The purpose of this paper is to reveal the relations between management control system (MCS), leadership style and gender ideology. It investigates how a female leader’s…
The purpose of this paper is to reveal the relations between management control system (MCS), leadership style and gender ideology. It investigates how a female leader’s gendered personal values are formed, translated, produced, and reproduced in her leadership style, the subsequent MCS and organisational life.
This is an interpretive case study that uses the anthropological lens of emic and etic views. The emic view is derived from the interpretation of the company’s subjects. The etic view refers to the interpretation of outsiders (the researchers and previous literatures). The combination of these two views enables an in-depth understanding of the case. Interviews, observation and documentary analysis were used to collect the data.
In a gendered society, a female leader will gain full respect if she demonstrates leadership behaviours that fit her subordinates’ gendered expectations. The leader’s and followers’ common gendered cultural background will result in leadership and followership that support each other. Gendered leadership produces gendered MCS. Gendered MCS is based on gendered cultural values that direct the behaviour of organisational members to focus on certain competencies based on a single gender perspective. In turn, the gendered MCS sustains and reinforces the gendered leadership.
The study does not focus on the potential value of including feminine measures in MCS. In the future, MCS literatures need to explore the strategic advantages of introducing measures into the system in order to develop feminine competencies in organisation. Furthermore, the processes by which MCS reinforces gendered practices in a society are not explored in the study. Therefore, another important next step is to examine the patterns of the reinforcement processes and their magnitude in strengthening the biases beyond organisational boundaries (e.g. in professional and industrial practices).
This study encourages leaders to consider the use of masculine and feminine characters in MCS to increase organisational effectiveness, build a more humane organisational atmosphere, establish organisational cohesion and harmonise different personal aspirations.
MCS literatures tend to hide gender bias in the system. This study offers insight on how MCS translates, produces and reproduces societal gendered practices in organisational life.
This study aims to provide insight into the meaning and perceptions of leadership and its subsequent management control system (MCS) practices in family business in less…
This study aims to provide insight into the meaning and perceptions of leadership and its subsequent management control system (MCS) practices in family business in less developed countries. More specifically, the study attempts to understand the cultural context of family business and its importance in developing its leadership and MCS, the production and reproduction processes of the culture into the MCS and the resulting MCS.
We shared the view that organizational reality is negotiated and constructed by collective participants’ consciousness. The study used interpretive case study. Interviews, observation and documentary analysis were used to collect the data.
Leadership and MCS of family business is embedded in its societal culture. A leader–owner is not a creator but a mere manager of organizational culture because he/she is also a product of the societal culture. The owner and his/her inner circle (family and non-family members) may collectively play crucial roles in producing and reproducing the legitimate MCS based on the extended family concept. In this sense, cultural control based on shared family norms is the most dominant one and simplifies process and result controls. However, business pragmatism may go hand-in-hand with the culture in giving room for MCS transformations.
The family business under study is still run by the family’s first generation, has no subsidiaries and is embedded in Javanese paternalistic culture. Although rich in details, the sample size of the study is a limitation.
This study encourages the owners of a family business to consider the use of strong cultural control along with bureaucratic controls to create a sustainable organisation.
This study offers insight to help understand and explain how leadership and MCS practices in family business are embedded in broader societal culture in less developed countries.