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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Päivi Karhunen, Riitta Kosonen and Svetlana Ledyaeva

– The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of institutional distance, extended to capture subnational institutional variation, on foreign entry mode choice.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of institutional distance, extended to capture subnational institutional variation, on foreign entry mode choice.

Design/methodology/approach

As an empirical study, it focuses on manufacturing firms established in Russia by foreign investors from developed countries. The dependent variables, the share of foreign ownership and the entry mode choice binary variable (equal to 1 for full foreign ownership and zero for a joint venture) were obtained from the registry of foreign-owned firms in Russia. The World Bank's regulatory quality (RQ) index on a national level and a respective indicator for the various Russian regions on a subnational level were utilised to measure institutions. Multilevel cross-classified analysis including foreign firms, the various Russian regions and characteristics of the foreign owners’ home countries was applied to for making empirical estimations.

Findings

The empirical results show, first, that the regionally adjusted institutional distance, i.e. the distance between the home country and the Russian region in question, when measured in terms of RQ, shifts the ownership structure towards shared ownership. However, nation-level institutional distance between the home country and Russia does not show any statistically significant relationship with the modal choice.

Originality/value

The results indicate that with the exception of industries of strategic importance to the state, the most important “rules of the game” for foreign entry strategies are provided not by the federal government but by the regional governors. The theoretical value of the paper lies in the extension of the institutional distance concept to the subnational level. At the same time, the paper identifies those institutional features that foreign entrants eyeing Russia need to take into account when selecting an entry mode and location within Russia.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Elona Guga

An attempt will be made to shed light on the course and pattern of the decentralization process by analyzing the historical development of local government and the…

Abstract

Purpose

An attempt will be made to shed light on the course and pattern of the decentralization process by analyzing the historical development of local government and the territorial-administrative reform of 2015-2020 in Albania and the factors that have been shaping it. The scope is to understand the impact of the reform elements on the subnational governments and in general their overall impact on the government. The purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in the existing literature for Albania and at offering some insights on the administrative-territorial reform. Furthermore, it will contribute to the current debate on fiscal decentralization in South Eastern European (SEE) countries and the public management model implemented after the last reforms.

Design/methodology/approach

The first section analyzes the historical development of local government reforms from the 1990s to today and will help to identify if there is instrumentalism advocacy. The second section explains the determinants of the local government’s fiscal autonomy in Albania of the period from 2003 to 2016. Three indicators are used as proxies for fiscal decentralization: the proportion of subnational expenditure over national expenditure, of total subnational revenues over total revenues of central government and the indicator of own subnational revenues over total revenues of the central government. The data from the budget and the revised budgets are then compared.

Findings

Despite Albania’s commitment to decentralize its government functions, there is still work to do. The territorial and administrative reform has not generated the expected results. Almost 90 percent of the revenues still come from the central government’s unconditional transfers. Therefore, the Albanian Government should build capacities and skills, and train the employees of each level of government that currently benefit from international assistance.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis represents a single case study on the territorial-administrative reform in Albania. Its implementation started in 2015 and it is probably too early to discuss outcomes. However, it might be useful to analyze the first results after a two-and-a-half-year period of implementation of reforms. Despite contributing to the existing gap in the literature, additional research will be necessary to better understand the decentralization process not only in Albania, but in all SEE countries.

Practical implications

It is necessary to first understand the lack of initial output, as well as the various challenges faced, in order to take the corrective measures on time.

Originality/value

This paper discusses in detail the reform adopted and the progress made by the Albanian local government units. The reform attempts to develop better relationships between the central and local governments and hence improve their service delivery, transparency and accountability. This paper is the first one that is attempting to analyze the initial output of the territorial-administrative reform of 2015-2020.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2021

Eduardo Grin, B. Guy Peters and Fernando Luiz Abrucio

Abstract

Details

American Federal Systems and COVID-19
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-166-3

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 26 October 2021

These problems also affect subnational governments, which have increasingly come under attack in recent years. They have suffered a string of outages and interruptions to…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB264982

ISSN: 2633-304X

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Geographic
Topical
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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2020

Cristi Frenț and Douglas C. Frechtling

Despite its popularity as the only method for measuring the national economic contribution of tourism accredited by the United Nations and other multilateral economic…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite its popularity as the only method for measuring the national economic contribution of tourism accredited by the United Nations and other multilateral economic institutions, Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) is rarely applied to subnational regions. The purpose of this paper is to examine to what extent the compliance with some general principles that any regional TSA should follow contributes to better international comparability of tourism statistics, one of the main goals of the TSA.

Design/methodology/approach

Through secondary research, 14 countries have been identified making regional TSA applications by complying most likely with these principles. In this regard, some methodological issues and main results obtained by these countries are investigated.

Findings

This study concludes that international comparability of TSA compilation data at regional levels should be a long-term goal once congruence is achieved between national and regional TSAs.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is not based on a primary data collection of TSA data.

Practical implications

The paper shows that regional TSAs might also be envisaged in the international comparability process of the national TSA data. It provides suggestions for how to use data to improve measurement of the economic contribution of tourism to regions.

Originality/value

It is the first paper addressing the international comparability of a sizable number of regional TSAs from 14 countries.

目的

本文旨在理解任何一个区域TSA对这些原则的遵循多大程度上有助于提高旅游统计数据的国际可比性。这是TSA的主要目标之一。

设计/方法论/方法

尽管旅游卫星账户(TSA)作为联合国和其他多边经济机构官方认可的测量旅游业的国家经济贡献的唯一方法而广受欢迎, 但是TSA很少被应用于地方上。通过二次研究, 已经识别了14个国家通过遵循区域TSA应遵循的一般原则来应用区域TSA。本文研究了这些国家在这方面的方法论问题和主要成果。

发现

本研究得出结论, 一旦国家和区域TSAs达成一致, 区域层面的TSA汇编数据的国际可比性应该成为一个长期目标。

研究局限/意义

本文并非基于TSA数据的原始数据集。

实践意义

本文认为, 在各国TSA数据的国际可比性进程中可能也可以展望区域TSAs. 本文为如何利用数据提高旅游业对区域经济贡献的测量提出了建议。

创意/价值

这是第一篇涉及来自14个国家的相当大的数据量的TSAs国际可比性的文章。

Propósito

El propósito de este documento es examinar en qué medida el cumplimiento de algunos principios generales que debe seguir cualquier CST regional contribuye a una mejor comparabilidad internacional de las estadísticas de turismo, uno de los principales objetivos de la CST.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

A pesar de su popularidad como el único método para medir la contribución económica nacional del turismo acreditado por las Naciones Unidas y otras instituciones económicas multilaterales, la Cuenta Satélite de Turismo (CST), rara vez se aplica a las regiones subnacionales. Mediante investigaciones secundarias, se han identificado catorce países que realizan aplicaciones regionales de la CST, cumpliendo muy probablemente con algunos principios generales que toda CST regional debería seguir. A este respecto se investigan algunas cuestiones metodológicas y los principales resultados obtenidos por esos países.

Hallazgos

Este estudio concluye que la comparabilidad internacional de los datos de compilación de la CST a nivel regional debería ser un objetivo a largo plazo, una vez que se logre la congruencia entre las CST nacionales y regionales.

Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación

El documento no se basa en una recopilación de datos primarios de la TSA.

Implicaciones prácticas

El documento muestra que las CST regionales también podrían contemplarse en el proceso de comparabilidad internacional de los datos de CST nacionales. Ofrece sugerencias sobre cómo utilizar los datos para mejorar la medición de la contribución económica del turismo a las regiones.

Originalidad/valor

Es el primer documento que aborda la comparabilidad internacional de un número considerable de CST regionales de catorce países.

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Article
Publication date: 25 December 2020

Hongquan Chen, Saixing Zeng, Chongfeng Wu and Haiping Fu

The authors develop a theoretical framework of how foreign competition in a firm's home country jointly interacts with other environmental factors to influence the…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors develop a theoretical framework of how foreign competition in a firm's home country jointly interacts with other environmental factors to influence the internationalization pace. This study moves beyond the debate on whether foreign competition promotes or inhibits the internationalization pace by unpacking the nature of pace across strategic and operational dimensions. By differentiating the internationalization paces of market scope and international commitment, the study results show that foreign competition has a positive effect on the former and a negative effect on the latter. This indicates that the determinants of different paces are conditional upon the different knowledge types among foreign competitors.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a panel data set of Chinese construction corporations over the period from 2009 to 2015, the authors extend previous research on the effect of home country environment on internationalization behavior in an emerging economy by examining the effects of the interplay between foreign competition in home country and industrial contexts. The authors also explore the moderating effect of subnational institutions on the relationship between foreign competition and internationalization pace. They use a Poisson model and a GEE model to examine the main effects and moderating effects involved.

Findings

The results indicate that industry dynamism strengthens the positive effect of foreign competition and the pace of market scope, while industry munificence weakens the negative effect of foreign competition and the pace of international commitment. The authors’ findings support the coexistence of “pushing” and “pulling” effects of environmental factors from a firm's home country. The authors extend the argument of “institutional escapism” by focusing on subnational institutions. They show that firms located in a region with a low level of marketization are more likely to respond by accelerating the pace of their international expansion to escape from their home country.

Originality/value

The authors’ findings have implications for practitioners and policymakers working with emerging market firms (EMFs). The authors suggest that local governments should consider building high-quality institutions that can reduce the possibility of investment opportunities escaping EMFs. The authors’ findings indicate that international knowledge from foreign competitors may also assist EMFs in understanding more about the cultural environment before entering host countries, although it cannot help them to resolve cultural uncertainty when operating in host countries. Hence, managers should carefully evaluate their competitiveness before they decide to engage in global competition at an accelerated rate.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 59 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Christian Otchia and Simplice Asongu

This study uses machine machine learning techniques to assess industrial development in Africa.

Abstract

Purpose

This study uses machine machine learning techniques to assess industrial development in Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses nightlight time data and machine learning techniques to assess industrial development in Africa.

Findings

This study provides evidence on how machine learning techniques and nightlight data can be used to assess economic development in places where subnational data are missing or not precise. Taken together, the research confirms four groups of important determinants of industrial growth: natural resources, agriculture growth, institutions and manufacturing imports. Our findings indicate that Africa should follow a more multisector approach for development, putting natural resources and agriculture productivity growth at the forefront.

Originality/value

Studies on the use of machine learning (with insights from nightlight satellite images) to assess industrial development in Africa are sparse.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 48 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Public-Private Partnerships, Capital Infrastructure Project Investments and Infrastructure Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-654-9

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Abstract

Details

Taxing the Hard-to-tax: Lessons from Theory and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-828-5

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2020

András Bethlendi, Csaba Lentner and László Nagy

This study aims to assess the sustainability of local governments in a highly centrally regulated fiscal model.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess the sustainability of local governments in a highly centrally regulated fiscal model.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a novel approach, a broad data set of almost 3,200 local governments and network methods. This paper analyses financial data from annual reports and other socio-economic sources using cluster analysis.

Findings

Even in this model, local governments show significant differences in terms of long-term sustainability. Investments do not compensate for the depreciation of tangible assets at a significant part of local governments. A specific type of soft budget constraint can be noticed. Heads of local governments do not “play” for subsequent ad hoc bailouts by the central government, but rather engage themselves in political competition for development subsidies. A further finding of this study is that shrinking populations itself does not explain the differences in local governments’ financial management.

Research limitations/implications

Further directions of research include the application of an extended approach to sustainability that gives an account of the availability and quality of local services, as well as aims to identify the qualitative social characteristics (success criteria) of the local government financial management.

Practical implications

The findings can be useful for policymakers, state audit offices, auditors, voters, users of public services and other stakeholders.

Social implications

The paper argues in favour of moving away from the financial balance in its narrow sense to a long-term and broader term of financial sustainability.

Originality/value

The findings provide new empirical evidence about the accounting-based measurement of financial sustainability in local governments.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

Keywords

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