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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Quratulain Mohtashim, Muriel Rigout and Sheraz Hussain Siddique Hussain Yousfani

Sulphur dyes provide an inexpensive medium to dye cellulosic fibres with heavy shade depths. They offer moderate to good fastness to light and wet treatments. However…

Abstract

Purpose

Sulphur dyes provide an inexpensive medium to dye cellulosic fibres with heavy shade depths. They offer moderate to good fastness to light and wet treatments. However, owing to the environmental hazard produced by the use of sodium sulphide, the practical implication of these dyes is steadily decreasing. Moreover, these dyes are prone to oxidation causing pronounced fading on exposure to laundering. This paper aims to present the green processing of sulphur dyes by using a biodegradable reducing agent in place of sodium sulphide to dye cotton fabrics. The study also proposes after-treatments with tannin to improve the fastness properties of the dyeings.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, dyeings were produced on cotton fabric with a range of C.I. Leuco Sulphur dyes, which were reduced with sodium sulphide and glucose. Sulphur dyeings were after-treated with an environment-friendly tannin-based product (Bayprotect CL (BP)); subsequently, the after-treated samples were evaluated for colour strength, wash, light and rubbing fastness.

Findings

A novel after-treatment method was developed, which substantially improved the wash fastness of C.I. Leuco Sulphur Black 1 dyeing to ISO 105 C06/C09 washing. However, the degree of this improvement varied for the other sulphur dyes used. The surface morphology and the possible mechanisms for the improved fastness properties were also discussed.

Research limitations/implications

The effect of after-treatment was significant for improving the wash fastness of sulphur black dyeings in particular, while the effect on other colours was minor. Significant improvements were observed for light and wet rub fastness for most of the dyeings, which signifies the importance of tannins as a finishing agent.

Practical implications

It is observed that the tannin-based product, BP, is found to provide the photoprotective effect by improving the lightfastness of the dyeings. Future research may involve the exploration of various tannins as a finishing agent to sulphur dyeings.

Originality/value

This novel finishing technique is found significant for improving the wash fastness of sulphur black 1 dyeings for both the reducing systems. Improvements were also observed for light and wet rub fastnesses for most of the dyeings.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2021

Vasiliki Zisi, Harilaos N. Psaraftis and Thalis Zis

As of January 1, 2020, the upper limit of sulfur emissions outside emission control areas decreased from 3.5% to 0.5%. This paper aims to present some of the challenges…

Abstract

Purpose

As of January 1, 2020, the upper limit of sulfur emissions outside emission control areas decreased from 3.5% to 0.5%. This paper aims to present some of the challenges associated with the implementation of the sulfur cap and investigates its possible side effects as regard the drive of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Even though it would appear that the two issues (desulfurization and decarbonization) are unrelated, it turns out that there are important cross-linkages between them, which have not been examined, at least by the regulators.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review and a qualitative risk assessment of possible CO2 contributors are presented first. A cost-benefit analysis is then conducted on a specific case study, so as to assess the financial, as well as the environmental impact of two main compliance choices, in terms of CO2 and sulfur oxide.

Findings

From a financial perspective, the choice of a scrubber ranks better comparing to a marine gas oil (MGO) choice because of the price difference between MGO and heavy fuel oil. However, and under different price scenarios, the scrubber choice remains sustainable only for big vessels. It is noticed that small containerships cannot outweigh the capital cost of a scrubber investment and are more sensitive in different fuel price scenarios. From an environmental perspective, scrubber ranks better than MGO in the assessment of overall emissions.

Research limitations/implications

Fuel price data in this paper was based on 2019 data. As this paper was being written, the COVID-19 pandemic created a significant upheaval in global trade flows, cargo demand and fuel prices. This made any attempt to perform even a rudimentary ex-post evaluation of the 2020 sulfur cap virtually impossible. Due to limited data, such an evaluation would be extremely difficult even under normal circumstances. This paper nevertheless made a brief analysis to investigate possible COVID-19 impacts.

Practical implications

The main implication is that the global sulfur cap will increase CO2 emissions. In that sense, this should be factored in the IMO greenhouse gas discussion.

Originality/value

According to the knowledge of the authors, no analysis examining the impact of the 2020 sulfur cap on CO2 emissions has yet been conducted in the scientific literature.

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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2020

Quratulain Mohtashim, Muriel Rigout and Sheraz Hussain Siddique

Sulphur dyes are the most highly consumed colourants for cellulosic substrates owing to their reasonable cost and acceptable fastness. However, the use of noxious…

Abstract

Purpose

Sulphur dyes are the most highly consumed colourants for cellulosic substrates owing to their reasonable cost and acceptable fastness. However, the use of noxious conventional reducing agent, sodium sulphide and impaired wash fastness against oxidative bleaching is gradually decreasing the market of these dyes. As the need for “Green” goods and services is raising public awareness, this paper aims to use a glucose-based biodegradable reducing agent in place of sodium sulphide to dye cotton fabrics with a range of commercial sulphur dyes. The study also proposes an aftertreatment method to improve the fastness properties of the dyeing.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper investigated the impact of a newly developed aftertreatment method on the fastness properties of dyeing. This involved the sequential application of a cationic fixing agent (Tinofix ECO) and tannin (Bayprotect CL) on the coloured fabrics and subsequent evaluation of colour strength, washing, light and rubbing fastness.

Findings

The effect of aftertreating the dyed cotton was found to significantly improve the light and wet rub fastness. The surface morphology of the dyeing remained unaffected as depicted by the absence of any finish residues.

Research limitations/implications

The protective effect of the cation–tannin aftertreatments was examined with a view to providing the necessary commercial performance; however, it was established that the dry rub fastness was either reduced or remained unaffected and the wash fastness to International Organization for Standardization 105 C09 was also marginal.

Originality/value

This finishing technique is novel and can be found useful for manufacturing sulphur-dyed products with the improved light and wet rub fastness.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2018

Yanli Yang and Qiaojing Zhao

This study aims to investigate the compositional characteristics of aromatic hydrocarbons extracted from coals and to describe how the sulfur content influences the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the compositional characteristics of aromatic hydrocarbons extracted from coals and to describe how the sulfur content influences the properties of coals and whether widely accepted maturity parameters are suitable for medium- to high-sulfur coal.

Design/methodology/approach

Four samples of medium- to high-sulfur coal were obtained from Fenxi, Shanxi Province, and studied using gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Findings

The GC-MS results showed that there were five series of compounds were identified in the aromatic fractions: naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, oxygen-containing compounds, biphenyls and sulfur-containing compounds. The substituent group was mainly methyl. The content of dibenzothiophenes was high, which was attributed to their high thermodynamic stability. The presence of sulfur reduced the content of oxygen-containing compounds. A depositional environment that facilitated the formation of organic sulfur compounds led to a higher content of naphthalenes.

Originality/value

The development of methods for removing organic sulfur compounds would benefit from a study of their nature, which would be important for improving the use of coal.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2019

Dimitra Topali and Harilaos N. Psaraftis

The International Maritime Organization has decided that as of 1.1.2020, SOx content in a ship’s emissions should be no more than 0.5 per cent. The purpose of this paper…

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Abstract

Purpose

The International Maritime Organization has decided that as of 1.1.2020, SOx content in a ship’s emissions should be no more than 0.5 per cent. The purpose of this paper is to address the various challenges expected to arise from the enforcement of the global cap sulfur regulation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors outline various enforcement options and present a model that calculates the profits from noncompliance in the high seas, so as to help determine the level of fines that could be imposed in case of violation.

Findings

The main finding is that a harmonized system of fines, which are more than potential savings from cheating, would be a strong deterrent for compliance.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, no paper in the maritime literature on sulfur regulations has focused on enforcement as of yet.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1998

Nola Buhr

This paper examines the relationship between environmental performance, legislation and annual report disclosure using the case of Falconbridge and sulphur dioxide…

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5200

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between environmental performance, legislation and annual report disclosure using the case of Falconbridge and sulphur dioxide emissions over a period from 1964 to 1991. Legitimacy theory and political economy theory are used to evaluate the disclosure. Two key questions are addressed: How did the corporation respond to changing government regulations for sulphur dioxide abatement? and How did the corporation choose to present these abatement activities in its annual reports? These questions are examined through the methodologies of historiography, interviews and content analysis. Falconbridge has always been in compliance with SO2 regulations (albeit with a government extension in the late 1970s) and has consistently provided disclosure discussing the technological aspects of sulphur dioxide abatement. While political economy theory has explanatory power, legitimacy theory offers a more compelling explanation.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2002

Otto Rohr

Bismuth is relatively little known in general; however, it has been known since the fifteenth century in Germany and was called by Paracelsus “Bismutum”. With very similar…

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1630

Abstract

Bismuth is relatively little known in general; however, it has been known since the fifteenth century in Germany and was called by Paracelsus “Bismutum”. With very similar properties to lead, it could be called the “twin brother of lead”, but bismuth is considered non‐toxic and used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. It is really a unique metal, considered as a metal within the periodic table of elements, but has more similarity to semimetals than to metals. Bismuth replaces the formerly and widely used lead in EP‐greases and EP‐lubricants giving better properties to them, even using down to half of the metal concentration. Bismuth has very high synergism to sulphur, the oldest known element. So, the combination of the oldest known element sulphur with the newest “green and ecologically clean” metal Bismuth – is actually the modern and metallic extreme pressure technology – that follows the formerly used, during many decades, sulphur‐lead‐technology – but being non‐toxic.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 54 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1942

The question whether grape juice may or may not be preserved with sulphur dioxide is one which arises occasionally as a result of a certain ambiguity in the wording of the…

Abstract

The question whether grape juice may or may not be preserved with sulphur dioxide is one which arises occasionally as a result of a certain ambiguity in the wording of the First Schedule of the Regulations. It is not a matter of opinion, as some would hold, but a matter of law, and, as such, should be fully appreciated by the legal advisers of local authorities, if not by Public Analysts. Item 4 of the First Schedule of the Regulations states that “Unfermented grape juice and non‐alcoholic wine made from such grape juice if labelled in accordance with the rule contained in the Second Schedule to these Regulations” may contain 2,000 parts of benzoic acid per million of grape juice and does not admit of the presence of the addition of any sulphur dioxide. The Second Schedule prescribes that, if the proportion of benzoic acid present in grape juice exceeds 600 parts per million, it shall be labelled with a declaration to that effect and also with the words “and is not intended for use as a beverage.” Item 5 of the First Schedule of the Regulations states that “Other non‐alcoholic wines, cordials and fruit juices, sweetened or unsweetened” may contain either 350 parts of sulphur dioxide per million parts of preparation or 600 parts per million of benzoic acid. Normally one would infer from this that grape juice to be used as a beverage falls under Item 5 of the Regulations, but that, if for some special reason it is not to be so used, it is permitted to contain up to 2,000 parts per million of benzoic acid provided that it is labelled to the effect that it is not to be used as a beverage. It should be noted that Item 4 does not read that grape juice and non‐alcoholic wine made from it may contain 600 parts per million of benzoic acid, but that, if labelled in accordance with the rules contained in the Second Schedule, it may contain 2,000 parts of this preservative. If grape juice were only allowed to contain benzoic acid as a preservative and if sulphur dioxide were prohibited under all circumstances one would have thought that Item 4 of the First Schedule would have been drawn up to indicate this, but no such indication is given at all. At the time that the Preservatives Regulations were issued it was fully recognised that sulphur dioxide was employed as a preservative in grape must. Whilst the Departmental Committee was considering the matter of preservatives and colouring matters the Ministry of Health issued a Report on Public Health Subjects, No. 24, entitled “Report on the Composition of Commoner British Wines and Cordials (Alcoholic and Non‐alcoholic),” by Dr. G. C. Hancock, C.B.E., one of the Medical Officers of the Ministry, together with a Report by the Government Chemist on the Examination of Samples. In the introduction Dr. G. Newman, the Chief Medical Officer to the Minister of Health, writes : “The most important of these materials are preservatives, and Dr. Hancock mentions the considerations which underlie the use of these substances in the manufacture of British wines and cordials. As, however, the question of preservatives and colouring matters in foods is being considered by a Departmental Committee of the Ministry he has made no specific recommendations relating to the use of these substances.” On page 4 at the end of the sixth paragraph Dr. Hancock refers to grape juice or must and says : “It is sent here in a highly concentrated form and is usually ‘sulphured,’ i.e., treated with sulphur dioxide in order to inhibit fermentation during transit.” Among other information placed at the disposal of the Departmental Committee was Dr. Hancock's report and in the Final Report of the Committee, also issued in 1924, paragraph 57 states: “Sulphurous acid and sulphites are extensively used in beer and alcoholic wines, to some smaller extent in non‐alcoholic beverages, and in preserving fruits and fruit juices, dried fruits, gelatine and sausages. … In the case of beer, wines, fruit and fruit juices the introduction comes partly from the treatment of the vessels of preparation and storage, partly from the materials used and partly from the actual addition of preservative in the course of manufacture or treatment for storage.” When considering the question of alcoholic wines, Foreign and British in detail, the Committee stated their opinion in the following words (para. 144): “Foreign and British wines are by no means closely related products. The former are the naturally fermented produce of the grape, while the latter are rarely derived from fresh fruit and are far more commonly prepared from a basis of dried fruits, rhubarb or imported grape must, fermented after the addition of sugar and flavouring materials, such as dried ginger‐root, orange peel, alcoholic essences or foreign wines. Considered from the point of view of preservatives, however, they have two features in common, (a) that the alcoholic content is very similar in each, (b) that sulphur dioxide is the preservative which is usually favoured (in addition to the alcohol present) to prevent secondary and other undesirable fermentations and sourness.” Instead of making any suggestion that the use of sulphur dioxide should be prohibited in grape must, the Committee draw their conclusion in paragraph 147 in the following words : “Our conclusion is that while in general preservatives should be unnecessary in alcoholic wines of ordinary strength, there may be circumstances which render the entire elimination of preservatives impracticable for the present. We think, however, that no other preservatives than sulphur dioxide should be permitted, and that this substance should not be present in amounts exceeding 3 grains of sulphur dioxide free and combined per pint (343 milligrams per litre).” This recommendation was adopted in the Draft Statutory Order issued in February, 1925, but, when the final Order was published, the quantity of sulphur dioxide permitted had been increased to 450 parts per million, making the law in this country agree with that already adopted in France. The recommendation made by the Departmental Committee was put forward after the Committee had commented on the fact that British wines are largely prepared from “imported grape must.” It seems remarkable that the Committee should have expressed the opinion that sulphur dioxide is used for sulphuring the casks, that sulphur dioxide is permitted in the completed wine, if it is not allowed to be present at intermediate stages, and that a Regulation was made by which benzoic acid only could be present in the unfermented grape juice, if this is not permitted to be present in the fermented alcoholic wine. When benzoic acid has once been added it cannot be eliminated and, as recognised by the Departmental Committee, benzoic acid is undesirable from the fermentation aspect. Had there been any intention to prohibit the presence of sulphur dioxide in unfermented grape juice, the Regulations would have rung the death‐knell to the manufacture of British wines, which have been produced in increasing volume during the last twenty years. Further, if there had been any intention to prohibit the addition of sulphur dioxide to grape juice, one cannot but express surprise that the importation of such juice has not been suppressed long ago by the Customs Authorities, since Section 8 (1) of the Regulations lays the responsibility for the control of Imported Articles of Food on the Officers of Customs and Excise and, through them, on the Government Chemist. The failure of the Government Chemist to condemn grape must containing sulphur dioxide cannot be due to his ignorance of its presence because the chemical analyses for Dr. Hancock's Report were carried out by the Government Chemist, and on page 58 of the Report No. 24, to which reference has already been made, analyses are given of two French musts containing 360 and 302 parts of sulphur dioxide per million respectively and of an American concentrated must containing 63 parts of sulphur dioxide per million. If we now look at paragraph 153 of the Final Report of the Departmental Committee we find that the matter of preservatives in certain non‐alcoholic beverages is dealt with in the following words: “We consider that sweetened and unsweetened fruit juices, syrups, cordials, non‐alcoholic wines and articles of similar composition such as certain well‐known proprietary cordials, are peculiarly liable to develop moulds and to ferment, owing to liability to exposure on the consumer's premises between the first opening and final consumption, and we think that on this account they may under present trade conditions need the addition of a small proportion of preservative. We therefore suggest that the presence either of benzoic acid up to 5 grains or of sulphur dioxide up to 3 grains per pint might be considered.” These recommendations were adopted in the Draft Rule and Order, issued in February, 1925, and there was no reference in this Draft indicating that grape juice was to be treated in any manner distinct from other fruit juices. The introduction of Item 4 in S.R. & O. 1925, 775, came as a complete surprise to everyone and the general surprise felt was mentioned by Mr. C. A. Mitchell (now Dr. Mitchell) in a paper read before the Medico‐Legal Society on Tuesday, April 20th, 1926, with the Rt. Hon. Lord Justice Aitken in the chair. Mr. Mitchell made the following statement: “The fourth item in the Schedule is one at which one can only stare and wonder how it ever came there. According to this regulation unfermented grape juice and non‐alcoholic wine made from it, may contain the enormous quantity of 17 grains of benzoic acid per pint, provided that it is labelled in accordance with Schedule II. I am fairly familiar with the cases which have been brought into Court during the last 20 years, but I cannot recall an instance of a non‐alcoholic wine (labelled or unlabelled) containing an amount of preservative equivalent to this quantity of benzoic acid.” Mr. Mitchell then proceeds to explain that the most probable reason for the introduction of this item into the rule is that it is intended to apply to non‐alcoholic sacramental wine, which is not to be used as a beverage, but which is taken a little at a time and is expected to keep for long periods, when the bottle has once been opened. This is, in fact, the position so far as I am aware and there was never any intention of any restriction on the use of sulphur dioxide in the ordinary way as a preservative in unfermented grape juice so long as the amount present did not exceed 350 parts per million.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 44 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2019

Shuaian Wang and Chuansheng Peng

The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of China’s potential domestic emission control area (DECA) with 0.1 per cent sulphur limit on sulphur emission reduction.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of China’s potential domestic emission control area (DECA) with 0.1 per cent sulphur limit on sulphur emission reduction.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors calculate the fuel cost of a direct path within the DECA and a path that bypasses the DECA for ships that sail between two Chinese ports in view of the DECA. Ships adopt the path with the lower cost and the resulting sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions can be calculated. They then conduct sensitivity analysis of the SO2 emissions with different values of the parameters related to sailing distance, fuel price and ships.

Findings

The results show that ships tend to detour to bypass the DECA when the distance between the two ports is long, the ratio of the price of low sulphur fuel and that of high sulphur fuel is high and the required time for fuel switching is long. If the time required for fuel switching is less than 12 h or even 24 h, it can be anticipated that a large number of ships will bypass the DECA, undermining the SO2 reduction effect of the DECA.

Originality/value

This study points out the size and shape difference between the emission control areas in Europe and North America and China’s DECA affects ships’ path choice and SO2 emissions.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Mariusz M.K. Książek

Specific chemical environments step out in the industry objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) were impregnated by using the special polymerized sulfur

Abstract

Purpose

Specific chemical environments step out in the industry objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) were impregnated by using the special polymerized sulfur and technical soot as a filler (polymer sulfur composite). Sulfur and technical soot were applied as the industrial waste. Portland cement composites were made of the same aggregate, cement and water. The durability of prepared cement composite samples was tested in 5 per cent solution of HCl and 5 per cent solution of H2SO4 as a function of immersion time. The changes in mechanical strength and mass of the samples were periodically measured. Cement composites impregnated with sulfur composite exhibited limited mechanical strength and mass loss, whereas physico-mechanical properties of Portland cement concrete regressed rapidly. The loss in weight of ordinary concrete impregnated with sulfur composite, kept in aqueous solutions of acids, hydroxides, salts and in water for a year was determined using 100 × 100 × 100 mm samples. The same samples were then used in compressive strength tests.

Design/methodology/approach

Specific chemical environments affect industrial objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) were impregnated with a special polymerized sulfur and technical soot as a filler (polymer sulfur composite). Sulfur and technical soot were applied as industrial waste. Portland cement composites were made of the same aggregate, cement and water. The durability of the prepared cement composite samples was tested in 5 per cent solution of HCl and 5 per cent solution of H2SO4 as a function of immersion time. The changes in mechanical strength and mass of the samples were periodically measured. Cement composites impregnated with sulfur composite exhibited limited mechanical strength and mass loss, whereas the physico-mechanical properties of the Portland cement concrete regressed rapidly. The loss in weight of ordinary concrete impregnated with sulfur composite, kept in aqueous solutions of acids, hydroxides, salts and in water for a year was determined using 100 × 100 × 100 mm samples. The same samples were then used in compressive strength tests. The image analysis used for surface destruction monitoring, performed by scanning microscopy for the determination of damaged surface area and the original surface area before acid resistance testing, showed similar results. Based on the image analysis results, a model for predicting the degradation of mechanical strength during durability testing was established. The fact that the calculated and experimental strength values were not vastly different proved the validity of the proposed model. A brief summary of new products related to the special sulfur composite is given as follows: impregnation, repair, overlays and precast polymer concrete will be presented. Sulfur composite as a polymer coating impregnation, which has received little attention in recent years, currently has some very interesting applications.

Findings

Author comments: The article is original. The article has been written by the stated authors who are all aware of its content and approve its submission. 3. The article has not been published previously. 4. The article is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. 5. No conflict of interest exists, or if such conflict exists, the exact nature must be declared. 6. If accepted, the article will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in any language, without the written consent of the publisher.

Originality/value

Author comments: 1. The article is original. 2. The article has been written by the stated authors who are all aware of its content and approve its submission. 3. The article has not been published previously. 4. The article is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. 5. No conflict of interest exists, or if such conflict exists, the exact nature must be declared. 6. If accepted, the article will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in any language, without the written consent of the publisher.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 64 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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