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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Victoria Blom, Pia Svedberg, Gunnar Bergström, Lisa Mather and Petra Lindfors

Focusing on 420 women employed within the woman-dominated health care sector, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how any variation in their total workload (TWL…

Abstract

Purpose

Focusing on 420 women employed within the woman-dominated health care sector, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how any variation in their total workload (TWL) in terms of paid and unpaid work relate to various subjective health complaints (SHC) (n=420) and the neuroendocrine stress marker cortisol (n=68).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors explored how any variation in their TWL in terms of paid and unpaid work related cross-sectionally to SHC (n=420), and the neuroendocrine stress marker cortisol (n=68).

Findings

Hierarchical regression analyses showed that stress of unpaid work was most strongly related to diurnal variations in cortisol. Both stress of paid and unpaid work as well as TWL stress, but not hours spent on TWL, were related to SHC.

Practical implications

Taken together, objective measures of hours spent on various TWL domains were unrelated to outcome measures while perceptions of having too much TWL and TWL stress were linked to both cortisol and SHC, i.e. how individuals perceive a situation seem to be more important for health than the actual situation, which has implications for research and efforts to reduce individual TWL.

Originality/value

This study is unique in showing that unpaid work and perceptions having too much TWL relate to stress markers in women working in the public health care sector.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Ronald J. Burke, Stig Berge Matthiesen and Stale Pallesen

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of individual difference personality characteristics (Big Five, generalized self‐efficacy), workaholism components…

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2002

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of individual difference personality characteristics (Big Five, generalized self‐efficacy), workaholism components and work life factors on measures of job satisfaction, burnout and health complaints.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered from 496 nursing staff caring for terminally ill patients in five health care facilities in Norway using questionnaires.

Findings

Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for personal demographic and work setting characteristics, indicated strong relationships of particular Big Five personality factors, workaholism components and work life factors with both job satisfaction and burnout; health complaints were only predicted by personality factors.

Practical implications

Future research must examine the generalizability of these findings to other samples in different countries. Implications for management and organizations are offered.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the understanding of personality factors to workaholics in work outcomes and well‐being.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2009

Ulrike Ravens‐Sieberer, John Freeman, Gyongyi Kokonyei, Christiane A. Thomas and Michael Erhart

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether students' perceptions of their school environment and their adjustment to school are associated with health outcomes…

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1341

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether students' perceptions of their school environment and their adjustment to school are associated with health outcomes across gender and age groups.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from the cross‐sectional international Health Behavior in School‐aged Children Survey of the year 2002 (n=162 306) were analyzed. A structural equation model (LISREL) specified social school climate and school demands influencing, school adjustment (achievement and liking of school). The latter aspects were assumed to influence the health outcomes general health item, life satisfaction and multiple psychosomatic symptoms. Analyses were repeated across gender and age (11, 13 and 15 years).

Findings

The specified LISREL model fitted the data well on the entire sample as well as for age and gender subgroups (RMSEA=0.043‐0.054). Overall, girls' general perceived health and life satisfaction seemed to be more strongly affected by the school environment than boys'. Age affected the goodness of fit of the model and reduced the strength of the relationship between school pressure and school adjustment. In all subgroups, the relationship between better school perceptions and better subjective health and life satisfaction were supported by the analyses.

Research limitations/implications

Reported findings are limited to the cross‐sectional study design which precludes causal inferences. Further research using longitudinal data is warranted to confirm the findings.

Practical implications

Relationships between school environment and school adjustment and health‐related outcomes revealed the relative importance of school social climate and demands for school adjustment and through the latter in determining subjective health and life satisfaction. School social climate is a target for promoting health and well‐being of children and adolescents.

Originality/value

Complex statistical analyses employing structural equation modelling confirmed findings on the importance of school aspects for child and adolescents in a huge data set.

Details

Health Education, vol. 109 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 17 February 2012

Kate Levin, Jo Inchley, Dorothy Currie and Candace Currie

The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the health promoting school (HPS) on adolescent well‐being.

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1635

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the health promoting school (HPS) on adolescent well‐being.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School‐aged Children: WHO‐collaborative Study in Scotland were analysed using multilevel linear regression analyses for outcome measures: happiness, confidence, life satisfaction, feeling left out, helplessness, multiple health complaints (MHC) and self‐rated health.

Findings

Particularly high proportions of both boys and girls reported high life satisfaction and no MHC. For the majority of outcomes, mean proportions of young people reporting positive well‐being were greater for schools that had or were working towards HPS status compared with those that did not. The odds of young people in a HPS never feeling left out were significantly greater than those in a school with no HPS status (OR=1.54, with 95 per cent CI (1.03, 2.29) for boys, OR=1.60 (1.03, 2.50) for girls). Similarly, among girls, the odds of never feeling helpless were also significantly greater (OR=1.57 (1.07, 2.16)). However, the odds of excellent health were lower for girls in a HPS (OR=0.60 (0.38, 0.95)).

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that while achieving an atmosphere of inclusion in schools, the HPS may also have increased awareness of health among girls, but may not have had much influence on life satisfaction, confidence or happiness.

Originality/value

The mental well‐being of children and adolescents is a priority area for the World Health Organisation and the Scottish Government. This is a relatively new field with little research undertaken to date looking at the impact of HPS on mental well‐being.

Details

Health Education, vol. 112 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Zeliha Özlü-Erkilic, Dietmar Winkler, Christian Popow, Heidi Elisabeth Zesch and Türkan AKKAYA-KALAYCI

The migration background can influence the life satisfaction of migrants. The purpose of this paper is to examine the life satisfaction of migrants and particularly the…

Abstract

Purpose

The migration background can influence the life satisfaction of migrants. The purpose of this paper is to examine the life satisfaction of migrants and particularly the satisfaction regarding their health in comparison to natives.

Design/methodology/approach

The life satisfaction of 50 Turkish-speaking migrants living in Vienna was compared with the life satisfaction of 50 native Austrians by the questionnaire of life satisfaction by Fahrenberg et al. (2000).

Findings

Turkish-speaking migrants had lower values than natives in all scales of the questionnaire concerning life satisfaction. Turkish-speaking women reported the lowest satisfaction regarding their health state. In the migrant group the satisfaction regarding health decreased with increasing age.

Research limitations/implications

The Turkish version of the questionnaire was translated into Turkish by authors but not formally validated. Furthermore acculturation strategies as well as the mental and physical health state of the participant, which can crucially influence the life satisfaction of migrants, were not surveyed.

Practical implications

Migrants have lower life satisfaction possibly because of their physical and mental health problems. Therefore in countries with a high proportion of migrants the health-care system should be adapted for the needs of migrants, especially for the needs of women and older migrants in order to increase the utilization of the health-care services, primarily the use of the preventive health-care services.

Social implications

The results of the present study can be helpful to develop strategies for improving the life satisfaction of migrants, especially the satisfaction regarding their health.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present study is the first research project in Vienna conducted to estimate the impact of migration background on life satisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2010

Jason Kain and Steve Jex

Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model is one of the most widely studied models of occupational stress (de Lange, Taris, Kompier, Houtman, & Bongers, 2003). The key…

Abstract

Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model is one of the most widely studied models of occupational stress (de Lange, Taris, Kompier, Houtman, & Bongers, 2003). The key idea behind the job demands-control model is that control buffers the impact of job demands on strain and can help enhance employees’ job satisfaction with the opportunity to engage in challenging tasks and learn new skills (Karasek, 1979). Most research on the job demands-control has been inconsistent (de Lange et al., 2003; Van Der Deof & Maes, 1999), and the main reasons cited for this inconsistency are that different variables have been used to measure demands, control, and strain, not enough longitudinal research has been done, and the model does not take workers’ individual characteristics into account (Van Der Deof & Maes, 1999). To address these concerns, expansions have been made on the model such as integrating resources, self-efficacy, active coping, and social support into the model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001b; Johnson & Hall, 1988; Demerouti, Bakker, de Jonge, Janssen, & Schaufeli, 2001a; Landsbergis, Schnall, Deitz, Friedman, & Pickering, 1992). However, researchers have only been partially successful, and therefore, to continue reducing inconstencies, we recommend using longitudinal designs, both objective and subjective measures, a higher sample size, and a careful consideration of the types of demands and control that best match each other theoretically.

Details

New Developments in Theoretical and Conceptual Approaches to Job Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-713-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Ronald J. Burke and Aslaug Mikkelsen

This exploratory study aims to compare job demands, work outcomes, social and coping resources and indicators of psychological and physical health of male and female…

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1836

Abstract

Purpose

This exploratory study aims to compare job demands, work outcomes, social and coping resources and indicators of psychological and physical health of male and female police officers in Norway.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using anonymously completed questionnaires.

Findings

Many demographic differences were present in that male officers were older, worked more hours and overtime hours, were more likely to work continuous shiftwork, worked in smaller forces and were less educated. Few differences were found on job demands but male officers experienced more violence and threat, and female officers more harassment and discrimination. The two groups were generally similar on work satisfactions, social and coping resources and psychological and physical health.

Research limitations/implications

All data were collected using questionnaires raising the possibility of common method variance. It is also not clear extent to what these findings generalize to police officers in other countries.

Practical implications

While few differences were found between male and female police officers, the fact that females reported more harassment and discrimination suggests that police forces need to continue to address these gender issues.

Originality/value

While other studies of police officers have suggested widespread gender differences, few appeared here.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Ronald J. Burke and Aslaug Mikkelsen

This study aims to examine gender issues in a sample of male and female police officers in Norway.

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7046

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine gender issues in a sample of male and female police officers in Norway.

Design/methodology/approach

Three gender issues were considered: perceptions of equal opportunity, possible reasons for differences in male and female career opportunities, and experiences of sexual harassment. Data were collected from 766 police officers in Norway using anonymous questionnaires, a 62 percent response rate.

Findings

Female officers indicated significantly lower levels of equal opportunity perceptions, more reasons for career opportunity differences (particularly discrimination), and more sexual harassment than did male officers. Female officers reporting lower levels of equal opportunity perceptions were less job‐satisfied, more cynical, rated their quality of leadership lower and indicated more health complaints. Female officers experiencing more sexual harassment also indicated less job satisfaction. Finally, female officers offering more reasons for career differences (particularly discrimination) reported less job satisfaction, and lower professional efficacy.

Research limitations/implications

Future research needs to examine gender issues in policing in greater depth using qualitative methodology. Data collected used self‐reports ,raising the possibility of response set tendencies. Results may not generalize to other countries or other professions.

Practical implications

Suggestions for addressing gender issues in organizations are offered.

Originality/value

Provides current information on consequences of gender issues in policing in a cross‐cultural context.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Ronald J. Burke and Aslaug Mikkelsen

This study aims to examine the career plateau by comparing police officers having 15 or more years of service who had been promoted with police officers having 15 or more…

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2072

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the career plateau by comparing police officers having 15 or more years of service who had been promoted with police officers having 15 or more years of service who had not.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 389 police officers in Norway using anonymously completed questionnaires, a 62 percent response rate.

Findings

Plateaued officers were younger, had less police tenure and were more educated than were non‐plateaued officers. Plateaued officers also reported less favorable work outcomes and greater cynicism. The two groups of officers indicated generally similar levels of psychological health suggesting that potential negative consequences of the career plateau were limited to the workplace.

Research limitations/implications

All data collected using self‐reports raising the possibility of common method bias. Study needs to be replicated in police forces in other countries.

Practical implications

Suggestions for reducing the negative effects of the career plateau are offered.

Originality/value

The study extends research on the career plateau to police organizations

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Karl Kuhn

The links between work and mental health are gaining increasing recognition both within individual member states and at European Community level as a whole. Yet it is also…

Abstract

The links between work and mental health are gaining increasing recognition both within individual member states and at European Community level as a whole. Yet it is also well recognised that employment has significant benefits for mental health and well‐being. This paper reviews current evidence on the negative mental health impacts of employment, the key factors in work‐related stress and European policies for promoting mental health in the workplace. It ends with some examples of good practice in workplace mental health promotion drawn from a range of European countries.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Keywords

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