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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Wytse Vellema and Marijke D'Haese

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the extent to which transaction cost theory on hybrid governance structures can explain hybrid personalities observed in the South…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the extent to which transaction cost theory on hybrid governance structures can explain hybrid personalities observed in the South African sugar industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Three governance structures used simultaneously by the same company to purchase sugar cane from small-scale growers are described in detail. One of these structures is close to a market arrangement, the other two are hybrids. The discriminating alignment hypothesis and more recent work on hybrid models are used to explain the factors driving the choice for a hybrid arrangement and determining their specific form. Factors not covered by theory are identified.

Findings

At least two areas would need to be included to explain the specific form taken by the studied governance structures: production characteristics and financial constraints of the transacting parties. Furthermore, the importance of national and local regulations in affecting organizational form by determining what is and is not possible is demonstrated.

Research limitations/implications

This case study highlights limitations of current theory in fully explaining the “personality” of governance structures. Future work should not shun the finer details of governance structures and their interaction with the institutional environment.

Social implications

Inclusive business models are promoted as tools for poverty alleviation and economic development. Public involvement plays an important role, however, more research is required to understand its reach and leverage its full potential.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to rigorously apply transaction cost theory to inclusive business models in agricultural sourcing, an area which is rapidly gaining prominence on the development agenda. It shows that a complete understanding requires going beyond current theory.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2009

Renuka Mahadevan

This paper seeks to examine the impact of various socio‐economic factors on the viability of sugar production by focusing on the technical efficiency of farm performance.

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1108

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine the impact of various socio‐economic factors on the viability of sugar production by focusing on the technical efficiency of farm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The examination is undertaken by empirically estimating the random coefficient production frontier using farm level data. The paper uses Fiji as a case study.

Findings

In general, farmers produced 25 per cent less than their potential output. Among the farm inputs, land (labour) was the most (least) efficiently used input. Empirical evidence also suggests that large‐scale farming should be seriously considered by amalgamating land leases. Lastly, sugar reform can be successful with the use of appropriate best farming techniques to improve cane yield, and if there is successful expansion of sugar‐related products.

Originality/value

This is the first attempt to estimate the random coefficient frontier model that enables the examination of overall technical efficiency of the farm as well as input‐specific technical efficiency for improved policy formulation.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 26 October 2005

Dale Tomich

While scholars have commonly inquired into how capital structures the material world, far less attention has been paid to how the material world has structured the…

Abstract

While scholars have commonly inquired into how capital structures the material world, far less attention has been paid to how the material world has structured the historical relations of the capitalist world economy. This chapter is concerned with the expansion of Caribbean sugar industry in the world economic conjuncture of the first half of the nineteenth century. It examines the relation of the material requirements of sugar production, regional geography, and productive space. The ability of planters in particular locations to respond to world economic conditions was subject to material and spatial constraints. Increased output and technological innovation were dependent on the creation of new productive spaces – including both the formation of new commodity frontiers and the reconstitution the sugar plantation – that conformed to the changing requirements of sugar manufacture. Thus, the spatial and material conditions of staple production shaped the pattern of accumulation and political economic development.

Details

Nature, Raw Materials, and Political Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-314-3

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2017

P. Lynn Kennedy, Karen E. Lewis and Andrew Schmitz

While genetically modified (GM) crops have provided tremendous agricultural productivity gains, many consumers oppose GM products and maintain they are unsafe. We use the…

Abstract

While genetically modified (GM) crops have provided tremendous agricultural productivity gains, many consumers oppose GM products and maintain they are unsafe. We use the case of GM sugar beets and their adoption by the US producers to examine the implications of GM technology on food security. A partial equilibrium framework is used to examine the implications of GM technology on food security. This analysis provides a unique opportunity to examine the impact of GM adoption in one product (sugar beets) relative to non-GM adoption in a substitute product (sugarcane). This analysis examines the potential gains to food security through the adoption of biotechnology versus consumer fear of GM technology. Research and development (R&D) has potential implications not only through its impact on supply, but also on demand as well. This study shows that demand impacts can negate the supply-induced food security gains of R&D. Regulations such as mandatory labeling requirements can impact this outcome.

Details

World Agricultural Resources and Food Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-515-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2002

Stuart McCarthy and John Billingsley

A robust low cost refractometer has been developed together with signal conditioning algorithms to enable sucrose content to be measured during the mechanical harvesting…

Abstract

A robust low cost refractometer has been developed together with signal conditioning algorithms to enable sucrose content to be measured during the mechanical harvesting of the sugar cane plant. This technology will be applied to the harvester process that removes the tops of the cane to assist the harvester operator to cut the cane at the optimum cutting height.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Abuzar Nomani and Mohammad Khalid Azam

This paper aims to assess how Sharīʿah guidelines improve the working capital needs of the Indian sugar industry. Previous studies reveal that the sugar industry in India…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess how Sharīʿah guidelines improve the working capital needs of the Indian sugar industry. Previous studies reveal that the sugar industry in India is in a state of cash deprivation for decades. Finance is not available for expansion, as well as for working capital requirements. Banks have also declined to provide working capital loans to the sugar industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Lack of working capital management and its impact upon sugar mills profitability are examined based on a sample of six Indian sugar mills and the use of panel data analysis for the period 2011-2015.

Findings

The regression results suggest the need for reducing the number of days’ account receivables and inventories to a reasonable minimum to maintain the liquidity necessary for the mills, which current mills cannot manage to achieve, and consequently, suffer liquidity problems.

Practical implications

This paper presents a model of Sharīʿah-compliant working capital financing for cash deprived Indian sugar industry. All the three parties stand to benefit from this arrangement: the farmer will get the price of his crop promptly and at its farmland, sugar mill will secure the required quantity of raw material (sugarcane) without any immediate cash outflow, and the Islamic bank will earn a reasonable mark-up profit from this transaction.

Originality/value

The study is the first comprehensive effort to explore the possible combination of Islamic banking products subject to the fulfillment of needs of sugar mills and farmers and the application of an Islamic banking instrument in the agriculture sector of India. It also suggests the possible models for financing under a Salam and Murabahah contract.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2020

Sheetal Sheetal, Rajiv Kumar and Shashi Shashi

This paper seeks to examine the export competitiveness and concentration level of the 15 top sugar exporting countries over the last 18 years (2001–2018) with special…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine the export competitiveness and concentration level of the 15 top sugar exporting countries over the last 18 years (2001–2018) with special reference to India.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the paper utilizes a review based approach and explains the structures of major sugar economies in context to protected and unprotected perspectives. Subsequently, empirical research was carried out to assess the competitiveness level of sugar using Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) approach and Hirschman Herfindahl Index.

Findings

The study found structural changes in cane or beet sugar, and molasses over the time period between 2006 and 2015. Further, the findings confirmed that despite the stringent regulations in European Union, the United States of America, Guatemala, Mexico, Thailand, China, and India, the comparative advantage is high up to seven to nine sugar categories. Besides, despite the indulgent regulations in the Colombia, Brazil, and Canada, the comparative advantage is only consistent up to two to three sugar categories.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides an overview of competitiveness patterns of 15 sugar exporting countries and further compare their comparative and concentration levels. In this context, in future, it would be interesting to study the macro-economic and firm and industry-specific factors which may strengthen the study findings.

Practical implications

This study suggests that the sugar export of few countries (i.e. Mexico and Canada) is restricted up to their trade pacts and free trade zones which is restricting the competitiveness level and performance. Accordingly, such countries need to enlarge their business boundaries to foster their export competitiveness level. Rational subsidies and governmental assistance in diversification schemes in terms of products' range and sustainable processes can make India a consistent exporter in more categories.

Originality/value

Although, the previous studies attempted to examine the sugar industry with particular country context, this study enlarge the body of knowledge through simultaneously examining the sugar export scenario of fifteen sugar exporting countries and providing a broad comparative view of their competitiveness and concentration levels.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2009

M.R. Mulwa, A. Emrouznejad and F.M. Murithi

The data used in this study is for the period 1980‐2000. Almost midway through this period (in 1992), the Kenyan government liberalized the sugar industry and the role of…

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1364

Abstract

Purpose

The data used in this study is for the period 1980‐2000. Almost midway through this period (in 1992), the Kenyan government liberalized the sugar industry and the role of the market increased, while the government's role with respect to control of prices, imports and other aspects in the sector declined. This exposed the local sugar manufacturers to external competition from other sugar producers, especially from the COMESA region. This study aims to find whether there were any changes in efficiency of production between the two periods (pre and post‐liberalization).

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilized two methodologies to efficiency estimation: data envelopment analysis (DEA) and the stochastic frontier. DEA uses mathematical programming techniques and does not impose any functional form on the data. However, it attributes all deviation from the mean function to inefficiencies. The stochastic frontier utilizes econometric techniques.

Findings

The test for structural differences in the two periods does not show any statistically significant differences between the two periods. However, both methodologies show a decline in efficiency levels from 1992, with the lowest period experienced in 1998. From then on, efficiency levels began to increase.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first paper to use both methodologies in the sugar industry in Kenya. It is shown that in industries where the noise (error) term is minimal (such as manufacturing), the DEA and stochastic frontier give similar results.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2017

Andrew Schmitz, P. Lynn Kennedy and Michael Salassi

In this chapter the development of new sugarcane varieties in Florida and Louisiana is examined, along with the accompanying advancement in mechanization technology…

Abstract

In this chapter the development of new sugarcane varieties in Florida and Louisiana is examined, along with the accompanying advancement in mechanization technology through the widespread adoption of sugarcane harvesters. An econometric analysis is carried out to determine the impact of the price of raw sugar on raw-sugar yields in Louisiana and Florida. This study found that in the case of Louisiana, the 3-year lagged US raw-sugar price had a positive and significant impact on sugar yields. The change in raw-sugar prices did not have a significant impact on sugar yields for the Florida industry. Sugar production has increased over time, in part, due to the development of new sugarcane varieties accompanied by modern sugarcane harvesters. Given the relationship between price and yield, particularly in Louisiana, policy makers and producers must be mindful of the potential impact of policy-induced research and development (R&D) on the competitiveness of their industry.

Details

World Agricultural Resources and Food Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-515-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1899

The information which has hitherto appeared in the daily press as to the evidence laid before the Departmental Committee which is inquiring into the use of preservatives…

Abstract

The information which has hitherto appeared in the daily press as to the evidence laid before the Departmental Committee which is inquiring into the use of preservatives and colouring matters can hardly have afforded pleasant reading to the apologists for the drugging of foods. It is plainly the intention of the Committee to make a thorough investigation of the whole subject, and the main conclusions which, in the result, must bo forced upon unbiassed persons by an investigation of this character will be tolerably obvious to those who have given serious attention to the subject. At a later stage of the inquiry we shall publish a full account of the evidence submitted and of the Committee's proceedings. At present we may observe that the facts which have been brought forward fully confirm the statements made from time to time upon these matters in the BRITISH FOOD JOURNAL, and amply justify the attitude which we have adopted on the whole question. Representatives of various trade interests have given evidence which has served to show the extent to which the practices now being inquired into are followed. Strong medical evidence, as to the dangers which must attach to the promiscuous and unacknowledged drugging of the public by more or less ignorant persons, has been given; and some medical evidence of that apologetic order to which the public have of late become accustomed, and which we, at any rate, regard as particularly feeble, has also been put forward. Much more will no doubt be said, but those who have borne the heat and burden of the day in forcing these matters upon the attention of the Legislature and of the public can view with satisfaction the result already attained. Full and free investigation must produce its educational effect ; and whatever legal machinery may be devised to put some kind of check upon these most dangerous forms of adulteration, the demand of the public will be for undrugged food, and for a guarantee of sufficient authority to ensure that the demand is met.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 1 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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