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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Sandeep Vij and Harpreet Singh Bedi

The purpose of this paper is to operationalize the subjective measures of business performance and assessing their justification for use in place of objective measures of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to operationalize the subjective measures of business performance and assessing their justification for use in place of objective measures of business performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a sample survey of 171 companies listed on Bombay Stock Exchange, India. A cross-sectional descriptive research design has been used. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure and dimensionality of objective and subjective measures of business performance. The psychometric properties of these measures and their interrelationship have been assessed through confirmatory factor analysis.

Findings

The study finds a strong positive correlation between subjective business performance and objective business performance. The study finds it justified to use the subjective measures of business performance.

Research limitations/implications

Response bias may have crept in because of self-reported measure used for the study. Future researchers may cross-verify the subjective perception of respondents with data available from the records of the firms. Second, the study focuses only on financial and operational indicators of performance. The future studies may widen the scope of business performance by incorporating the interests of other stakeholders like suppliers, government, environment and society in general.

Practical implications

The strategy researchers confronting the challenge of adopting appropriate measures of business performance can use either or both of subjective and objective performance measures, as suggested in this study. The study has suggestions for strategic decision makers regarding measurement of business performance in terms of financial as well as operational indicators.

Originality/value

The study operationalizes and validates two measures of performance, namely, subjective business performance and objective business performance. The study contributes to the strategic management literature by providing evidence for association between objective and subjective measures of performance.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 65 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2018

Maria Chiara Demartini and Sara Trucco

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the use of subjective (objective) performance measures on relevant organisational outcomes, namely perceived…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the use of subjective (objective) performance measures on relevant organisational outcomes, namely perceived managerial discretion (PMD) and manager’s satisfaction with the performance measurement system (PMS). Furthermore, the paper analyses the indirect link between subjective vs objective measures and managers’ satisfaction through PMD.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the research hypotheses, a paper-based questionnaire was sent to Italian health care managers in Lombardy. Thus, a PLS-SEM analysis was performed on a data set of 97 Italian health care managers.

Findings

Empirical findings showed that objective measures are more capable of supporting the managerial perception of discretion when compared to more subjective ones such as “fads” and “fashions”, and that managers are more satisfied with the PMS when it is grounded on objective measures rather than subjective ones.

Originality/value

The paper operationalizes and empirically tests the measure of PMD, linking this to antecedents and consequences. It also extends the literature on subjectivity in the PMS, since it develops new knowledge on the choice between subjective and objective measures by applying this choice to a variety of PMS, whereas prior literature on objective vs subjective measures has mainly focussed on performance evaluation.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1994

Diana Best

The study examines consumer expertise for services and its measurement. Specifically, measures of subjective expertise or confidence, experience or frequency of usage, and…

Abstract

The study examines consumer expertise for services and its measurement. Specifically, measures of subjective expertise or confidence, experience or frequency of usage, and two measures of objective expertise are used for two services varying in degree of tangibility. As hypothesised, positive relationships between the different types of expertise do not always exist, particularly as intangibility of the service increases.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 6 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2008

Karin Braunsberger, R. Brian Buckler and Michael Luckett

The purpose of the paper is to compare measures of subjective and objective knowledge as well as usage/experience measures in a credence service environment for two…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to compare measures of subjective and objective knowledge as well as usage/experience measures in a credence service environment for two different samples, namely college students and non‐student adults.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from two independent samples using self‐administered questionnaires and were analyzed using correlation and reliability analyses, factor analysis, discriminant analysis and one‐way ANOVA.

Findings

For the student sample, the results show that even though measures of subjective product knowledge, objective product knowledge, and product usage are correlated with one another, each represents one unique dimension of total product knowledge. The results for the non‐student sample show that subjective and objective knowledge converge into one dimension, product usage is a second dimension, and vicarious product knowledge a third dimension.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of the present study is that its results are anchored in the context of hospitals and might thus be most relevant to this particular choice of service. In terms of implications, the “vicarious” component of total product knowledge the study uncovers for non‐students is a promising field for future studies because it is identified as one of the dimensions of total knowledge for those non‐student consumers who have a fairly low degree of objective knowledge and direct product experience.

Practical implications

Marketing managers should to take into account that, for adults, subjective knowledge is a better indicator of their objective knowledge than for students (or perhaps similar segments).

Originality/value

The present study is one of the first studies to investigate simultaneously the three dimensions of consumer product knowledge in a credence service environment.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 22 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2010

Panu Kalmi and Christina Sweins

One of the major challenges for organizations is to increase productivity in order to compete in national and world markets. Another challenge managers encounter is to…

Abstract

One of the major challenges for organizations is to increase productivity in order to compete in national and world markets. Another challenge managers encounter is to attract and retain key workers, and ensure the involvement and commitment of workers as part of the route to high performance (e.g., Guest, Michie, Conway, & Sheehan, 2003). One prominent way to reach these goals is the adoption of high performance workplace practices, including financial participation.

Details

Advances in the Economic Analysis of Participatory & Labor-Managed Firms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-454-3

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Wolfgang Messner

Statistical indicators, such as human health, are important for designing government policies, as well as for influencing the functioning of economic markets. However…

Abstract

Purpose

Statistical indicators, such as human health, are important for designing government policies, as well as for influencing the functioning of economic markets. However, there is often a discrepancy between statistical measures and the citizens’ prevalent feelings. In order to produce more relevant indicators of social progress, governments are currently shifting their measurement emphasis from objective to subjective measures. While the philosophical tradition of hedonic psychology views individuals as the best judges of their own conditions, little empirical evidence shows that individually reported health scores provide accurate information about a population’s health status. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate if subjective health questions contain genuine information about the status of human health, and are meaningful at an aggregated level.

Design/methodology/approach

Subjective health data are extracted from the 2012/2013 European Social Survey (28 European countries plus Israel, n=54,427). Objective health data are based on the 2012 World Bank statistics for life expectancy at birth. The author check if aggregated subjective health correlates with life expectancy at country level, and can reliably be compared across countries.

Findings

The findings support the idea of including subjective data into country statistics of social progress. Because of substantial between-country differences, social development programs should be devised individually for each country.

Originality/value

By showing that subjective health measures can reliably contribute to the quantification of social progress, the author offer a bridge between objective neoclassical economics and subjective hedonic psychology.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 36 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2019

Magali N. Alloatti

Women’s economic empowerment (WEE) has become a crucial part of national and international policy-making agendas in the last decades. It has also developed into a field of…

Abstract

Women’s economic empowerment (WEE) has become a crucial part of national and international policy-making agendas in the last decades. It has also developed into a field of study and knowledge production promoted and advanced by international organizations and some academic centers. Through the formulation and implementation of programs, these organizations seek to promote such empowerment. Evaluation is a crucial part of the process, assessing the results of interventions in local, regional and national settings. This book chapter aims to critically discuss the role of subjective measurement and the importance of context in these evaluations. Specifically, the status of subjective measurement, their implementation through qualitative methods and how they contribute to understanding context. Firstly, the author offers a brief reflection on the emergence of the subject as a goal and a field. Secondly, the author succinctly discusses a theoretical framework on power, (dis)empowerment and gender relations. In the third section, the author examines three reports that contribute significantly to the current debate on WEE through empirical studies, reviews and analysis. In the discussion section, the author focuses on three points that are used to connect those reports, highlighting their differences and contributions. The final remarks reflect on the importance and advantages of including subjective measurement and the significance of context in our pursuit of ending gender inequality.

Details

Gender and Practice: Knowledge, Policy, Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-388-8

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Mathieu Dunes and Bernard Pras

This paper aims to analyze the impact of brand management system (BMS) practices on subjective and objective performance in both service- and product-oriented sectors.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the impact of brand management system (BMS) practices on subjective and objective performance in both service- and product-oriented sectors.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a “grounded-in-practice” approach to BMS, a comprehensive formative BMS scale is developed and its validity is assessed. The impact of BMS on subjective brand performance (i.e. predictive validity) and on objective financial performance is assessed. Data are collected from a sample of 298 brand managers and marketing directors in five business sectors (cosmetics, convenience goods, industry, bank/insurance and media) and from a financial database. Path analysis and multigroup analysis are performed to test mediating and moderating effects.

Findings

The results reveal that subjective brand performance (perceived brand performance) mediates the relationship between the BMS and objective financial performance of the firm and on each of the three BMS dimensions; and product-oriented (vs service-oriented) sector positively moderates the relationship between the BMS and subjective brand performance.

Research limitations/implications

The paper offers insights into adapting brand management practices along all BMS dimensions to achieve better business performance and improve objective financial performance in product-oriented activities. It highlights the role of brand management implementation, as well as the role of brand management in hierarchical relationships, in improving performance in service activities.

Practical implications

The formative BMS scale offers a tool which can be used to improve strategic decisions and give practical guidance on product vs service sector specificities. The indirect impact of a BMS on financial objective performance reinforces the legitimacy of brand managers and marketing managers.

Originality/value

This paper shows the impact of the BMS on objective financial performance by using a “grounded-in-practice” BMS scale. It also affords explanation on sectoral effects of brand management practices and their consequences on subjective and objective performance.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2013

Marty Laubach and Michael Wallace

Purpose – This study tests three theories of determinants of workers' subjective response to work situations – structural factors (measured by individual, organization…

Abstract

Purpose – This study tests three theories of determinants of workers' subjective response to work situations – structural factors (measured by individual, organization, and job characteristics), general disposition, or informal work arrangements as constructed by Laubach's (2005) “consent deal.”Design/methodology/approach – Data were obtained from the Indiana Quality of Employment Survey, a survey of workers covering general working conditions. We constructed 10 models regressing worker perceptions and attitudes (e.g., satisfaction, relations with supervisors, meaningfulness) on structural determinants. We then used structural equation modeling to identify an underlying factor representing a general worker response from elements of the attitudes and perceptions. Finally, we regressed a scalar version of the general response factor on the structural determinants using the previous models.Findings – We identified a single second-order latent factor underlying the 10 attitudes and perceptions which represented the “general subjective response” of workers. This supported the concept of a dispositional effect. We then found that structural factors had a minimal effect on the subjective response, but that informal arrangements had a very strong effect. This undermined the first two theories and supported the third.Implications – Worker attitudes and perceptions are very resilient to different formal work arrangements but are highly influenced by the informal arrangements negotiated between workers and frontline management. Organizations can have the strongest effect on developing worker support by empowering frontline managers to make informal deals on workplace rules.Originality/value – This study offers a means to probe the relationship between formal and structural and the informal and subjective worlds of the workplace.

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Maria Cristina Sousa Gomes, Maria Luís Rocha Pinto and Gabriela Gomes dos Santos

With this reappraisal, the purpose of this paper is to present a reflexion on and discussion of the concept of quality of life (QL) with the intention of delimiting its…

Abstract

Purpose

With this reappraisal, the purpose of this paper is to present a reflexion on and discussion of the concept of quality of life (QL) with the intention of delimiting its meaning and application within the scope of the research project entitled “Costs and benefits of urban dispersion on a local scale”.

Design/methodology/approach

The concept of QL contains a significant degree of complexity and multidimensional variables, in addition to the dynamic nature inherent in all social phenomena. The application of this concept at a local level and within the context of the Portuguese socio‐territorial reality requires rethinking the concept through the different authors and approaches, in order to delineate the research process, and guarantee its operationalisation, selecting the social indicators than can serve this purpose, with the intent of gaining a clearer understanding of QL as perceived and evaluated by the people and groups living in various dispersed urban areas.

Findings

From the readings of literature in the field, one can understand the importance of choosing the relevant domains when analysing and measuring QL. As with the choice of indicators, in order to be able to measure the QL, simultaneously, at a local level, the choice of indicators and the delimitation of units of analysis are also fundamental in order to be able to obtain the comparison and real measure of quality of life and not the contingencies of specific contextual characteristics.

Originality/value

The study aims to open a new research perspective in the field of social sciences, more specifically in the areas related to QL and urban dispersion.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 30 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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