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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2020

Sue Williamson, Lisa Carson and Meraiah Foley

Governments have demonstrated a renewed interest in progressing gender equality for their workforces, including in Australia. This refocusing has resulted in a tranche of…

Abstract

Purpose

Governments have demonstrated a renewed interest in progressing gender equality for their workforces, including in Australia. This refocusing has resulted in a tranche of new gender equality policies being introduced into the Australian Public Service (APS). The purpose of this paper is to examine how New Public Management (NPM) is reflected in these gender equality policies and consider whether NPM may assist or hinder gender being “undone” or “redone” in APS organisations.

Design/methodology/approach

A content analysis was conducted to assess the strategies contained within the gender equality policies of all 18 Australian government departments.

Findings

The content analysis reveals that the policies strongly reflect an NPM framing, except in one important area – that of monitoring and evaluation. The lack of attention to this crucial element of NPM may hinder effective implementation of many of the policies. The authors also conclude that while good intent is evident in the policies, they may “redo” rather than “undo” gender in organisations.

Practical implications

The paper will assist organisations which are developing and implementing gender equality policies. Even though NPM is specific to the public sector, the research highlights the potential and pitfalls when developing such policies in an environment focused on increasing efficiencies and reducing costs.

Originality/value

While gender equality and public sector reforms occurred simultaneously in Australia, few researchers have examined the interactions between the two.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2019

Michael O’Donnell, Sue Williamson, Arosha Adikaram and Meraiah Foley

The purpose of this paper is to explore how human resource (HR) managers in garment factories in a Sri Lankan export processing zone (EPZ) navigated the tension between…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how human resource (HR) managers in garment factories in a Sri Lankan export processing zone (EPZ) navigated the tension between their role as stewards of employee welfare and their role to maximise firm productivity in response to time and production pressures imposed by international buyers. Relatively little attention has been paid to the role of HR managers as liaisons between firms and labour. This omission is significant, given the importance of human resource management in the recruitment and retention of labour and the role of HR managers in organisational performance and regulatory compliance.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach was used based on interviews with 18 HR managers, factory managers and other key informants, and 63 factory workers from 12 firms in the Katunayake EPZ. The interviews and focus groups in English were transcribed and coded into themes arising from the literature and further developed from the transcripts. Initial codes were analysed to identify common themes across the data set.

Findings

HR managers were acutely aware of the competitive pressures facing the EPZ garment factories. While examples of company welfarism were evident, HR practices such as incentive payment systems and the management of employee absences reinforced a workplace environment of long hours, work intensification and occupational injury.

Originality/value

This paper goes some way towards filling the gap in our understanding of the roles played by HR managers in garment factories in the Global South, raising theoretical debates regarding the potential for HR managers in developing countries to distance themselves from the negative consequences of HR practices such as individual and team reward systems.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2018

Meraiah Foley and Sue Williamson

Anonymous recruitment seeks to limit managers’ reliance on stereotypes in employment decisions, thereby reducing discrimination. This paper aims to explore how managers…

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Abstract

Purpose

Anonymous recruitment seeks to limit managers’ reliance on stereotypes in employment decisions, thereby reducing discrimination. This paper aims to explore how managers interpret the information embedded in anonymised job applications and how they interpret the organisational priorities driving the adoption of anonymous recruitment.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews with 30 managers in two Australian public sector organisations were analysed.

Findings

The results showed that managers used implicit signals and cues to infer the gender identities of applicants in anonymised applications, reintroducing the possibility of bias. Managers perceived that anonymous recruitment sent positive external signals to prospective employees but were sceptical about its effectiveness.

Research limitations/implications

The results showed that removing applicants’ names and identifying information from applications may not be sufficient to reduce bias. In organisations where managers are sympathetic to equity and diversity issues, use of anonymous recruitment may provoke resentment if managers perceive organisational distrust or inconsistent objectives. Limitations regarding the size and nature of the sample are acknowledged.

Practical implications

Organisations seeking to reduce gender discrimination in recruitment may consider adopting standardised application procedures or training managers to understand how stereotypes affect evaluations. Organisations should also assess managerial support for, and understanding of, anonymous recruitment prior to implementation.

Originality/value

The findings add to existing knowledge regarding the effects of implicit gender signals in managers’ assessments and the effectiveness of anonymous recruitment in reducing gender bias. It also contributes to signalling theory by examining how managers interpret the signals conveyed in organisational policies.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2018

Meraiah Foley, Marian Baird, Rae Cooper and Sue Williamson

The purpose of this paper is to explore how entrepreneur-mothers experience independence in the transition to entrepreneurship, and whether they perceive independence as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how entrepreneur-mothers experience independence in the transition to entrepreneurship, and whether they perceive independence as an agentic, opportunity-maximisation motive or a constrained, necessity-driven response.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting a qualitative and interpretive approach, the authors analysed interviews with 60 entrepreneur-mothers to refine conceptual understanding of independence.

Findings

The authors find that entrepreneur-mothers experience independence not as an opportunity, but as a functional necessity in managing the temporal and perceived moral demands of motherhood. The authors assert that there is a fundamental difference between wanting independence to pursue a more autonomous lifestyle, and needing independence to attend to family obligations, a difference that is not adequately captured in the existing conceptualisation of independence. Consequently, the authors propose the classification of “family-driven entrepreneurship” to capture the social and institutional factors that may disproportionately push women with caregiving responsibilities towards self-employment.

Practical implications

This paper proposes that a new category of entrepreneurial motivation be recognised to better account for the social and institutional factors affecting women’s entrepreneurship, enabling policymakers to more accurately position and support entrepreneur-mothers.

Social implications

The authors challenge the existing framing of independence as an agentic opportunity-seeking motive, and seek to incorporate family dynamics into existing entrepreneurial models.

Originality/value

This paper delivers much-needed conceptual refinement of independence as a motivator to entrepreneurship by examining the experiences of entrepreneur-mothers, and proposes a new motivational classification, that of family-driven entrepreneurship to capture the elements of agency and constraint embedded in this transition.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2009

R. McGreggor Cawley

This essay explores a possible anti-essentialist strategy for public administration. The argument presented is twofold. First, the concepts of objective, socially…

Abstract

This essay explores a possible anti-essentialist strategy for public administration. The argument presented is twofold. First, the concepts of objective, socially constructed, and experienced reality are explored, concluding that experienced reality is the most practical for public administration. Second, the use of cognitive dissonance to create discourse is proposed as a strategic approach. The essay also suggests that experienced reality and cognitive dissonance offer a way to finesse the control/domination problematic. The work of Michel Foucault provides the central organization of the essay, and the theories of Taylor and Follett are used as historical examples. The essay concludes with a proposed application of the strategic use of cognitive dissonance

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2010

David McMenemy

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the debates around the topic of library fines and consider the arguments highlighted for and against.

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1398

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the debates around the topic of library fines and consider the arguments highlighted for and against.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a reflective overview based on a discussion of the points raised both supporting and rejecting the use of library fines.

Findings

It is argued that fines are a necessary aspect of efficient library operations and to ensure collective responsibility for the collections among members. However the paper queries the reliance of some libraries on the income generated by fines, and questions whether this reliance is in opposition to the role of the library in encouraging efficient use of the stock.

Practical implications

The paper considers the positives and negatives of a fines culture, and may be useful background for those pondering the topic.

Originality/value

The paper discusses a topic that is of current professional debate as to its efficacy and should of value for those interested in the arguments for and against fines in libraries, and their impact on library usage.

Details

Library Review, vol. 59 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Sajjad Miran and Chang Hyun Sohn

– The purpose of this paper is to numerically investigate the influence of corner radius on flow past a square cylinder at a Reynolds number 500.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to numerically investigate the influence of corner radius on flow past a square cylinder at a Reynolds number 500.

Design/methodology/approach

Six models were studied, for R/D=0 (square cylinder), 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 (circular cylinder), where R is the corner radius and D is the characteristic dimension of the body. The transient two-dimensional (2D) laminar and large eddy simulations (LES) models were employed using finite volume code. The Strouhal number, mean drag coefficient (CD), and root mean square (RMS) value of lift coefficient (CL,RMS), for different R/D values, were computed and compared with experimental and other numerical results.

Findings

The computational results showed good agreement with previously published results for a Reynolds number, Re=500. It was found that the corner effect on a square cylinder greatly influences the flow characteristics around the cylinder. Results indicate that, as the corner radius ratio, R/D, increases, the Strouhal number increases rapidly for R/D=0-0.2, and then gradually rises between R/D=0.2 and 0.5. The minimum values of the mean drag coefficient and the RMS value of lift coefficient were found around R/D=0.2, which is verified by the time averaged streamwise velocity deficit profile.

Originality/value

On the basis of the numerical results, it is concluded that rounded corners on a square cylinder are useful in reducing the drag and lift forces generated behind a cylinder. Finally, it is suggested that with a rounded corner ratio of around R/D=0.2, the drag and oscillation of the cylinder can be greatly reduced, as compared to circular and square cylinders.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2009

W. Scott Sherman and Valrie Chambers

Corporate scandals at Enron, Tyco, and MCI highlight the issue of opportunistic management behavior. The US Congress responded to these scandals by passing the…

Abstract

Corporate scandals at Enron, Tyco, and MCI highlight the issue of opportunistic management behavior. The US Congress responded to these scandals by passing the Sarbanes‐Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). SOX imposes additional management responsibilities and corporate operating costs on companies trading under SEC regulations. This paper examines three options for US corporations responding to SOX: compliance with SOX, taking a company private, or moving to a non‐ SEC‐regulated exchange, such as an international exchange. The paper then examines potential corporate governance options using Transaction Cost Economics (TCE; Williamson 1985) to develop propositions regarding which options firms may select.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Abstract

Details

Documents from the History of Economic Thought
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1423-2

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Book part
Publication date: 15 November 2018

Bev Orton

There are seven main characters of which five are women: Sindiswa, Mia, Susan, Thenjiwe and Nicky. The other two characters, Glen and Zaccaria, represent males from very…

Abstract

There are seven main characters of which five are women: Sindiswa, Mia, Susan, Thenjiwe and Nicky. The other two characters, Glen and Zaccaria, represent males from very different socio-economic and political backgrounds. The character of Dumasani, a young boy, is referred to in the play. What makes the play especially significant is that of a cast of seven, five are women. Throughout the play the character of Glen, a spy for the apartheid government, reveals the manipulative and deceitful manner in which the members of the South African police force and political informers carried out their work. He forms relationships with people about whom he professes to care; however, his only concern is that they are able to provide information that will secure financial reward for his spying activities for the apartheid government. Born in the RSA offers the audience an interesting exchange of ideas and thoughts about the political, economic and social situation in apartheid South Africa. Through the exploration of narratives and improvisation a landscape of violence is thrown open. A landscape of violence, that is not only physical, but also psychological. The play presents a complex situation in which violence does not only come from one source but from various sources such as the government, the youth, the opposition parties, the comrades, the private domestic space, subversive activities and political organisations. Any opposition to government policies results in harsher and more extreme violence by the apartheid regime strengthening their oppressive forces.

Details

Women, Activism and Apartheid South Africa: Using Play Texts to Document the Herstory of South Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-526-7

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