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Although the existing internal marketing (IM) scales include various scale items to measure employee motivation, they fall short of incorporating the needs and…
Although the existing internal marketing (IM) scales include various scale items to measure employee motivation, they fall short of incorporating the needs and expectations of service sector employees. Hence, the purpose of this study is to present a practical instrument designed to measure the IM construct in the higher education sector.
Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in this empirical study. A qualitative method was used to develop the scale items to measure the IM construct and a quantitative method was used to test the scale developed in the higher education sector. The study sample included n = 240 academic staff from a large university. Both exploratory (EFA) and the confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were used to confirm the dimensionality of the IM scale developed.
The study results showed that all items in the measurement scale were loaded on a single dimension that represents the IM construct in the higher education sector. The psychometric properties of the developed scale (IM-11) met and exceeded the expected criteria cited in the literature.
The IM-11 scale presented in this study offers a practical tool for higher education administrators in their efforts to measure the needs and expectations of their employees. Moreover, this knowledge should provide a framework for the administration to develop strategies for employee motivation, job satisfaction and performance and assume additional responsibilities in their efforts to serving their external customers better. Sample size, cultural factors and the complex nature of university academic staff limit one’s ability to generalize these results to broader populations.
In line with the information provided in the literature on IM, this study developed a simple and practical instrument to measure the IM construct for an academic unit within a university.
The research presented in this study replicates and extends the QSport-10 scale proposed by Rial, Varela, Rial and Real in their 2010 study, by incorporating the Programme…
The research presented in this study replicates and extends the QSport-10 scale proposed by Rial, Varela, Rial and Real in their 2010 study, by incorporating the Programme dimension into the original measurement of service quality in Physical Activity and Sports Centres (PSCs). The objective of this research is to examine the dimensionality of the QSport-10 scale and extend it to capture the additional Programme service quality dimension. Study results confirmed the dimensionality of the service quality measurement offered by the QSport-10 scale and presented strong empirical support for the existence of Programme, Installations and Staff dimensions. Programme dimension was considered the most important factor for the largest consumer segment in the study.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between bullying and burnout and its effect on professional football players. Although the effects of both…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between bullying and burnout and its effect on professional football players. Although the effects of both bullying and burnout have been studied in different contexts, the effects of these constructs have not been fully examined among professional football players in culturally different environments.
To measure bullying, the authors used a modified version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) adapted to the professional football environment. To measure burnout, we used Raedeke and Smith’s (2001) “Athlete Burnout Questionnaire”. Data for the study (n=102) were collected from the professional football players in the Turkish Secondary Football League. Explatory and confirmatory analysis were performed for validity and reliability of the questionnaires. Correlations and hierarchical regression analysis were performed for data.
Our findings showed that bullying influenced all three dimensions of burnout (reduced sense of accomplishment, emotional/physical exhaustion, and devaluation), particularly the emotional/physical exhaustion. High levels of burnout that the victims might experience because of bullying may reduce individual performance as well as team performance. Furthermore, higher levels of burnout contribute to attrition (losing a well-performing player prematurely), which could have a significant effect on team’s overall performance and competitiveness.
This study utilized the “Negative Acts Questionnaire-Football (NAQ-F)” adapted from the “Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R)”. Using NAQ-F, this study tested the relationship between bullying and burnout and its effect on professional football players. The study results showed that to reduce the negative consequences of potential bullying behaviour on players and teams, high-performing professional football clubs should develop social networks and mechanisms to minimize the effects of such behaviours and/or provide the needed support to the victims, as needed.