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1 – 10 of 315
Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Lin‐Chih Chen

Web‐snippet clustering has recently attracted a lot of attention as a means to provide users with a succinct overview of relevant results compared with traditional search…

Abstract

Purpose

Web‐snippet clustering has recently attracted a lot of attention as a means to provide users with a succinct overview of relevant results compared with traditional search results. This paper seeks to research the building of a web‐snippet clustering system, based on a mixed clustering method.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes a mixed clustering method to organise all returned snippets into a hierarchical tree. The method accomplishes two main tasks: one is to construct the cluster labels and the other is to build a hierarchical tree.

Findings

Five measures were used to measure the quality of clustering results. Based on the results of the experiments, it was concluded that the performance of the system is better than current commercial and academic systems.

Originality/value

A high performance system is presented, based on the clustering method. A divisive hierarchical clustering algorithm is also developed to organise all returned snippets into a hierarchical tree.

Book part
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Ben Carterette, Evangelos Kanoulas and Emine Yilmaz

Purpose — The overall quality of an information retrieval system depends on many different aspects of the system and its users' information seeking behaviour, such as the…

Abstract

Purpose — The overall quality of an information retrieval system depends on many different aspects of the system and its users' information seeking behaviour, such as the speed of the system, the user interface, the query language and the features provided by the engine. One of the most important aspects is the effectiveness of the retrieval system, i.e. its ability to retrieve items that are relevant to the information need of an end user. This chapter focuses on methods for measuring effectiveness, in particular focusing on recent work that more directly models the utility of an engine to its users.

Methodology/approach — We discuss traditional approaches to effectiveness evaluation based on test collections, then transition to approaches based on test collections along with explicit models of user interaction with search results. We contrast this with approaches for which the user is ‘in the loop’, such as user studies and online evaluations.

Research limitations/implications — If it were possible to model users perfectly, we could directly estimate the utility of a search engine to its users; this would undoubtedly have a transformative effect on information retrieval and web search research. In practice, this goal will never be achievable because users exhibit far too much variability in how they approach the search engine, and furthermore provide valuable feedback that models and simulations cannot provide. Nevertheless, better models of user interaction will help develop better web search engines for a wider variety of tasks more rapidly.

Originality/value of paper — This is the first work that surveys recent work on user model-based evaluation and places it in a context with traditional evaluation based on the Cranfield paradigm.

Details

Web Search Engine Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-636-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Kerstin Denecke

Purpose — Since a couple of years, we are confronted with the phenomenon of information overload. In particular, the web provides a rich source of a variety of information…

Abstract

Purpose — Since a couple of years, we are confronted with the phenomenon of information overload. In particular, the web provides a rich source of a variety of information mainly in textual, i.e. unstructured form. Thus, web search faces new challenges that are how to make the user aware of the variety of content available and how to satisfy users best with such manifold content.

Methodology — This variety of content is considered as diversity, i.e. the reflection of a result set's coverage of multiple interpretations of a query. Diversification within web search aims on the one hand at adapting the ranking in a way that the top results are diverse. Increasingly important becomes on the other hand the organization and classification of content within diversification.

Findings — Various approaches to diversification are available or currently focus on research activities. They range from an adapted ranking by means of similarity measures or diversity scores to a comprehensive diversity analysis which determines topics and classifies text according to opinions etc.

Implications — Given the high diversity of web content, approaches for diversification are extremely important. Web search tries to address this problem from different perspectives. For the future, combination with image search result diversification is important. Further, benchmarks and standard data sets for evaluations need to be established to ensure comparability of results from various approaches.

Originality/value — This chapter provides an overview on diversity in web search from two directions: (a) Diversity is introduced with its notions and dimensions. (b) Methods to assess diversity within web search are presented.

Details

Web Search Engine Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-636-2

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 14 August 2021

Antonia Sorge, Federica Bassanini, Jennifer Zucca and Emanuela Saita

This study aims to explore the psychological effects of lockdown during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic on people living in an Italian prison. The suspension of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the psychological effects of lockdown during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic on people living in an Italian prison. The suspension of family visits and most activities, along with the difficulties in applying social distancing to this vulnerable population was associated with increased psychological distress. Riots broke out over two days in more than 22 prisons across Italy at the beginning of March 2020, highlighting the negative psychological impact of the pandemic and the country’s emergency policies.

Design/methodology/approach

The research involves 17 men (Italians and foreigners) detained in a Lombardy prison from 1 March to 4 May 2020, corresponding to the lockdown phase in Italy. The qualitative content analysis (CA) of 27 posts, written by participants during that period and published on the blog “L’Oblò”, were analysed. The analysis allowed the identification of topics and subtopics that are related to two major categories of content: cognitions and emotional connotations about the COVID-19 lockdown in prison.

Findings

Analysis showed that blog post content was predominately negative in terms of emotional connotations. The most frequent coded negative emotional connotations were: missing, worry, psychological pain and fear, whilst the most frequent coded positive emotional connotations were: hope and gratitude for the support they received from prison workers. The rest of the blog content was coded as “cognitions”. Cognitions were coded as descriptions of lockdown effect on detention; prison during the COVID-19 emergency; the pandemic situation in general; and comparison between inside and outside prison.

Originality/value

The current study is original as it describes through blog CA the psychological condition of prisoners during the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in the most affected region in Italy.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1986

Walt Crawford

A good outline processor can serve creativity and help to clarify thinking. The malleability of the screen and computer memory make it easy to add new ideas, try different…

Abstract

A good outline processor can serve creativity and help to clarify thinking. The malleability of the screen and computer memory make it easy to add new ideas, try different organizations, and view a project or document at any appropriate level. Outline processors can help bridge the gap between spontaneous ideas and organized results. In his tenth Common Sense Computing article, the author discusses the ways that outline processors are used, what they do, and what features to look for.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Jeffrey Sootheran

The purpose of this paper is to examine publication patterns of scholarly literature related to academic libraries and development (i.e. funding), including publication…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine publication patterns of scholarly literature related to academic libraries and development (i.e. funding), including publication trends over a five-year period, core journals and authorship, so that library directors and library development officers will have a basic collection of relevant resources.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology consisted of journal article searches in three databases relating to the field of library information science with 2006-2010 as the date limiter. The primary search terms came from the topic of this study and were joined to secondary-level search terms by using the Boolean operator: AND. Secondary-level keywords originated from the literature review and the search process. Results were stored in an Excel file based on pre-determined categories and were evaluated based on the research questions.

Findings

There were 106 articles published on the topic of academic libraries and development authored by 164 individuals, pairs, groups or associations during the five-year period of 2006-2010. In 2010, the greatest number of articles (35) was published on the topic, but in 2008, the least number (14) was published.

Originality/value

This study takes the bibliometric analysis approach, which has rarely been used on the topic of academic libraries and development work with the specific focus on library funding. It provides a foundation for further research on the topic, as well as resources to be used by library practitioners.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2010

Shana Wagger, Randi Park and Denise Ann Dowding Bedford

This paper aims to review key content, architecture, and metadata model decisions and strategies in creation of a publication portal (on DVD to start), based on a 30+ year…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review key content, architecture, and metadata model decisions and strategies in creation of a publication portal (on DVD to start), based on a 30+ year series of flagship reports from the World Bank.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes and analyzes key considerations and aspects of the project, including content architecture, content analysis, DTD selection, retrospective conversion, vendor management, design of metadata architectures, use of automated profiling methods, user‐information behavior, and search architectures supporting complex content architectures. It includes the challenges of applying an institutionally based taxonomy required to express subject‐matter responsibilities and relationships within the World Bank.

Findings

The team learned that the metadata behavior and architecture (inheritance, relationships, variations) are more complex than simple links between parent and child objects. The project also reinforced the importance of comprehensive and dynamic topic taxonomy for classifying content that is both historical and current. The approach to defining classes for each full report (parent) will be likely to change, given what has been learned. The team would recommend that parts be classified and the sum of the part classes be assigned to the whole report. As a result of this exploratory work, the Bank's approach to classification and indexing of report series is changing from a top‐down to a bottom‐up inheritance.

Originality/value

The study provides insights into both general and World Bank‐specific challenges in creating a publication portal and derives some best practices for content architecture, metadata architecture, and use of automated profiling methods.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 62 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2018

Anabel Quan-Haase, Andrew D. Nevin and Veronika Lukacs

Social media are central to the creation and maintenance of social relations, including romantic relations. While much of the scholarship has examined how social media…

Abstract

Social media are central to the creation and maintenance of social relations, including romantic relations. While much of the scholarship has examined how social media play a role in the initiation and maintenance of romantic relations, little is known about their role in romantic dissolution. This chapter fills this gap by examining the kinds of strategies young adults employ to cope with the aftermath of a romantic breakup complicated by Facebook. Based on qualitative analysis of 10 interviews with young adults, the authors propose a typology of Facebook coping strategies for romantic breakups. The typology includes seven types of coping strategies with 12 subtopics and 25 specific actions linked to the subtopics. The authors find that those coping with a breakup engage in erasing and avoiding breakup reminders and digital traces, as they perceive them as hurtful. They regulate their use of Facebook and limit Facebook communication with the ex. An important coping strategy used was to express their emotions via Facebook content, often aimed at the ex-partner. They also use Facebook to seek support and new information about the ex, including about potential new romantic interests. Others preferred to avoid information about the ex and either deleted the ex and their friends or chose to unsubscribe to updates. Coping strategies included preventative measures such as changing passwords, blocking the ex, and adjusting privacy settings. We found our participants engaged in both goal-directed and emotionally based coping strategies. Yet, the findings suggest a tendency to rely more extensively on goal-directed coping strategies by actively addressing the breakup stressor. We also note that coping strategies specific to Facebook are more likely to be used than traditional offline forms of coping. This exploratory study serves as a starting point to better understand the role that Facebook plays in mediating online behaviors following a romantic dissolution, such that these strategies can be subsequently evaluated in terms of usefulness in clinical coping recommendations.

Details

Networks, Hacking, and Media – CITA MS@30: Now and Then and Tomorrow
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-666-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 June 2010

Elisabeth Nöhammer, Claudia Schusterschitz and Harald Stummer

The purpose of the present paper is to gain a first insight into the determinants of employee acceptance of, and participation in, workplace health promotion (WHP) in the…

2361

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present paper is to gain a first insight into the determinants of employee acceptance of, and participation in, workplace health promotion (WHP) in the German speaking part of Europe with a focus on Austria.

Design/methodology/approach

Being a neglected field of research so far, a qualitative approach using problem‐centred interviews was chosen. These were conducted with 19 employees in three different organizations, the four people there responsible for WHP as well as with nine health experts. These interviews form the basis for preliminary propositions.

Findings

Determinants of employee acceptance of, and participation in, WHP are shown to concern information plus offer design. As for information, crucial factors are its flow, how it is presented and how it is received by the individual. Criteria regarding offer design are found on the individual and interpersonal level as well as referring to general environmental and organizational conditions.

Research limitations/implications

Further research on a broad quantitative level is required to test the propositions developed on the basis of the present qualitative study.

Practical implications

With their implications regarding information and offer design, the findings of the study can serve as a guideline for employee‐centred WHP and are of interest to practitioners as well as academics in the field.

Originality/value

Giving first insights into the employees' perspective regarding determinants of acceptance of, and participation in, WHP, this paper offers valuable suggestions for a target‐group oriented design of WHP.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2011

Edward J. Brantmeier, Antonette Aragon and James Folkestad

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a very difficult, yet all important and ongoing research question – how do we best use online collaborative learning…

787

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a very difficult, yet all important and ongoing research question – how do we best use online collaborative learning modalities (CLM) to supplement conversations in multicultural education courses?

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study examined emergent themes in asynchronous threaded discussions created by 23 students within a Master's level multicultural education course at a large land‐grant university in the USA.

Findings

Engagement in threaded discussions fostered student understanding of a systems perspective of social realities. Power, privilege, and oppression related to race, gender, and economics in the USA were explored through student use of real world, concrete examples – something that does not always occur in face‐to‐face classroom encounters constrained by time and the pacing of curriculum.

Research limitations/implications

Researchers would like to see more empirical research in using technologically mediated, CLM to foster conversations surrounding power, oppression, and privilege in efforts to advance the pedagogies of critical multicultural education.

Practical implications

Using threaded discussions seems to be a promising practice in teaching critical multicultural education content.

Social implications

This research project provides understanding of how CLM can help establish systems perspectives – perspectives critical to multicultural education.

Originality/value

This paper advances the conversation related to promising practices in multicultural education. Scarce empirical research exists related to critical approaches to multicultural education online.

Details

Multicultural Education & Technology Journal, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-497X

Keywords

1 – 10 of 315