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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Ioana Lupu and Laura Empson

The purpose of this paper is to understand: how and why do experienced professionals, who perceive themselves as autonomous, comply with organizational pressures to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand: how and why do experienced professionals, who perceive themselves as autonomous, comply with organizational pressures to overwork? Unlike previous studies of professionals and overwork, the authors focus on experienced professionals who have achieved relatively high status within their firms and the considerable economic rewards that go with it. Drawing on the little used Bourdieusian concept of illusio, which describes the phenomenon whereby individuals are “taken in and by the game” (Bourdieu and Wacquant, 1992), the authors help to explain the “autonomy paradox” in professional service firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is based on 36 semi-structured interviews primarily with experienced male and female accounting professionals in France.

Findings

The authors find that, in spite of their levels of experience, success, and seniority, these professionals describe themselves as feeling helpless and trapped, and experience bodily subjugation. The authors explain this in terms of individuals enhancing their social status, adopting the breadwinner role, and obtaining and retaining recognition. The authors suggest that this combination of factors cause professionals to be attracted to and captivated by the rewards that success within the accounting profession can confer.

Originality/value

As well as providing fresh insights into the autonomy paradox the authors seek to make four contributions to Bourdieusian scholarship in the professional field. First, the authors highlight the strong bodily component of overwork. Second, the authors raise questions about previous work on cynical distancing in this context. Third, the authors emphasize the significance of the pursuit of symbolic as well as economic capital. Finally, the authors argue that, while actors’ habitus may be in a state of “permanent mutation”, that mutability is in itself a sign that individuals are subject to illusio.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Rasidah Arshad

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of cultural value orientations (mastery and subjugation) in moderating the relationship between psychological contract…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of cultural value orientations (mastery and subjugation) in moderating the relationship between psychological contract violation (PCV) and turnover intention.

Design/methodology/approach

A longitudinal survey method was used to collect data from downsizing survivors in two phases. The final sample was 281 cases. Confirmatory factor analysis and hierarchical regression models were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

PCV is positively related to turnover intention, and the relationship is moderated by cultural value orientations. Specifically, the relationship is stronger among downsizing survivors with a high level of subjugation orientation (SO) and/or a low level of mastery orientation (MO) in comparison with downsizing survivors with a low level of SO and/or a high level of MO.

Research limitations/implications

The contribution of the study lies in the utility of examining culture at an individual level of analysis in relation to PC and downsizing research. Despite a generic human functioning model, some subtle cultural influences exist affecting the processes within the model. The negative reactions to downsizing are not simply a function of situational factors, but also reflect individual differences in cultural value orientations.

Originality/value

The study addresses the need to examine the role of cultural value orientations in influencing the relationship between PCV, and employee behaviors. Such an examination is important because cultural differences may result in unique interpretations and reactions to PCV.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2017

Chenelle A. Jones and Renita L. Seabrook

This chapter examines how the intersection of race, class, and gender impact the experiences of Black women and their children within a broader socio-historical context.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter examines how the intersection of race, class, and gender impact the experiences of Black women and their children within a broader socio-historical context.

Methodology/approach

The epistemological framework of feminist criminology and the invisibility of Black women are used to draw an analysis on the American dominant ideology and culture that perpetuates the racial subjugation of Black women and the challenges they have faced throughout history as it relates to the mother-child dynamic and the ideals of Black motherhood.

Findings

By conceptually examining the antebellum, eugenics, and mass incarceration eras, our analysis demonstrated how the racial subjugation of Black women perpetuated the parental separation and the ability for Black women to mother their children and that these collective efforts, referred to as the New Jane Crow, disrupt the social synthesis of the black community and further emphasizes the need for more efforts to preserve the mother/child relationship.

Originality/value

Based on existing literature, there is a paucity of research studies that examine the effects of maternal incarceration and the impact it has on their children. As a part of a continuous project we intend to further the discourse and examine how race and gender intersect to impact the experiences of incarcerated Black women and their children through a socio-historical context.

Details

Race, Ethnicity and Law
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-604-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Mohammed Sharif

International conflicts and violence are similar in nature to domestic conflicts and violence which are also similar to those taking place between individuals. Only…

Abstract

International conflicts and violence are similar in nature to domestic conflicts and violence which are also similar to those taking place between individuals. Only difference between them is that of magnitude that increases as one moves from individual to societal national level and finally to international level of conflicts. The fundamental question at issue here is that of self‐interest with respect to social and political authority and economic power. The conflicts become most intense and violence gets widest and most cruel at the international level. There are two broad methods in dealing with this problem – use of force to coerce and subjugate or application of the power of persuasion to win the hearts and minds of the people. The former is the conventional secular materialistic method but often used invoking the name of religion and the latter is that of true spiritual humanistic practices and applications in preserving and promoting the cause of all of humanity.While the first does not require the system to be fair and just, the latter predicates them. The foundation of the first is “us” vs. “them” as it divides humanity into many nation states, but that of the second is “us” vs. “us” since it recognizes and practices universality of humanity. More importantly, the former grants unfettered authority to the leaders of the society in the form of sovereignty of the “nation state”, the latter subjugates the authority of the leaders to that of a higher supreme Authority.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 24 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 30 April 2021

Gil Richard Musolf

The essay explores the profound nature and consequences of subjectivity struggles in everyday life. W. E. B. Du Bois's concept of double consciousness and its constituent…

Abstract

The essay explores the profound nature and consequences of subjectivity struggles in everyday life. W. E. B. Du Bois's concept of double consciousness and its constituent concepts of the veil, twoness, and second sight illuminate the process of racialized self-formation. Racialized self-formation contributes to understanding the cultural reproduction of domination and subjugation, the two primary concerns of radical interactionists. Double consciousness, long ignored by symbolic interactionists, cannot be neglected by radical interactionists if they are to articulate a comprehensive account of self-formation in a white-supremacist culture. Reflections on racialization, meritocracy, and subjectivity struggles in contemporary everyday life conclude the essay.

Details

Radical Interactionism and Critiques of Contemporary Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-029-8

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Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2008

M. Spohn

A number of international relations' mid-level theories about violence are inadequate to the task of explaining societal and group violence. Many of these theories, for…

Abstract

A number of international relations' mid-level theories about violence are inadequate to the task of explaining societal and group violence. Many of these theories, for example, confuse causality with correlation, or breakdown and then cannot explain why they fail. Building upon the theories of criminologist Lonnie Athens, both in their particulars and in their spirit of practical solution rather than entrenched debate, this article considers whether those theories of individual violence are suitable for extrapolation to the societal level. It explores some problems with the current theories in international relations, and reviews the theoretical foundations offered by Athens and some others, who have also laid strong groundwork for scaling Athens' theories to the societal level by considering their applications to communities. A number of those theories, although based upon analyses of individual dangerous violent criminals, lend themselves particularly well to groups and communities, suggesting strong suitability of scaling to these levels, and to the societal one as well. Also considering critiques of Athens' and Rhodes' work, this article ultimately argues that Athens' theories of violence, and those building upon them, constitute a strong foundation for theories of violence in international relations that relate to the societal scale.

Details

Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-125-1

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2021

Hamid Yeganeh

Building on the “Great Divide” thesis (Goody, 1977; Ong, 1982), this study analyzes the conceptual relationships between the two main communication modes…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on the “Great Divide” thesis (Goody, 1977; Ong, 1982), this study analyzes the conceptual relationships between the two main communication modes (orality/literacy) and cultural values.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts a purely conceptual approach to connect orality and literacy with nine cultural dimensions adopted from Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s (1961), Hall’s (1976) and Inglehart’s (1997) frameworks.

Findings

The analyses suggest that orality is associated with values such as high-context communication, poly-chronic time, public space proxemics, collectivism, hierarchical social structure, subjugation, past orientation, religiousness/traditionalism and survival cultural dimensions. Literacy is associated with opposing values, including low-context communication, mono-chronic time, private space proxemics, individualism, egalitarian social structure, dominance, future orientation, secularity/rationality, and self-expression cultural dimensions. The paper relies on modernization theory to explain the socio-economic implications and organizes the nine pairs of cultural dimensions according to the great divide between orality and literacy.

Originality/value

Theoretically, this study conceptualizes orality and literacy, analyzes their salient differences and examines their relationships with cultural values. While many studies have tried to explain the differences in cultural values from an economic perspective, this study offers an alternative view of cultural values’ variations across the world.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2014

Ulaş Çakar and Ozan Nadir Alakavuklar

This chapter focuses on the Turkish businesses’ and individuals’ perspectives on sustainability and environment and provides a socio-cultural analysis regarding the…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter focuses on the Turkish businesses’ and individuals’ perspectives on sustainability and environment and provides a socio-cultural analysis regarding the problems underlying in the implementation of sustainability and environmental practices in an emerging economy.

Methodology/approach

Current sustainability and environment studies literature regarding the Turkish businesses and society are examined. Socio-cultural perspective is used to explain the problems in the field.

Findings

Turkish culture is traditionally associated with harmony with the nature and many studies point to its environmental awareness. But the lack of future orientation, paternalist way of management, and survival concerns of the individuals and businesses cause a certain lack of environmental initiative. Turkish culture has a unique pluralistic approach to nature, and in this approach mastery, harmony, and subjugation are combined.

Practical and social implications

The suggested pluralistic approach should be considered by the relevant stakeholders to understand the dynamics of business and environment relations in Turkey. This unique structure calls for unique environmental solutions.

Originality/value of paper

Present studies of Turkey in terms of sustainability and environmental issues are generally lacking socio-cultural perspectives. This study aims to fill this gap by suggesting an alternative pluralistic approach based on a socio-cultural evaluation of Turkish culture.

Details

Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability: Emerging Trends in Developing Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-152-7

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Book part
Publication date: 18 February 2008

Peter Hancock

In 1995, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) launched the quantitative Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) in its Human Development Report (1999). The GEM has been…

Abstract

In 1995, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) launched the quantitative Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) in its Human Development Report (1999). The GEM has been a feature of this report ever since. In 2004/05, a group of researchers from Edith Cowan University (Perth, Australia) intended to rely on the GEM to study the experiences of factory women in two of Sri Lanka's Export Processing Zones (EPZs). The experience of this team – at the heart of this chapter – is that the quantitative measures of the GEM, particularly the specific ways in which it causes researchers to conceptualise gender and empowerment, are not adequate to understand the nuanced and complex processes of women's experiences in regards to empowerment. The team's experience caused it to question the relevance and utility of the GEM, and in turn, its sole reliance on a quantitative methodology. As a result, the researchers from Edith Cowan changed their original methodological approach and adopted a stronger qualitative emphasis. In turn, this provided a far more realistic insight into the concepts of gender and empowerment, and indeed the lived experiences of the women it sought to represent.

Details

Qualitative Urban Analysis: An International Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1368-6

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Book part
Publication date: 23 July 2014

Edgar H. Schein

This chapter explores the role that coercion plays in the educational process, looking at it both from the point of view of the teacher and from the perspective of the…

Abstract

This chapter explores the role that coercion plays in the educational process, looking at it both from the point of view of the teacher and from the perspective of the student/learner. The primary focus will be on coercion but inevitably manipulation and seduction enter the picture as well. I have observed that when learners get really motivated, or, as I prefer to call it, animated, they seem to learn more and certainly enjoy it more. What has come to be called experiential education has become very popular as a way of animating learners, which raises the question of whether this form of learning rests on fundamentally different assumptions than traditional teaching formats. This analysis and implications applies primarily to the learning of interpersonal, group, and interorganizational relationships and the “human side of enterprise,” that is, management and leadership. The need to explore the design of alternative experiential learning settings that animate learners and/or invent new modes of learning without the intense face-to-face contact – that animation seems to be depended on – is advocated.

Details

Research in Organizational Change and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-312-4

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