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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

Marie Reid and Richard Hammersley

It has been suggested that habitual consumers of sugar experience “cravings” when deprived. Subjects (n = 27) who habitually consumed sugarsweetened drinks were placed on…

Abstract

It has been suggested that habitual consumers of sugar experience “cravings” when deprived. Subjects (n = 27) who habitually consumed sugarsweetened drinks were placed on a seven‐day regime receiving either sugarsweetened drinks, or aspartame‐sweetened alternatives. A between‐subjects design was used to prevent subjects comparing the drinks, which were given blind with the cover story that the study was testing a new drink. In fact commercial carbonated beverages were given. At the end, subjects were unable to guess which they had received. Subjects completed a prospective food diary and rated mood daily using the Profile of Mood States, as well as before and after each test drink, using simple visual analogue scales. Compared to subsequent days, on the first day of the study subjects receiving aspartame‐sweetened drinks ate fewer grams of carbohydrate and had fewer sugar episodes (where sugars, or sugar‐fat, or sugar‐alcohol mixtures were consumed). Overall energy intake for the day was unaffected. By day two, there were no differences between the groups in diet or mood. Body weight at seven days was unaltered from baseline. Blind substitution of aspartame‐sweetened for sugarsweetened soft drinks did not increase other sugar consumption and did not adversely affect mood. Any effects of this dietary change appear transient.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 100 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2020

Seok Tyug Tan, Nur Ainaa' Najihah Abdullah Zaini, Seok Shin Tan and Chin Xuan Tan

Frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) not only contribute to the incidence of dental caries but also a substantial risk for metabolic syndrome, obesity…

Abstract

Purpose

Frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) not only contribute to the incidence of dental caries but also a substantial risk for metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and arthritis. Therefore, this study aims to compare the ready-to-drink SSB (RTD-SSB) consumption frequency, choice and sugar intake across gender and body weight status.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional study involved 126 adolescents from two primary schools in Shah Alam, Selangor. Adolescents aged between 9-11 years old were enrolled using convenience sampling method. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to assess socio-demographic and RTD-SSB consumption of the adolescents. The RTD-SSB consumption was assessed with 2-day 24-hour dietary recalls (single weekend and single weekday recalls), whereas body weight and height were assessed using TANITA weighing scale and stadiometer, respectively. Data were analysed using SPSS version 26.0, while BMI-for-age (BAZ) z-score was determined using the World Health Organization (WHO) AnthroPlus software version 1.0.4.

Findings

The mean age of 126 adolescents was 10.82 ± 0.93 years old. The frequency of SSB consumption was 1.77 ± 1.25 times/day, whereas the average daily sugar intake was 6.3 teaspoons (26.61 ± 22.18 g) from RTD-SSBs. Flavoured milk emerged as the most frequent consumed beverage among adolescents, regardless of gender and weight status. No association was observed between the RTD-SSB consumption frequency and weight status (χ2 = 0.953, p > 0.05) as well as sugar intake and weight status (χ2 = 1.202, p > 0.05). Emerging findings demonstrated that the RTD-SSB consumption frequency, choice and sugar intake were similar across gender and weight status.

Originality/value

This was the first study that compares RTD-SSB consumption frequency, choice and sugar intake across gender and different body weight status.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Oluwafolahan Oluwagbemiga Sholeye, Victor Jide Animasahun, Albert Adekunle Salako and Adebisi Dare Oduwole

The rising incidence of non-communicable diseases in the developing world has remained a cause of concern for health workers. Childhood and adolescent obesity is on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The rising incidence of non-communicable diseases in the developing world has remained a cause of concern for health workers. Childhood and adolescent obesity is on the increase as a result of several issues including dietary habits. This paper aims to assess the pattern of snacking and sweetened beverage consumption among in-school adolescents in Sagamu, Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study was carried out among 620 in-school adolescents, selected via multi-stage sampling, using a semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Relevant descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated, with p < 0.05.Participation was fully voluntary and strict confidentiality ensured.

Findings

All respondents consumed sugar-sweetened beverages, at different regularity; 78.5 per cent preferred carbonated drinks; 44.2 per cent consumed energy drinks, with a significant difference between males and females regarding the pattern of consumption of sweetened beverages (p = 0.042) and reasons for the choice of drinks (p = 0.009). Almost all (95.3 per cent) respondents snacked at varying frequencies, with more women (97.2 per cent) snacking than men (p = 0.008). Over 51.7 per cent of respondents snacked daily with no significant difference (p = 0.147) between males and females respondents regarding frequency of snacking. Pies and pastries were most frequently consumed. There was a significant difference (p = 0.007) between the preferences of male and female respondents.

Originality/value

The consumption of refined sugars was high among respondents, indicating presence of unhealthy dietary habits. Concerted efforts at nutrition education through the school system should be made to reduce the risk of non-communicable diseases among adolescents.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Case study
Publication date: 30 March 2019

Paul Byrne, Dmitriy Chulkov and Dmitri Nizovtsev

This descriptive case study applies economic concepts to an issue of public policy, and helps build students’ critical thinking, analytical and quantitative skills. The…

Abstract

Theoretical basis

This descriptive case study applies economic concepts to an issue of public policy, and helps build students’ critical thinking, analytical and quantitative skills. The case addresses a variety of topics typically taught in microeconomics and public economics courses. Topics most prominently represented in the case include elasticity of demand and supply, tax policy, tax incidence and negative externalities. Theoretical basis for each topic is laid out in the discussion section of the instructors’ manual, along with insights from student responses. The core nature of the concepts covered in this case study allows it to be integrated with common economics textbooks.

Research methodology

This descriptive case is based on critical economic analysis of secondary sources.

Case overview/synopsis

This case study focuses on the imposition of the controversial “soda tax” on sweetened beverages in the City of Philadelphia in 2017 and considers the economic lessons that can be learned from Philadelphia’s experience with the tax. The tax was proposed as a way to raise the city’s revenue while reducing obesity. After the tax was enacted, the sales of sweetened beverages declined in the city, but increased outside the city’s borders. The receipts from the tax have been below projections.

Complexity/academic level

Learning outcomes covered by the case are typical for a microeconomics, public economics or managerial economics course. The appropriate course levels range from the principles to the MBA level of the economics and business curriculum. Discussion questions may be selected to fit a specific course focus and level. The instructors’ manual outlines question sets suitable for various types of economics courses.

Details

The CASE Journal, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 1544-9106

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2020

Ga Eun Yeo, Mi-Sook Cho and Jieun Oh

As the risks associated with sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) increase, various policies require sugar to be reduced in beverages. This paper segmented consumers according…

Abstract

Purpose

As the risks associated with sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) increase, various policies require sugar to be reduced in beverages. This paper segmented consumers according to food-related lifestyle (FRL), analyzed beverage selection attributes and preference for sugar-reduced beverages (SRBs) for each group and presented basic data for the strategies of SRBs for each consumer group.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 1,000 Korean consumer panels responded to the online survey. The questionnaire consisted of FRL, beverage selection attributes and attitude toward SRBs.

Findings

Consumer groups were divided according to FRL: rational, value seeking and careless consumer. Rational consumers tended to be in their 30s or 50s and women, and they focused on product quality/hygiene when choosing beverages. Value seeking consumers were mainly in their 40s and 50s and were characterized by high education and income. They showed high scores in quality/hygiene, economy and sensory traits. Careless consumers were more likely to be in their 20s–30s, unmarried men and considered sensory traits as the most important factor.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this study is the lack of generalization of consumer panels to represent the entire population because they were part of an online research firm.

Originality/value

This study implies that segmenting consumers according to FRL allows detailed analysis of consumer attitudes and behaviors. Using this analysis, the complex consumer pattern can be used as basic data for promoting sugar-reduced beverages.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Chun-Shun Yang, Pauline Ford, Xiaoman Liu, Shaneen Leishman and Lisa Schubert

The appearance of a rapidly expanding range of ready-to-drink packaged beverages in the marketplace has been met with widespread consumer acceptance. The aim of this study…

Abstract

Purpose

The appearance of a rapidly expanding range of ready-to-drink packaged beverages in the marketplace has been met with widespread consumer acceptance. The aim of this study is to profile the nutritional composition and dental erosive potential of a sample of beverages sold for consumption in Brisbane supermarkets.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 44 beverages were assessed to determine their pH and titratable acidity. Information relating to nutritional composition was also collected.

Findings

Milk-based beverages had the highest energy concentration, while soft drinks, energy drinks, flavoured milk, and fruit and vegetable juice categories contained products with very high sugar concentrations (>10g/100ml). All beverages, except milk-based products and still water, had a pH of less than 4.8. Titratable acidity was highest for energy drinks and fruit and vegetable juices.

Research limitations/implications

Energy drinks and fruit and vegetable juices had the highest sugar content and titratable acidity of all the beverage categories and so would be expected to have the greatest potential to cause oral health problems. Milk drinks had the highest energy concentration, but the lowest erosive potential. Regular consumption of many ready-to-drink pre-packaged beverages is therefore inconsistent with recommendations in current dietary and oral health guidelines.

Originality/value

Rather than considering nutritional composition alone, this study examined both nutritional and physicochemical properties of ready-to-drink packaged beverages to reach a more holistic assessment of their health impact.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Nicole Cockburn, Lisa Schubert, Nam-Phuong Quoc Nguyen and Pauline Ford

Australian sales of hyperpalatable beverages (HPB) (a term used to describe naturally or artificially sweet beverages) have followed a consistent upward trend since 2000…

Abstract

Purpose

Australian sales of hyperpalatable beverages (HPB) (a term used to describe naturally or artificially sweet beverages) have followed a consistent upward trend since 2000. The purpose of this paper is to examine HPB brand placements in the top 20 annual highest grossing movies in Australia in 2010-2014.

Design/methodology/approach

A content analysis was undertaken on the 20 highest grossing movies annually from 2010 to 2014. Movies were analysed according to the prevalence and portrayal of branded beverages.

Findings

In total, 35 per cent of movies contained an HPB brand placement. Movies were more likely to be classified M, MA15+, R/R18+, and categorised as comedy, or action/adventure genre. Soft drinks were the most prevalent category (60.9 per cent), and Coca Cola Company manufactured 40.6 per cent of the brands that were embedded throughout the movies.

Originality/value

This study revealed some of industry’s non-direct marketing strategies through HPB placement in movies. Findings suggest that further scrutiny is needed of the relatively underresearched medium of beverage advertising.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2021

MoezAlIslam E. Faris, Ala'a Al-Bakheit, Hayder Hasan, Liela Cheikh Ismail, Haitham Jahrami, Dina Rajab, Afra Afra Almashgouni, Alanood Alshehhi, Asma Aljabry, Mariam Aljarwan, Moza Alnaqbi and Reyad Shaker Obaid

Vending machines (VMs) provide quick access for snack foods and beverages for students during their study days. These vended foods have been reported to affect the…

Abstract

Purpose

Vending machines (VMs) provide quick access for snack foods and beverages for students during their study days. These vended foods have been reported to affect the student's nutritional status and contributing to obesity by increasing the caloric intake. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value of snacks and beverages provided by VM at the university campuses.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional observational study in one large urban university with four campuses was conducted. In total, 55 VMs were found distributed over 50 buildings of the four university campuses. Of the vending slots surveyed, only 57 snacks and beverage food items were found repeated. These items were vended and analyzed using nutrient databases, and their nutritional quality was assessed using nutrient adequacy ratio and nutritional quality score.

Findings

Most vended snacks were salty (77%) and sweet (23%). Neither snacks nor beverages were nutrient-dense, and the majority (65%) of snacks and beverages were calorie-dense, with high contents of sugar, sodium and saturated fat; while they were low in vitamins C and A, calcium, iron, sodium, protein and dietary fibers. None of the vended beverages met the low calorie, low sugars and high-fiber criteria.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of the current work is represented in the fact that VM snacks and beverages are not fixed throughout the year days, and exposed to continuous changes, depending on the customers' attitudes and economic and financial considerations related to the operating contractor company and the customer students. Thus, a continuous, long-term evaluation is suggested to be conducted for a more representative and reflective evaluation of the nutritional quality of vended snacks and beverages.

Practical implications

Poor nutritional quality has been found for vended foods. Healthier food options should be provided to improve students' dietary intake.

Social implications

Attention has to be directed toward the nutritional quality of VM foods, and how to provide adolescents and young adults with healthy options.

Originality/value

This is the first study conducted in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Gulf Cooperation Council countries (GCC) assessing the nutritional value of vending machine foods in university settings.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2020

Christine E. Walsh, Rebecca Seguin-Fowler, Alice Ammerman, Karla Hanson, Stephanie B. Pitts Jilcott, Jane Kolodinsky, Marilyn Sitaker and Susan Ennett

Snacking contributes to one-quarter of children’s total daily energy intake in the USA, with many snack foods being nutrient-poor and energy-dense. Snacking and sugary…

Abstract

Purpose

Snacking contributes to one-quarter of children’s total daily energy intake in the USA, with many snack foods being nutrient-poor and energy-dense. Snacking and sugary beverage consumption have been identified as potential contributors to childhood overweight and obesity and may play a particularly important role among children from socioeconomically disadvantaged households that generally display higher rates of obesity. This exploratory study investigated associations between consumption of snack foods, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and overweight and obesity in children from low-income households.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from households that participated in a multi-state cost-offset (CO-CSA) community supported agriculture intervention in 2016 and 2017 (n = 305) were analyzed. Fixed effect regression models were used to estimate associations between child monthly consumption of salty snack foods; sweet snack foods and SSBs; and child weight status, accounting for demographic characteristics.

Findings

No associations were found between snack or SSB consumption and child overweight. However, household income was significantly, negatively related to all three consumption variables (Salty snacks: ß = −0.09, SE = 0.04, p = 0.02; Sweet snacks: ß= −0.10, SE = 0.04, p = 0.01; SSB: ß= −0.21, SE = 0.05, p = 0.0001). The results suggest that household income may play an important role in children’s snacking and SSB behaviors among more disadvantaged households.

Practical implications

Factors beyond snack food and SSB consumption should be explored to better understand childhood overweight and obesity, and to inform future obesity interventions.

Originality/value

Socioeconomic disparities in childhood obesity are an ongoing policy-relevant issue within the USA and internationally. This study provides new information about child snacking behaviors in a unique, low-income population and contributes to the evidence base regarding the role household context in shaping child consumption behaviors.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2019

Dhamawatee Harnarun Etwaroo, Viswen Armoogum, Dayawatee Goburdhun, Arvind Ruggoo, Pooja Dookheea, Henna Thorul and Fahilah Zainab Noormahomed

The purpose of this paper is to determine the level of food additives, caffeine and total sugars in locally manufactured beverages in Mauritius and ascertain their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the level of food additives, caffeine and total sugars in locally manufactured beverages in Mauritius and ascertain their compliance with national and international norms.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 48 beverages: 21 soft drinks, 14 ice teas, 5 fruit drinks, 5 nonalcoholic sparkling drinks and 3 tonic waters were analysed for the level of sweeteners (aspartame, acesulfame K and saccharin), preservatives (benzoic and sorbic acid), colours (tartrazine, sunset yellow, quinoline yellow, allura red, amaranth, ponceau 4R, carmoisine, erythrosine, brilliant blue, green S and patent blue), citric acid, caffeine and total sugars. High-performance liquid chromatography methods used to quantify the levels of total sugars, caffeine and additives were validated against parameters such as linearity, recovery, accuracy, precision and limit of quantification.

Findings

Out of 48 beverages, 13 contained at least one sweetener. The most frequently used sweeteners were acesulfame K and aspartame. Benzoic acid was present in 27 samples (42.32–168.03 mg/L). Sorbic acid was present in 14 beverages (13.01–180.38 mg/L). Citric acid (0.7–4 g/L) was present in all the 48 beverages, while caffeine was present in 20 samples in the range of 14.01–129.42 mg/L. Nine samples contained at least one artificial colour and the most frequently used colours were tartrazine, sunset yellow, brilliant blue and carmoisine. The average level of total sugars present in the beverages was 10 g/100 ml. The validation parameters obtained showed evidence for method suitability.

Research limitations/implications

Beverages sold by individuals on the street, small restaurants and markets were not analysed.

Originality/value

This study provides an overview of the chemical composition of soft drinks and their compliance with Food Regulations. It also paves the way to investigate weaknesses, knowledge, attitudes and practices of local manufacturers, which leads to non-adherence to Regulations regarding food additives.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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