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Begins with a critical review of the literature on knowledge management, arguing that its focus on IT to create a network structure may limit its potential for encouraging…
Begins with a critical review of the literature on knowledge management, arguing that its focus on IT to create a network structure may limit its potential for encouraging knowledge sharing across social communities. Two cases of interactive innovation are contrasted. One focused almost entirely on using IT (intranet) for knowledge sharing, resulting in a plethora of independent intranets which reinforced existing organizational and social boundaries with electronic “fences”. In the other, while IT was used to provide a network to encourage sharing, there was also recognition of the importance of face‐to‐face interaction for sharing tacit knowledge. The emphasis was on encouraging active networking among dispersed communities, rather than relying on IT networks. Argues for a community‐based model of knowledge management for interactive innovation and contrasts this with the cognitive‐based view that underpins many IT‐led knowledge management initiatives.
The economic reforms in the People’s Republic of China have begun to open up this very large market. However, a major impediment to quicker or more substantive growth has…
The economic reforms in the People’s Republic of China have begun to open up this very large market. However, a major impediment to quicker or more substantive growth has been the paucity of experienced Chinese managers. In response, there has been a very rapid growth in business and management education in China, especially in MBA education. Given that management as a discipline was not previously taught in China, much of the knowledge base for this education has been imported from the West. However, it is argued that the linear attempt to transfer explicit management knowledge from the West to China is based on false assumptions about the nature of knowledge and so is unlikely to be effective. Instead a community model of knowledge is presented, which suggests that there needs to be an interaction between Chinese and Western ideas, which will benefit all parties.
This paper provides an overview of a series of research projects investigating the diffusion and appropriation of technologies for production and inventory control (PIC)…
This paper provides an overview of a series of research projects investigating the diffusion and appropriation of technologies for production and inventory control (PIC). These technologies are referred to, collectively, as production and inventory control systems (PICS) though also appear under a number of other names (for example, computer‐aided production management). PICS are information technologies used, predominantly by operations management or logistics personnel in manufacturing industry, to plan and schedule production runs and materials handling so that materials are available when required for production without holding unnecessary inventory. Typically, though not always, the technologies are computer‐aided. Like other technologies, they involve a significant amount of organisational as well as technical innovation (c.f. Damanpour, et al, 1989).
This paper compares the immediate impact of an outdoor management development programme run in two different formats. The original OMD programme which was evaluated had a…
This paper compares the immediate impact of an outdoor management development programme run in two different formats. The original OMD programme which was evaluated had a competitive format with individuals participating in teams on a variety of outdoor challenges in order to develop personal team‐working skills. On each activity the teams were awarded points depending on how successful they were judged to have been, so that one team “won” and one team “lost”. Evaluation of this programme indicated that those in losing teams felt they had learned less from the experience compared to those in winning teams. In consequence, the format of the programme was changed so that the competition between the teams was abolished. Evaluation results indicated a much more positive impact for all participants. These results are discussed in terms of how the different programme formats encouraged different types of review processes.
The purpose of this article is to consider how project leadership knowledge and behaviour influence project team trust and social capital development and use in the…
The purpose of this article is to consider how project leadership knowledge and behaviour influence project team trust and social capital development and use in the context of a global HR information systems project.
A comparative interpretive case study approach was used, including interviews (n=45) and participant observation with members at all levels of the two examined projects. Interpretive patterns from situated activities enabled inferences to be drawn about different types of project leader (PL) knowledge and behaviours and trust and the bridging and bonding aspects of social capital.
PLs need to apply knowledge in three areas in order for trust to develop within the project team (external leadership, internal leadership and hybrid leadership), which in turn is a necessary pre‐condition for the development and exploitation of social capital, a significant influence on project success.
The choice of two extreme cases (one where trust did not develop and one where trust did) means that further research is needed to corroborate the findings in order to make generalisations.
The study highlights ways in which a PL can foster the development of trust in the context of complex cross‐cultural, cross‐functional IS project teams. The study identifies how there are different types of trust that need to be generated and how this depends on good internal, external and hybrid PL leadership.
The study highlights the importance of different types of trust for being able to exploit social capital at the project level that has not been studied explicitly in the literature.
Information systems for production management tend to be promoted by technology suppliers as standardised solutions which form a singular “best practice”. However, as…
Information systems for production management tend to be promoted by technology suppliers as standardised solutions which form a singular “best practice”. However, as these technologies are configurational, the notion of best practice is illusory. Data on the diffusion and design of information systems for production management across four European countries indicate distinctive national differences. It is argued that these can best be explained at two levels: first, national differences in the social institutional networks through which information about these systems is diffused socially shapes patterns of adoption and design; second pre‐existing patterns of work design and managerial practices may influence the degree of “fit” between particular design philosophies and prevailing organizational contexts in different countries. Differences in the particular roles of professional association networks and technology suppliers in the diffusion process are explained in terms of different patterns of knowledge sharing across countries.
This paper aims to investigate how virtual communities of practice (V‐CoP) develop in large‐scale virtual projects.
A case study of a large‐scale ES implementation was conducted in Italy and in the USA.
It was found that management can encourage the formation of V‐CoP if, along with the creation of virtual project teams they promote informal interaction between the team members, encourage commitment, and put together “the right mix of people”.
Understanding how the technical and the functional communities communicated is meaningful to understand the extent to which different CoP can, virtually, overcome context‐specific barriers.
Uses data from a questionnaire given to 66 mothers of youngchildren (a cross‐section) to examine the relation between women’sexpectations and actual experience as they…
Uses data from a questionnaire given to 66 mothers of young children (a cross‐section) to examine the relation between women’s expectations and actual experience as they enter the job market in increasing numbers and the idea of equal opportunities. The majority of women undertook a greater share of childcare than their partner irrespective of whether they worked and a majority wanted more responsibility. Suggests that the rhetoric of equal opportunities may actually worsen the situation for women, who because of deepseated attitudes about their mothering role, strive to fulfil a dual role – and give a lower priority and less time to work than is expected of them.
In examining attempts to move towards HRM‐style practices in organisations, the term “greenfield” helps to conceptualise the break with existing employee relations…
In examining attempts to move towards HRM‐style practices in organisations, the term “greenfield” helps to conceptualise the break with existing employee relations practices, either on new or on existing sites, or to undertake a philosophical break with the past. Focuses on one stimulus to such transformational change – the development of human resource information systems (HRIS) as an opportunity structure that can enable a break with the past. Considers a case study of a large company implementing an HRIS integrated with other functional systems, to examine whether an e‐greenfield site exists. This is defined as a break with the past in the design and use of a computerised HRIS at either new or old organisational locations, to facilitate a greenfield HR philosophy and enable a more strategic role for HR specialists.
Given the importance of information technology in today′s societyan understanding of the process by which technologies are diffusedwithin and between societies is clearly…
Given the importance of information technology in today′s society an understanding of the process by which technologies are diffused within and between societies is clearly important. Presents a model of this diffusion process which has been developed on the basis of an extensive research programme looking at the diffusion of production and inventory control systems within the components sector of British industry. This model suggests attention needs to be paid to three factors – the technological innovation itself, the vendors/suppliers of the innovation, and the user organization. Highlights the practical utility of this approach.