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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2020

Sun Wook Chung and Hyunji Kwon

The present study seeks to trace the unionization process of a global top 10 video game company (Company N) in which workers formed the first enterprise union in South…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study seeks to trace the unionization process of a global top 10 video game company (Company N) in which workers formed the first enterprise union in South Korea's game sector. Drawing upon the analytical framework of Kelly's (1998) mobilization theory, the authors investigated what motivated workers to form a union and what factors facilitated unionization.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a qualitative research method on a single case study basis. The authors collected 41 in-depth interviews with game developers, full-time union staff from the case company and union leaders in their affiliated union, as well as game journalists, labour attorneys, and human resource professionals in the video game industry. The authors had their original data supplemented and triangulated by archival data including union letters and other documents and media reports. They analysed the data using computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS).

Findings

There are three key findings. First, in the game sector, a high barrier against unionization exists, arising from industry characteristics such as a project-based work system, high mobility, reputation-based hiring, meritocracy, and a continuous influx of game-loving young developers. Hence, although the time was ripe for worker activism, latent grievances failed to be converted into real collective mobilization, resulting in non-organized workplaces for the past decades. Second, the mandatory labour-management negotiations arising from a legal change acted as a key catalyst for unionization at Company N. The newly elected three employee representatives came to identify and develop their own collective interests through the direct experience of negotiations, which greatly augmented their negative emotions and improved their legal consciousness. These three representatives could identify numerous deep-rooted problems, attribute these problems to their employer, and realize that they are ordinary salaried workers different from their employer. Going through the three-month negotiation and post-negotiation period, a set of ordinary game developers transformed themselves into natural union leaders who started a union in the game industry, which was traditionally non-organized. Third, various layers of external factors, such as a sister union, the upper umbrella union, the changed socio-political atmosphere following the candlelight protests for presidential impeachment, and the improved union image facilitated the unionization at Company N.

Practical implications

This study offers practical implications to governments, union activists, and employers in the game sector and more broadly in the tech industry, where labour-management conflicts are escalating across the globe.

Originality/value

Our study of a rare unionization event in the difficult game sector offers a nuanced understanding of mobilization and its process. Theoretically, by introducing the dynamic process of natural leader emergence and spontaneous union formation in a young industry where neither pre-existing leadership nor extant union influence exists, this study suggests that the mobilization process is more complex and variegated than suggested by Kelly's study and subsequent studies. Therefore, this study can advance the current discussion of mobilization mechanisms in the field of industrial relations. Our study also contributes to current research by introducing collective mobilization in a new context, i.e. the young, dynamic game industry in a non-Western country, which is a context that has been under-studied thus far.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Sun Wook Chung

Although studies on Chinese industrial relations (IR) have examined topics such as unionization and collective bargaining, little is known about employers’ reactions to…

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Abstract

Purpose

Although studies on Chinese industrial relations (IR) have examined topics such as unionization and collective bargaining, little is known about employers’ reactions to recent IR changes. In particular, researchers have not thoroughly considered foreign employers’ labor relations strategies. Amidst this background, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a foreign employer perceives and responds to the recent IR changes in China.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper conducted an exploratory, inductive study of the Chinese subsidiary of one multinational corporation. The data were collected through the author’s extensive fieldwork at its headquarters and Chinese subsidiary.

Findings

This paper shows that the union of a foreign firm in China serves three major functions – a collective voice, a monopoly, and an external affairs function – and that the firm’s interpretation of these functions has changed within China’s dynamic IR environment. Further, this paper finds that an employer has initiated its own compliance strategies, such as forming a friendly union, decoupling the union’s functions, de-collectivizing employment relations through effective HR practices and stricter policies, and scaling down in size to reduce administrative burden.

Originality/value

By introducing an employer perspective regarding recent IR changes, this paper provides a nuanced understanding of unionization and collective bargaining implementation in China. In addition, this paper identifies an emerging pattern of employer perception and response in China, highlighting unique features that have not been addressed in the existing literature on employers’ anti-union behavior. This study’s contributions also facilitate further research encompassing different contexts.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2012

Ioannis N. Lagoudis

There is significant amount of literature tackling different issues related to the port industry. The present chapter focuses on a single business unit of seaports aiming…

Abstract

There is significant amount of literature tackling different issues related to the port industry. The present chapter focuses on a single business unit of seaports aiming at the documentation of works related to container terminals.

An effort to review, collect and present the majority of the works present in the last 30 years, between 1980 and 2010, has been made in order to picture the problems dealt and methods used by the authors in the specific research field. To facilitate the reader, studies have been grouped under five categories of addressed problems (productivity and competitiveness, yard and equipment utilization, equipment scheduling, berth planning, loading/unloading) and four modelling methodologies (mathematics and operations research, management and economics, simulation, stochastic modelling).

The analysis shows that most works focus on productivity and competitiveness issues followed by yard and equipment utilisation and equipment scheduling. In reference to the methodologies used managerial and economic approaches lead, followed by mathematics and operations research.

In reference to future research, two fields have been identified where there is scope of significant contribution by the academic community: container terminal security and container terminal supply chain integration.

The present chapter provides the framework for researchers in the field of port container terminals to picture the so far works in this research area and enables the identification of gaps at both research question and methodology level for further research.

Details

Maritime Logistics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-340-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 March 2010

Chad Albrecht, Chad Turnbull, Yingying Zhang and Christopher J. Skousen

In recent years, many of South Korea's most prominent organizations have been involved in large‐scale frauds. These frauds have had a devastating impact on South Korean…

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Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, many of South Korea's most prominent organizations have been involved in large‐scale frauds. These frauds have had a devastating impact on South Korean society and resulted in unnecessary suffering and high levels of unemployment for the middle class. With the aim of understanding the causes of these scandals, this paper takes an in‐depth look at the chaebol organization.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes a conceptual approach by first examining chaebols in greater detail. The paper then examines classical fraud theory, including the fraud triangle. The paper then examines chaebol organizations through the lens of the fraud triangle. By doing so, it is possible to understand why chaebols, in particular, are susceptible to fraud and corruption.

Findings

The paper provides evidence to suggest that chaebol organizations have inherent fraud risks. In order to minimize these fraud risks, chaebol organizations must address these issues.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an important area of research by providing basic information about the relationship between chaebol organizations and fraud.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Jon S.T. Quah

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the contextual differences and causes of police corruption in Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, South Korea and Taiwan and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the contextual differences and causes of police corruption in Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, South Korea and Taiwan and to assess their governments’ effectiveness in minimising this problem.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper begins by identifying the contextual differences in the five countries before analysing their major causes of police corruption and their governments’ effectiveness in minimising it.

Findings

Police corruption is a more serious problem in Indonesia and the Philippines because of their more difficult governance environments, low salaries of police officers, red tape, lack of meritocracy in recruitment and promotion, and lack of accountability of police officers. By contrast, the perceived extent of police corruption has declined in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan in recent years because of the improvement in the salaries of their police officers and the implementation of various police reforms.

Originality/value

This comparative analysis of combating police corruption in five Asian countries will be of interest to policy makers and scholars concerned with minimising this problem.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 September 2021

Jun Sik Kim and Sol Kim

This paper investigates a retrospective on the Journal of Derivatives and Quantitative Studies (JDQS) on its 30th anniversary based on bibliometric. JDQSs yearly…

Abstract

This paper investigates a retrospective on the Journal of Derivatives and Quantitative Studies (JDQS) on its 30th anniversary based on bibliometric. JDQSs yearly publications, citations, impact factors, and centrality indices grew up in early 2010s, and diminished in 2020. Keyword network analysis reveals the JDQS's main keywords including behavioral finance, implied volatility, information asymmetry, price discovery, KOSPI200 futures, volatility, and KOSPI200 options. Citations of JDQS articles are mainly driven by article age, demeaned age squared, conference, nonacademic authors and language. In comparison between number of views and downloads for JDQS articles, we find that recent changes in publisher and editorial and publishing policies have increased visibility of JDQS.

Details

Journal of Derivatives and Quantitative Studies: 선물연구, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1229-988X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2019

Piotr Kwiatek and Marsela Thanasi-Boçe

Loyalty programs (LPs) in a business-to-business (B2B) context have been under-researched when compared to consumer markets. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if…

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Abstract

Purpose

Loyalty programs (LPs) in a business-to-business (B2B) context have been under-researched when compared to consumer markets. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if and to what extent the loyalty program activity (LPA) based on recency, frequency and monetary framework reflects the effectiveness of a specific LP.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the data obtained from 818 business customers enrolled in a LP, logistic regression models are run to find the impact of LPA on the company’s sales.

Findings

The results suggest that in a linear LP, the frequency of rewards impacts sales the most, compared to recency and amount of points redeemed. The intensity of a LPA is influencing the expected sales in a company.

Research limitations/implications

The current study is not focused on the redemption patterns and the value of the rewards offered in the program. Limitation of the study only to one country and in a single company does not allow to generalize presented findings.

Practical implications

Companies should focus their efforts on defining the best level of frequency rewards in their LPs. Reward timing should be considered as a factor that influences the change in customer purchasing behavior more than the amount of points accumulated.

Originality/value

The research provides empirical evidence to support the highest influence of frequency of rewards on sales, compared to recency and amount of points redeemed. This is one of the few LP studies conducted in the context of the B2B market.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 February 2020

Ruchi Mishra

The objective of this paper is to empirically test and verify the enablers of volume flexibility and product-mix flexibility and to assess the influence of these…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to empirically test and verify the enablers of volume flexibility and product-mix flexibility and to assess the influence of these flexibilities on operational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A research framework consisting of nine pairs of hypotheses was developed using an extensive literature review. Using a self-administered questionnaire, 391 responses were collected, and these responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and structural equation modeling techniques.

Findings

The findings empirically confirm the enablers of volume flexibility and product-mix flexibility. The proposed model explained 59 percent variance in volume flexibility and 63 percent variance in product-mix flexibility. Volume flexibility and product-mix flexibility together explained 38 percent variance in operational performance.

Research limitations/implications

Theoretically, this study advances flexibility literature in two significant ways. First, the study conducts first of its kind quantitative empirical investigation considering upstream, downstream, and internal integration practices as enablers of volume flexibility and product-mix flexibility. Second, this study adds to the flexibility literature by suggesting the positive influence of volume and product-mix flexibility on the operational performance of firms.

Originality/value

The study reinforces the role of enablers in the development of volume and product-mix flexibilities. Thus, the study provides a comprehensive view of flexibility enablers that can be used as a diagnostic tool, which practitioners can use to assess and deploy flexibility.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

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