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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2011

Jose M. Leon‐Perez, Francisco J. Medina and Lourdes Munduate

This paper aims to examine the relationship between self‐efficacy and the outcomes that individuals achieve when they manage conflict at work. The authors propose that…

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1345

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between self‐efficacy and the outcomes that individuals achieve when they manage conflict at work. The authors propose that self‐efficacy is related to performance following a positive linear or curvilinear model depending on the outcomes assessed (objective versus subjective outcomes) and the conflict setting considered (transaction versus dispute).

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were conducted. Study 1 was a face‐to‐face transaction in which self‐efficacy was measured using a survey. In study 2, participants were involved in a dispute and their self‐efficacy was manipulated using a false feedback technique.

Findings

Results suggest that high self‐efficacy participants obtain better objective (economic/substantive) outcomes. However, there is a curvilinear relationship, in a U‐inverted shape, between self‐efficacy and subjective (relational) outcomes, indicating that an increase in self‐efficacy improves subjective outcomes, but there are certain levels at which self‐efficacy may be dysfunctional.

Originality/value

Recent controversial findings in research into the relationship between self‐efficacy and performance are addressed in these studies. The present paper is one of the first to explore the role of self‐efficacy in a dispute and to consider the effects of self‐efficacy on subjective outcomes. Practical implications are discussed in light of the results.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 24 January 2018

Annafatmawaty B.T. Ismail, Sukanlaya Sawang and Roxanne Zolin

The purpose of this paper is to answer the research question: “Do different pedagogies used in teaching entrepreneurship education influence individual skill development…

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1688

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to answer the research question: “Do different pedagogies used in teaching entrepreneurship education influence individual skill development, which then in turn translates into a likelihood of entrepreneurial implementation intention?”

Design/methodology/approach

The number of total participants for the quasi-experiment was 308 undergraduate students in Malaysia, in which pre- and post-test (n=203) and control (n=105) groups are included. Students who enroled in the entrepreneurship course were randomly allocated into a class employing teacher-centred pedagogy or student-centred pedagogy. Learning outcomes are measured by objective and subjective measures.

Findings

Both pedagogical approaches had a positive effect on the development of the learning outcomes. However, the students who learned using the teacher-centred approach statistically developed a higher level of objective and subjective learning outcomes compared to the students who learned using the student-centred approach. The findings also suggest that the relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention mediates by learned skills.

Originality/value

The quasi-experimental design greatly improves the ability to make accurate claims about the impact of entrepreneurial education on entrepreneurship-related outcomes. Further, the study uses the implementation intention strategy in measuring the entrepreneurial intention. Thus, the study strongly supports for the view that implementation intention improves predictive validity of the behavioural intention within the framework of theory of planned behaviour by setting out in advance when, where, and how the goal will be achieved.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 60 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Susana C. Santos and Eric W. Liguori

Building on social career cognitive theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate outcome expectations as a mediator and subjective norms as a moderator in the…

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1053

Abstract

Purpose

Building on social career cognitive theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate outcome expectations as a mediator and subjective norms as a moderator in the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 1,026 students from US public and private universities retrieved from the Entrepreneurship Education Project, this study tests a first-stage moderated mediation model in a two-step process.

Findings

Results show that entrepreneurial self-efficacy is positively related to entrepreneurial intentions through the partial mediating effect of entrepreneurial outcome expectations, and that this relationship is consistently significant and positive for individuals with lower, average and higher subjective norms towards entrepreneurship.

Research limitations/implications

These findings contribute to the literature on entrepreneurial intentions by providing a comprehensive overlook on the mechanisms and boundary conditions relevant for intentions.

Practical implications

These results reinforce the need for educators and policy makers to ensure programs manage outcome expectations and recognize the role of peer, parent and mentor role models on the construction of these expectations and, consequently, on entrepreneurial intentions.

Originality/value

Exploring the combined effect of entrepreneurial outcome expectations as a mechanism and subjective norms as boundary conditions on the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions is an unexplored issue to date, and helps to understand how and why entrepreneurial intentions emerge.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2011

Laura E.M. Traavik

The purpose of the study is to empirically investigate the similarities and differences between dyads and four‐party groups in an integrative negotiation.

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1563

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to empirically investigate the similarities and differences between dyads and four‐party groups in an integrative negotiation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected in a between subjects experiment. A total of 182 participants completed a negotiation role play and questionnaire. Hypotheses are tested using t‐tests, MANOVAs and two multiple regression analyses.

Findings

Results demonstrate that dyads do outperform groups on both the economic and subjective measures of outcomes. Sharing of priority information and the fixed pie bias was higher in groups than in dyads. For dyads the procedure used (considering more than one issue at a time) led to higher economic outcomes, and both procedure and problem solving were important for subjective outcomes. For four‐party negotiations, problem solving was significantly related to higher outcomes, on both economic and subjective outcomes, and procedure was moderately related to economic outcomes. Problem solving was significantly more important for the groups than for dyads on economic outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The controlled experimental setting could limit the generalizabiltiy of the findings. Measures of the intermediate variables could be improved by including additional items and observations. Future research is required in field settings using multiple measures of the process.

Practical implications

In multiparty negotiation information sharing and the presence of cognitive biases may not be as important as focusing on a problem solving approach.

Originality/value

An empirical investigation that groups under‐perform dyads in an integrative negotiation has not been conducted before.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2009

Hsi‐Peng Lu and Kuo‐Lun Hsiao

This paper aims to improve understanding of what motivates individual blog owners to post information frequently on weblogs, and whether gender affects those motivations.

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2110

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to improve understanding of what motivates individual blog owners to post information frequently on weblogs, and whether gender affects those motivations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose a model incorporating three key determinants of the intention to update weblogs: self‐expression; subjective norms; and personal outcome expectations. These were based on Social Cognitive Theory. An empirical study involving 525 subjects was conducted to test this model.

Findings

The results indicate that subjective norms have a stronger effect on the intention than personal outcome expectations or self‐expression. Additionally, women's intention was strongly influenced by self‐expression while men's intention was strongly influenced by personal outcome expectations of using weblogs.

Research limitations/implications

The authors verified the effects of subjective norms, personal outcome expectations and self‐expression on the intentions of weblog owners. The research found that these factors are important determinants of the intention to update weblogs. Moreover, it was found that gender moderates the relationships between factors and the intention in the research model.

Practical implications

For weblog service providers, the results can be used to develop tools to enhance people's intentions to publish according to gender.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to a deeper understanding of the factors that promote the use of weblogs.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2021

Mara Olekalns and Philip Leigh Smith

Negotiators are offered limited advice on how to overcome adverse events. Drawing on resilience and coping literatures, this study aims to test the impact of three…

Abstract

Purpose

Negotiators are offered limited advice on how to overcome adverse events. Drawing on resilience and coping literatures, this study aims to test the impact of three cognitive processing strategies on negotiators’ subjective and economic value following adversity.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants completed two negotiations with the same partner. The difficulty of the first negotiation was manipulated and tested how cognitive processing of this experience influenced subjective and economic outcomes in the second negotiation.

Findings

Subjective and economic outcomes were predicted by negotiators’ affect, their cognitive processing strategy and negotiation difficulty. In difficult negotiations, as positive affect increased, proactive processing decreased self-satisfaction. As negative affect increased, affective processing increased satisfaction with relationship and process.

Research limitations/implications

Cognitive processing of adversity is most effective when emotions are not running high and better able to protect relationship- and process-oriented satisfaction than outcome-oriented satisfaction. The findings apply to one specific type of adversity and to circumstances that do not generate strong emotions.

Originality/value

This research tests which of three cognitive processing strategies is best able to prevent the aftermath of a difficult negotiation from spilling over into subsequent negotiations. Two forms of proactive processing are more effective than immersive processing in mitigating the consequences.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2020

Tuvana Rua, Zeynep Aytug, Nastaran Simarasl and Lianlian Lin

Based on the social role theory, role congruity theory and gender role conflict theory, this paper aims to investigate the mediating role of “relationship conflict” in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the social role theory, role congruity theory and gender role conflict theory, this paper aims to investigate the mediating role of “relationship conflict” in the association between traditional gender role (TGR) endorsement and objective and subjective negotiation outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experimental negotiation studies (n1 = 138, n2 = 128) were conducted at a US university.

Findings

This paper presents three original and noteworthy findings: One, in mixed-gender negotiations, as a dyad’s TGR endorsement increases, final agreements become significantly more likely to favor men than women. Two, in mixed-gender negotiations, TGR endorsement is significantly associated with a decreased ability to establish a pleasant, mutually satisfactory and successful business relationship, resulting in a possible future economic cost due to lost opportunity. Three, the heightened relationship conflict during the negotiation mediates the negative association between TGR endorsement and women’s economic outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Empirical findings support social role theory, role congruity theory and gender role conflict theory. The use of a distributive negotiation case and laboratory research methodology may limit the generalizability of findings.

Practical implications

Findings about the detrimental effects of TGR in mixed-gender negotiations magnify the importance of becoming aware of our TGR orientations and their potential negative consequences on our long-term collaborations. Also, it is necessary to provide negotiation trainings to both genders with regard to gender-driven conflicts and offer tools to prevent or tackle such conflicts.

Social implications

Negotiations are among the most consequential of social interactions as their results have a substantial impact on individuals’ careers and financial outcomes. Understanding the effect of TGRs is paramount to improve female representation, participation and effectiveness in management and leadership. Mixed-gender negotiations such as collective equality bargaining, workplace social interactions, work-life balance discourse are critical to establishing gender equality and fairness in organizations and societies.

Originality/value

Understanding how gender influences negotiation processes and outcomes and using the findings to improve both genders’ negotiation success are crucial to establishing fairness and equity in society and business. This research attempts to close a gap in the literature by focusing on the potential function of gender role orientation in explaining gender differences in negotiation.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2021

Lenna V. Shulga, James A. Busser and Billy Bai

This study aims to examine how hospitality consumers of different generations appraise competitive service advantage (CSA) of service providers, based on providers…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how hospitality consumers of different generations appraise competitive service advantage (CSA) of service providers, based on providers’ business models and value propositions, particularly, how these perceptions influence consumers’ purchase intention, subjective well-being and trust in service provider.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a 3 × 4 between-within online scenario-based experimental design (business models: traditional, collaborative, shared; value propositions: innovation, marketing, service production, recovery) using equal and randomized assignment to experimental conditions. Following equal quota-based randomized sampling, three generations were examined (n = 180): baby boomers, Generation Xers and millennials. Multivariate analysis of variance and PROCESS macro were used to analyze the data.

Findings

Hospitality consumers perceived value propositions from providers with different business models inversely based on their perceptions of firms’ CSA, subjective well-being and trust. CSA amplified the outcomes and served a mediating role for purchase intention, subjective well-being and trust. Different outcomes were based on generational cohorts.

Practical implications

Customer perceptions of firm’s unique competitive position should be managed holistically by combining business models, value propositions and generational cohorts to ensure customers’ purchase intention, trust and subjective well-being. CSA should be communicated to customers differently based on generational membership.

Originality/value

This study deepens knowledge of CSA, specifically from the consumer level of analysis. The key contribution is the role of CSA as a mediator for hospitality business models and customer-related outcomes of purchase intention, subjective well-being and trust. This study brings forward consumer subjective well-being as a potential goal for hospitality firms.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Jill M. Purdy, Pete Nye and P.V. (Sundar) Balakrishnan

Our need to understand the impact of communication media on negotiation is growing as technological advances offer negotiators more communication options. As access to…

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3450

Abstract

Our need to understand the impact of communication media on negotiation is growing as technological advances offer negotiators more communication options. As access to technologies such as computer chat and videoconferencing increases, negotiators are choosing to use or to avoid these media without knowing the impact of their choices on negotiations. This research assesses objective and subjective negotiation outcomes, such as profit and outcome satisfaction, across four communication media with varying levels of media richness (face‐to‐face, videoconference, telephone, and computer‐mediated communication). A conceptual framework is offered to illustrate how media richness impacts objective and subjective outcomes. Results suggest that media richness affects required bargaining time, outcome satisfaction and the desire for future negotiation interaction. Thus, the communication media for negotiations should be chosen with care.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2019

Ivan Privalko

The purpose of this paper is to compare internal and external job mobility (quits and promotions) as separate mechanisms for workers improving earnings and job fit.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare internal and external job mobility (quits and promotions) as separate mechanisms for workers improving earnings and job fit.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors sample the core workforce from the British Household Panel Survey, estimating the effects of quits and promotions on two sets of outcomes. The first is subjective; satisfaction with work, pay and hours. The second is objective realities about the job; gross monthly pay and weekly working hours. The authors use linear fixed-effects estimation to control for individual heterogeneity.

Findings

Quits and promotions are distinctly different mechanisms for improving earnings and job fit. Quits improve measures of job fit (satisfaction with work, pay and hours) but have little effect on earnings. Internal promotions bring earnings growth but have little effect on job fit. The findings shed light what drives “voluntary” mobility; internal mobility may be driven by higher “reservation wages” and career progression, while external mobility may be driven by job matching and the need to find more appropriate work.

Social implications

Researchers should treat mobile labour markets with scepticism. The growth of “boundaryless careers” may closer resemble a release valve for poor working conditions in a varied market than a growth in new opportunities for earnings and career progression.

Originality/value

Studies of job mobility overwhelmingly focus on the effects quitting without explicitly comparing this mobility to promotions. This omission gives an incomplete picture of mobility. Bringing promotions back into the discussion, helps to understand why workers commit to internal careers and firm tenure. The paper shows that quits and promotions yield distinctly different outcomes for core workers, despite both mobility types being labelled “voluntary”. Thus, the authors show that inequality in earnings and working conditions is closely tied to access to the “life-chances” of mobility; those who are able to pursue promotion are rewarded objectively; those who quit for a new employer seek a better job fit.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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