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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2019

Karan Narain, Agam Swami, Anoop Srivastava and Sanjeev Swami

The purpose of this paper is to address both the evolutionary and control aspects associated with the management of artificial superintelligence. Through empirical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address both the evolutionary and control aspects associated with the management of artificial superintelligence. Through empirical analysis, the authors examine the diffusion pattern of those high technologies that can be considered as forerunners to the adoption of artificial superintelligence (ASI).

Design/methodology/approach

The evolutionary perspective is divided into three parts, based on major developments in this area, namely, robotics, automation and artificial intelligence (AI). The authors then provide several dynamic models of the possible future evolution of superintelligence. These include diffusion modeling, predator–prey models and hostility models. The problem of control in superintelligence is reviewed next, where the authors discuss Asimov’s Laws and IEEE initiative. The authors also provide an empirical analysis of the application of diffusion modeling to three technologies from the industries of manufacturing, communication and energy, which can be considered as potential precursors to the evolution of the field of ASI. The authors conclude with a case study illustrating emerging solutions in the form of long-term social experiments to address the problem of control in superintelligence.

Findings

The results from the empirical analysis of the manufacturing, communication and energy sectors suggest that the technology diffusion model fits well with the data of robotics, telecom and solar installations till date. The results suggest a gradual diffusion process, like any other high technology. Thus, there appears to be no threat of “existential catastrophe” (Bostrom, 2014). The case study indicates that any future threat can be pre-empted by some long-term social measures.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the emerging stream of artificial superintelligence. As humanity comes closer to grappling with the important question of the management and control of this technology for the future, it is important that modeling efforts be made to understand the extant perspective of the development of the high-technology diffusion. Presently, there are relatively few such efforts available in the literature.

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Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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The Philosophy of Transhumanism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-625-2

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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2020

Benjamin Ross

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The Philosophy of Transhumanism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-625-2

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2018

Phil Torres

This paper provides a detailed survey of the greatest dangers facing humanity this century. It argues that there are three broad classes of risks – the “Great Challenges”…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper provides a detailed survey of the greatest dangers facing humanity this century. It argues that there are three broad classes of risks – the “Great Challenges” – that deserve our immediate attention, namely, environmental degradation, which includes climate change and global biodiversity loss; the distribution of unprecedented destructive capabilities across society by dual-use emerging technologies; and value-misaligned algorithms that exceed human-level intelligence in every cognitive domain. After examining each of these challenges, the paper then outlines a handful of additional issues that are relevant to understanding our existential predicament and could complicate attempts to overcome the Great Challenges. The central aim of this paper is to constitute an authoritative resource, insofar as this is possible in a scholarly journal, for scholars who are working on or interested in existential risks. In the author’s view, this is precisely the sort of big-picture analysis that humanity needs more of, if we wish to navigate the obstacle course of existential dangers before us.

Design/methodology/approach

Comprehensive literature survey that culminates in a novel theoretical framework for thinking about global-scale risks.

Findings

If humanity wishes to survive and prosper in the coming centuries, then we must overcome three Great Challenges, each of which is sufficient to cause a significant loss of expected value in the future.

Originality/value

The Great Challenges framework offers a novel scheme that highlights the most pressing global-scale risks to human survival and prosperity. The author argues that the “big-picture” approach of this paper exemplifies the sort of scholarship that humanity needs more of to properly understand the various existential hazards that are unique to the twenty-first century.

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foresight, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2018

Olle Häggström

This paper aims to contribute to the futurology of a possible artificial intelligence (AI) breakthrough, by reexamining the Omohundro–Bostrom theory for instrumental vs…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to the futurology of a possible artificial intelligence (AI) breakthrough, by reexamining the Omohundro–Bostrom theory for instrumental vs final AI goals. Does that theory, along with its predictions for what a superintelligent AI would be motivated to do, hold water?

Design/methodology/approach

The standard tools of systematic reasoning and analytic philosophy are used to probe possible weaknesses of Omohundro–Bostrom theory from four different directions: self-referential contradictions, Tegmark’s physics challenge, moral realism and the messy case of human motivations.

Findings

The two cornerstones of Omohundro–Bostrom theory – the orthogonality thesis and the instrumental convergence thesis – are both open to various criticisms that question their validity and scope. These criticisms are however far from conclusive: while they do suggest that a reasonable amount of caution and epistemic humility is attached to predictions derived from the theory, further work will be needed to clarify its scope and to put it on more rigorous foundations.

Originality/value

The practical value of being able to predict AI goals and motivations under various circumstances cannot be overstated: the future of humanity may depend on it. Currently, the only framework available for making such predictions is Omohundro–Bostrom theory, and the value of the present paper is to demonstrate its tentative nature and the need for further scrutiny.

Details

foresight, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2021

Adetoun A. Oyelude

This paper aims to focus on the trends and projection for future use of artificial intelligence (AI) in libraries. AI technologies is the latest among the technologies…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the trends and projection for future use of artificial intelligence (AI) in libraries. AI technologies is the latest among the technologies being used in libraries. The technology has systems that have natural language processing, machine learning and pattern recognition capabilities that make service provision easier for libraries.

Design/methodology/approach

Systematic literature review is done, exploring blogs and wikis, to collect information on the ways in which AI is used and can be futuristically used in libraries.

Findings

This paper found that uses of AI in libraries entailed enhanced services such as content indexing, document matching, content mapping content summarization and many others. AI possibilities were also found to include improving the technology of gripping, localizing and human–robot interaction and also having artificial superintelligence, the hypothetical AI that surpasses human intelligence and abilities.

Originality/value

It is concluded that advanced technologies that AI are, will help librarians to open up new horizons and solve challenges that crop up in library service delivery.

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 38 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2019

Khaldoon Al-Htaybat, Khaled Hutaibat and Larissa von Alberti-Alhtaybat

The purpose of this paper is to explore the intersection of accounting practices and new technologies in the age of agility as a form of intellectual capital, through…

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1000

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the intersection of accounting practices and new technologies in the age of agility as a form of intellectual capital, through sharing the conceptualization and real implications of accounting and accountability ideas in exploring and deploying new technologies, such as big data analytics, blockchain and augmented accounting practices and expounding how they constitute new forms of intellectual capital to support value creation and realise Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Design/methodology/approach

The adopted methodology is cyber-ethnography, which investigates online practices through observation and discourse analysis, reflecting on new business models and practices, and how accounting relates to these developments. The global brain sets the conceptual context, which reflects the distributed network intelligence that is created through the internet.

Findings

The main findings focus on various developments of accounting practice that reflect, utilise or support digital companies and new technologies, including augmentation, big data analytics and blockchain technology, as new forms of intellectual capital, that is knowledge and skills within organisations, that have the potential to support value creation and realise SDGs. These relate to and originate from the global brain, which constitutes the umbrella of tech-related intellectual capital.

Originality/value

This paper determines new developments in accounting practices in relation to new technologies, due to the continuous expansion and influence of the intelligence of the collective network, the global brain, as forms of intellectual capital, contributing to value creation, sustainable development and the realisation of SDGs.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Karim Jebari and Joakim Lundborg

The claim that super intelligent machines constitute a major existential risk was recently defended in Nick Bostrom’s book Superintelligence and forms the basis of the…

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405

Abstract

Purpose

The claim that super intelligent machines constitute a major existential risk was recently defended in Nick Bostrom’s book Superintelligence and forms the basis of the sub-discipline AI risk. The purpose of this paper is to critically assess the philosophical assumptions that are of importance to the argument that AI could pose an existential risk and if so, the character of that risk.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper distinguishes between “intelligence” or the cognitive capacity of an individual and “techne”, a more general ability to solve problems using, for example, technological artifacts. While human intelligence has not changed much over historical time, human techne has improved considerably. Moreover, the fact that human techne has more variance across individuals than human intelligence suggests that if machine techne were to surpass human techne, the transition is likely going to be prolonged rather than explosive.

Findings

Some constraints for the intelligence explosion scenario are presented that imply that AI could be controlled by human organizations.

Originality/value

If true, this argument suggests that efforts should focus on devising strategies to control AI rather strategies that assume that such control is impossible.

Details

foresight, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2018

Roman V. Yampolskiy

The purpose of this paper is to explain to readers how intelligent systems can fail and how artificial intelligence (AI) safety is different from cybersecurity. The goal…

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1564

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain to readers how intelligent systems can fail and how artificial intelligence (AI) safety is different from cybersecurity. The goal of cybersecurity is to reduce the number of successful attacks on the system; the goal of AI Safety is to make sure zero attacks succeed in bypassing the safety mechanisms. Unfortunately, such a level of performance is unachievable. Every security system will eventually fail; there is no such thing as a 100 per cent secure system.

Design/methodology/approach

AI Safety can be improved based on ideas developed by cybersecurity experts. For narrow AI Safety, failures are at the same, moderate level of criticality as in cybersecurity; however, for general AI, failures have a fundamentally different impact. A single failure of a superintelligent system may cause a catastrophic event without a chance for recovery.

Findings

In this paper, the authors present and analyze reported failures of artificially intelligent systems and extrapolate our analysis to future AIs. The authors suggest that both the frequency and the seriousness of future AI failures will steadily increase.

Originality/value

This is a first attempt to assemble a public data set of AI failures and is extremely valuable to AI Safety researchers.

Details

foresight, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

The Philosophy of Transhumanism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-625-2

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