforward, que pueden mejorar la comunicación y en definitiva el rendimiento.
Feedback, Búsqueda de Feedback, Escuchar
Tipo de artículo
Atendendo a chamada de Denisi e Smith Sockbeson (este número) para integrar as literaturas sobre feedback e a busca do feedback, oferecemos propostas teóricas que expandem o estudo do fenômeno considerado. Nosso objetivo nesta proposta teórica é apontar mais eficácia, embora amplamente ignorada, de maneiras para melhorar a comunicação supervisor-subordinado e o desempenho resultante.
Abordagem teórica e metodológica
Sugerimos duas mudanças teóricas na aproximação do feedback e da busca do feedback: visualização do feedback e da busca do feedback como processos relacionais (diádica) de comunicação, e ampliando os mecanismos de comunicação para incluir a escuta. Revisamos os resultados existentes para avaliar nossa teoria.
Nossa teoria sugere que o feedback e a busca por feedback são comportamentos que fazem parte de um continuo que surge ao dizer aos subordinados algo sobre seu comportamento (feedback) para ouvir. Com essa visão, a escuta cria um tipo especial de relacionamento supervisor-subordinado conhecido como experiência eu-você, enquanto o feedback provavelmente gera uma experiência eu-isso, em que o supervisor trata o subordinado como um objeto. A experiência eu-tu, por outro lado, permite que os subordinados reconheçam as fraquezas e os pontos fortes do seu comportamento sem a necessidade de feedback formal. Além disso, o modelo teórico especifica as condições de contorno. Especificamente, os benefícios de ouvir(a) são manifestados principalmente quando supervisor e subordinado formam um relacionamento em uma base segura, e (b) comprometida quando as partes estão inseguramente anexadas.
A revisão da literatura confirma os benefícios de escutar, em relação ao feedback e o feedback procurado, mas sugere que o papel do estilo do relacionamento é mais complexo do que aquele proposto no modelo teórico.
Teoricamente, explicamos por que o feedback, e em menor medida o nível de feedback procurado, cria problemas de comunicação que impedem a melhoraria do desempenho. Na prática, nós apontamos algumas técnicas para escutar o subordinado, tal como círculos de escuta, e a entrevista de Feedforward, que pode melhorar a comunicação e finalmente o desempenho.
Feedback, Busca de feedback, Escutar
Tipo de artigo
The purpose of this paper is to identify associations amongst organizational justice, supervisory justice, authoritarian culture, organization-employee relationship…
The purpose of this paper is to identify associations amongst organizational justice, supervisory justice, authoritarian culture, organization-employee relationship quality and employee turnover intention.
An online survey (n=300) was conducted in South Korea.
Organizational justice and supervisory justice are positively associated with organization-employee relationship quality, while authoritarian organizational culture is negatively associated with it. In addition, there is a positive association between authoritarian organizational culture and turnover intention. Organizational justice and organization-employee relationship quality are negatively associated with turnover intention.
This study contributes to the lack of research on organization-employee relationship quality as a predictor of employee turnover intention and a mediator between authoritarian organizational culture and turnover intention.
Using the Leader‐Member Exchange (LMX) model as a guide, this study examined the relationship between the quality of information exchange between an employee and his or…
Using the Leader‐Member Exchange (LMX) model as a guide, this study examined the relationship between the quality of information exchange between an employee and his or her immediate supervisor and the intention to file grievances. One hundred twenty‐five unionized automotive employees completed a measure of quality of information exchange and responded to eight vignettes representing hypothetical work situations. Employees rated each vignette in terms of their intention to file a grievance if faced with that situation. It was hypothesized that employees who perceived a high quality information exchange relationship with their supervisors would be less likely to file grievances than employees who perceived a low quality information exchange relationship. When the intent to file measure was aggregated across all vignettes, the hypothesis was supported When the vignettes were categorized into three different types of grievance situations through a principal components analysis, quality of information exchange was related only to grievance filing over issues pertaining to time at work. Implications of these findings for both employee grievance research and grievance prevention are discussed.
Introduces the job perceptual discrepancies index (JPDI), which is based on an empirical study of social workers and their team supervisors and was created by comparing…
Introduces the job perceptual discrepancies index (JPDI), which is based on an empirical study of social workers and their team supervisors and was created by comparing supervisors’ and subordinates’ evaluations of the levels of importance of the various tasks in the subordinates’ job. The findings indicate that while subordinates and supervisors in this particular case, generally had similar job perceptions, larger JPDI values have negative implications for subordinates’ job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Considers the utility of the JPDI for both researchers and practitioners in investigating supervisor‐subordinate differences in job perception.
This chapter examines how leader–member dyadic communication in the Malaysian workplace operates at the leader–member dyadic level in the context of cultural norms. We…
This chapter examines how leader–member dyadic communication in the Malaysian workplace operates at the leader–member dyadic level in the context of cultural norms. We propose a model of leader–member dyadic communication based on the cultural norms of budi bicara, which in turn influences the perception of workplace mentoring in Malaysia. The model is tested by using hierarchical multiple regression with data obtained from a sample of 510 employees in three Malaysian organizations. Results show that leader–member dyadic communication in the workplace is linked with the career mentoring perceptions. These findings partially validate our proposed model and provide empirical support for the central roles of communication exchange processes in mentoring.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships among supervisor feedback environment (SFE), leader-member exchange (LMX), organizational citizenship behavior…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships among supervisor feedback environment (SFE), leader-member exchange (LMX), organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and workplace deviant behavior (WDB). Specifically, it analyzed the mediating role of LMX.
With the data collected from 258 subordinate-supervisor pairs at various organizations in Taiwan, the authors examined the hypotheses by conducting structural equation modeling analyses.
The results revealed that: SFE is positively related to LMX; LMX is positively related to OCB, and negatively related to WDB; furthermore LMX fully mediates the relationships among SFE and both OCB and WDB.
This data are collected in Taiwan, hence it may affect the generalizability of the results.
Previous studies investigating the relationship between the feedback environment and organizational outcome variables focus on positive outcome variables. Thus, studies examining whether there is a negative effect on negative outcome variables such as WDB are insufficient. The study addresses this deficiency by including WDB as an outcome variable. The results empirically indicate that SFEs are negatively related to WDBs, but the effect diminishes when LMX is controlled.
This study presents the following practical implications for managers. To reduce employee deviant behavior, to improve employee supplementary performance, and further improve overall organizational operating performance, organizations can adopt methods for implementing SFE that promote good interpersonal relationships between supervisors and employees, and thus increase employees’ positive expression of OCB, and reduce deviant behavior.
It can be argued that when supervisors and subordinates form good relationships, the supervisors would provide favorable feedback that may result in more OCBs and less WDBs. It is also possible to argue that the traditional LMX theory suggests that supervisors are dominant in determining the quality of LMX, and therefore good LMX relationships cannot be developed based on supervisory feedback. This study shows otherwise, and addresses the rival hypothesis by drawing from previous studies and theories as well as in comparing the proposed alternative model by conducting χ2 differences.