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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Çağlar Sivri

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a novel face mask prototype having a superabsorbent nanofibrous coating with a homogenous distribution.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a novel face mask prototype having a superabsorbent nanofibrous coating with a homogenous distribution.

Design/methodology/approach

Superabsorbent nanofibers were manufactured via electrospinning method using Poly(vinyl alcohol)/superabsorbent polymer (PVA/SAP) aqueous polymer solutions and they were simultaneously coated onto face masks in order to develop their virus protection and comfort properties. Absorbency, air permeability, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and SEM investigations were carried out for characterization.

Findings

SEM investigations revealed that face masks were homogenously coated with nanofibers. Picks obtained from FT-IR spectra proved that all mask samples have PVA/SAP content indicating their absorbent feature. Liquid absorption capacity and air permeability tests have shown that nanofiber coating increased the hydrophilicity of face masks while air permeability decreased in reverse. Final prototype has been found to be promising for industrial, scientific and medical applications with its improved protection and comfort characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

The implication of the research is to investigate the morphological, physical and transfer difference of face masks that are coated with nanofibers and uncoated face masks. This is useful in selection of the right face mask with optimum surface, absorbency and transfer properties.

Originality/value

Compared to commercial product in the market, the face mask developed within the study has a more regularly distributed nanofiber coating.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 October 2020

Doaa Samir Mahmoud, Medhat Lotfy Tawfic, Abdel Gawad Rabie and Salwa H. El-Sabbagh

The purpose of this paper is to prepare superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) based on acrylic acid, which is considered hygroscopic material to incorporate in rubber…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) based on acrylic acid, which is considered hygroscopic material to incorporate in rubber formulation, which results in producing moisten rubber that is used as roofing sheets.

Design/methodology/approach

SAPs were synthesized via free radical bulk polymerization technique using different content of cross-linker N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide and potassium persulfate. Differential scanning calorimeter, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize SAPs and confirmed the formation of cross-linked hydrogel structure. The water absorbency and the gel fraction for sodium polyacrylate (NaPA) were investigated. Then, the influence of obtained NaPA on the swelling behavior of the prepared natural rubber (NR) compound has been discussed.

Findings

Absorption characteristics and gel fraction of NaPA were found to depend on the content of the cross-linker in the system. SAPs are used to improve the absorbance behavior and performance of the NR to produce, roofing sheets using in hot weather. The morphology of the obtained rubber compound was well-explained by using a scanning electron microscope.

Research limitations/implications

The research provides a simple way to produce moisten rubber that can be used as a roofing sheet to overcome warm weather.

Originality/value

Moisten rubber roofing sheets provide a low-cost option in many developing countries with hot climates, and thus, help save the environment from global warming.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2011

O.L. Shanmugasundaram and R.V. Mahendra Gowda

Absorbent disposable products, such as diapers and sanitary napkins, are mostly one-time use items and designed to absorb and retain body fluids and solid waste. The…

Abstract

Absorbent disposable products, such as diapers and sanitary napkins, are mostly one-time use items and designed to absorb and retain body fluids and solid waste. The present research work deals with the development and characterization of baby diapers made from four different fibrous compositions namely, pure bamboo, pure cotton, bamboo/cotton (70/30) and bamboo/cotton (50/50). Antibacterial activity tests have been carried out on baby diapers against S.aureus and E.coli. The strongest antibacterial activity in terms of reduction of the organism is found in diapers produced from pure bamboo fibre and the weakest antibacterial activity is found in cotton diapers. Superabsorbent polymer (SAP), namely, sodium polyacrylate is incorporated into the diapers to enhance their absorption capacity. The diapers are subjected to tests such as absorption capacity, liquid strike-through, acquisition time under load and diaper rewet under load to study their performance. Upon an analysis of the results, it is found that the performance of diapers produced from a bamboo/cotton (70/30) fibre blend is superior in comparison to the other ones.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

A.E.‐S.I. Ahmed, A.M. El‐Masry, A. Saleh and A. Nada

The purpose of this paper is to prepare and optimize the preparation conditions of some new hydrogels and in addition, evaluate their water absorbance at different mediums…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare and optimize the preparation conditions of some new hydrogels and in addition, evaluate their water absorbance at different mediums and their ability to remove ions from aqueous solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

Cellulose was extracted from depithed bagasse at two different pulping conditions; 3 and 6 hours cooking times, pulp (I) and (II), respectively. These pulps, in addition to cotton linter for comparison, were grafted with acrylamide followed by cross‐linking with glutaraldehyde. The networks were partially hydrolyzed and the structures of products (before and after hydrolysis) were studied using FTIR, SEM, TGA and X‐ray. The optimum preparation conditions were identified, before and after hydrolysis, to achieve maximum absorbance and the ability of prepared hydrogels to remove ions from solutions was investigated.

Findings

Maximum level of absorption was recorded using hydrogels prepared with monomer concentration =0.8 mol/l, cross‐linker concentration =0.01 mol/l, reaction time =2 hours and temperature =65°C. Hydrogels prepared using pulp (I) showed the best absorbance behavior and a tendency to remove ions from water.

Research limitations/implications

The ability of the prepared gels to remove ions from water could be further investigated to evaluate the ability of their use in a multi‐filtration system for water treatment.

Practical implications

This piece of work has suggested a simple way to convert an agricultural waste to hydrogel able to remove metal ions from water.

Social implications

Consuming this type of waste reduces the risks resulting from its burning in some countries, such as Egypt, that produce large amounts of it.

Originality/value

In this paper, low cost hydrogels, with expected value in water treatment, were prepared using agricultural wastes. They have shown better reactivity than gels prepared using pure cellulosic materials (cotton linter).

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Laylay Mustafa Alhallak, Seha Tirkes and Umit Tayfun

This study aims to investigate the mechanical, thermal, melt-flow and morphological behavior of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)-based composites after bentonite…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the mechanical, thermal, melt-flow and morphological behavior of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)-based composites after bentonite inclusions. Melt mixing is the most preferred production method in industrial scale and basically it has very near processing parameters compared to 3D printing applications. Rheological parameters of ABS and its composites are important for 3D applications. Melt flow behavior of ABS effects the fabrication of 3D printed product at desired levels. Shear thinning and non-Newtonian viscosity characteristics of ABS make viscosity control easier and more flexible for several processing techniques including injection molding, compression molding and 3D printing.

Design/methodology/approach

ABS copolymer was reinforced with bentonite mineral (BNT) at four different loading ratios of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. ABS/BNT composites were fabricated by lab-scale micro-compounder followed by injection molding process. Mechanical, thermo-mechanical, thermal, melt-flow and morphological properties of composites were investigated by tensile, hardness and impact tests, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), melt flow index (MFI) test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively.

Findings

Mechanical tests revealed that tensile strength, elongation and hardness of ABS were enhanced as BNT content increased. Glass transition temperature and storage modulus of ABS exhibited increasing trend with the additions of BNT. However, impact strength values dropped down with BNT inclusion. According to MFI test measurements, BNT incorporation displayed no significant change for MFI value of ABS. Homogeneous dispersion of BNT particles into ABS phase was deduced from SEM micrographs of composites. Loading ratio of 15% BNT was remarked as the most suitable candidate among fabricated ABS-based composites according to findings.

Research limitations/implications

The advanced mechanical properties and easy processing characteristics are the reasons for usage of ABS as an engineering plastic. Owing to the increase in its usage for 3D printing technology, the ABS became popular in recent years. The utilization of ABS in this technology is in filament form with various colors and dimensions. This is because of its proper rheological features.

Practical implications

Melt-mixing technique was used as preparation of composites, as this processing method is widely applied in industry. This method is also providing similar processing methodology with 3D printing technology.

Originality/value

According to the literature survey, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first research work regarding the melt-flow performance of ABS-based composites to evaluate their 3D printing applications and processability. ABS and BNT containing composites were characterized by tensile, impact and shore hardness tests, DMA, TGA), MFI test and SEM techniques.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Is Fatimah, Dwiarso Rubiyanto, Septian Perwira Yudha, Gunarti Pratiwi and Ayu Puspita

The purpose of this study is to prepare composite of chitosan-modified smectite clays consisting of montmorillonite and saponite clay minerals and their urea…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to prepare composite of chitosan-modified smectite clays consisting of montmorillonite and saponite clay minerals and their urea adsorption–desorption study. Prepared materials were designed for slow-release fertilizer application.

Design/methodology/approach

Preparation of the composites was conducted by a simple intercalation of chitosan solution and clay suspension followed by hydrogel beads formation. Physicochemical characterization of materials was performed by X-ray diffraction, gas sorption analysis by using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface areas and pore volume, water absorbency and Fourier transform-infrared. Urea adsorption and desorption studies of prepared materials were conducted by using batch method, and the adsorbed and desorbed urea content was analyzed by using high-performance liquid chromatography method.

Findings

The results revealed that the composites have higher absorptivity and lower absorptivity toward urea from and into water solution compared to raw clay minerals. Adsorption capacity and slow desorption rate of urea from the composites suggested the potential application of the composites as slow urea-releasing agent.

Originality/value

There are many papers that study the formation of chitosan-clay composites, but the study on the urea adsorption–desorption properties based on chitosan-smectite minerals have not been reported. Intensive study related to physicochemical properties and its related kinetics study is an important basic finding for further applications.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2011

H. Li and D.Y. Gao

The purpose of this paper is to use alternative polymerisation methods, i.e. UV irradiation to synthesise poly(acrylamide)/montmorillonite nanocomposite and characterise…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use alternative polymerisation methods, i.e. UV irradiation to synthesise poly(acrylamide)/montmorillonite nanocomposite and characterise the composite.

Design/methodology/approach

Polymer/montmorillonite nanocomposite was synthesised by the polymerisation, induced by UV radiation and the structure of the composite was studied by means of FTIR, NMR(13 C, 27Al and 29Si) and X‐ray diffraction.

Findings

The poly(acrylamide)/montmorillonite nanocomposite was synthesised by UV irradiation, and its structures showed that the acrylamide was intercalated in the lamina of montmorillonite in bimolecular layers. FTIR and NMR analyses showed that there was no major chemical change of the polymer chain associated with the intercalation. The interaction between montmorillonite and polymer was mainly related with the van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding, not with the bonding involved with the carbon atoms.

Research limitations/implications

There are few reports on the synthesis and characterisation of polymer/montmorillonite composite prepared with UV radiation.

Practical implications

The alternative synthesis method using UV irradiation can provide a new way for the preparation of montmorillonite/acrylamide nanocomposite for the application in moisture and organic solvent vapour sensors, etc.

Originality/value

This provides a way for the synthesis of polymer/montmorillonite nanocomposite using polymerisation induced by UV radiation, which can be used in the thin membrane preparation for sensor and special application. Characterisation of the material revealed the structure of the nanocomposite, which would be helpful for the study of structure design and property improvement.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Nurhanis Abdul Latif, Nadia Nabihah Mohd Yusof Chan, Lidya Sulaiman, Mohamad Fitri Zaqwan Salim, Zul Hazrin Zainal Abidin, Shameer Hisham, Hairul Anuar Tajuddin, Amnani Abu Bakar and Norhana Abdul Halim

This paper aims to discuss the use of the sensor material in coating to detect defects which can cause corrosion on metal substrate. This coating consists of sodium…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the use of the sensor material in coating to detect defects which can cause corrosion on metal substrate. This coating consists of sodium polyacrylate (SP) to detect the presence of water and fluorescence substance 2-[4-(piperidin-1-yl)-5H-chromeno-[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-yl]phenol [benzopyranopyrimidine (BPP)] to detect crack formation.

Design/methodology/approach

The coating resin is a mixture of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly (methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride). The additives are used to provide a visual indicator to the observer for when the coating exhibits any defects, so that quick action can be taken before corrosion develops further. SP has absorbent properties and expand when in contact with water, while BPP exhibits high luminous intensity in its solid form that is easily perceivable when exposed to UV. PVM/MA was used as the binder with ethanol as the solvent. The resistance of this coating towards water penetration was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coating’s performance was observed in terms of visible optical appearance.

Findings

The sensor coating developed in this project serves as visual aid to the observer through the expansion of SP and high fluorescence of BPP material after the top coat is physically damaged. These findings are in provision of preventive measures that can be taken in case of top coat failure.

Research limitations/implications

The resistance of the coating that contained SP could not be investigated with EIS due to its ability to expand immediately when in contact with liquids.

Practical implications

The coating developed in this study may be to detect corrosion.

Originality/value

The sensor material used has not been previously studied in applications to detect the presence of water or used to detect crack formation.

Article
Publication date: 28 February 2022

Shama Sadaf, Komal Hassan, Ayesha Saeed, Zeeshan Ahmad and Hodaa Usama Abdus Samad

The COVID-19 pandemic has popularized wearing face masks for personal protection. However, the protection afforded by a mask is decreased if an individual accidently…

Abstract

Purpose

The COVID-19 pandemic has popularized wearing face masks for personal protection. However, the protection afforded by a mask is decreased if an individual accidently touches the outer surface of the mask and then touches other parts of their face. To overcome this problem, antimicrobial masks have become commercially available. However, many are disposable and/or made from synthetic antimicrobial agents which have a negative impact on the environment. The purpose of this study was to create material for stitching antimicrobial masks that are reusable and natural.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors developed natural antimicrobial finishes from Azadirachata indica, Butea monosperma and Litchi chinensis leaves. The authors used biodegradable polyurethane binder and pad-dry-cure method to apply them on 100% cotton fabric. The authors used Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to confirm the application and ASTM E2149 to assess the efficacy and wash-resistance of the finish.

Findings

Fabric treated with leaves of A. indica, B. monosperma and L. chinensis showed 80%, 100 and 100% antimicrobial activity, respectively. All fabrics were washed 25 times in home laundry cycles and maintained 100% of their antimicrobial effect.

Originality/value

These findings highlight that B. monosperma and L. chinensis finishes on cotton fabric can be a used as a material for stitching antimicrobial, natural and reusable masks that provide more protection than traditional masks but do not pose the environmental concerns of disposable masks or synthetic finishes. This study can be furthered by performing more laundry cycles to determine if the finishes remain 100% effective beyond 25 cycles.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 December 2021

Wei Yuan, Renfeng Yang, Jianyou Yu, Qunrong Zeng and Zechen Yao

Spray curing has become the preferred curing method for most cement concrete members because of its lower cost and sound effect. However, the spray curing quality of…

Abstract

Purpose

Spray curing has become the preferred curing method for most cement concrete members because of its lower cost and sound effect. However, the spray curing quality of members is vulnerable to random variation environment factors and anthropogenic interferences. This paper aims to introduce the machine learning algorithm into the spray curing system to optimize its control method to improve the spray curing quality of members.

Design/methodology/approach

The critical parameters affecting the spray curing quality of members were collected through experiments, such as the temperature and humidity of the member's surface, the temperature, humidity and wind speed of the environment. The C4.5 algorithm was used as a weak classifier algorithm, and the AdaBoost.M1 algorithm was used to cascade multiple weak classifiers to form a robust classifier according to the collected data.

Findings

The results showed that the model constructed by the AdaBoost.M1 algorithm had achieved higher accuracy and robustness among the two algorithms. Based on the classification model built by the AdaBoost.M1 algorithm, the spray curing system can cause automatic decision-making spray switching according to the member's real-time curing state and environment.

Originality/value

With the classification model constructed by the AdaBoost.M1 algorithm, the spray curing system can overcome the disadvantages that external factors greatly influence the current control method of the spray curing system, and the intelligent control of the spray curing system was realized to a certain extent. This paper provides a reference for applying machine learning algorithms in the intellectual transformation of bridge construction equipment.

Details

Construction Innovation , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

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