Search results

1 – 10 of 174
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 23 December 2020

Louise Boulter and Clive Boddy

The purpose of this paper is to better comprehend the subclinical psychopath's intra and interpersonal moral emotions in the context of their natural habitat, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to better comprehend the subclinical psychopath's intra and interpersonal moral emotions in the context of their natural habitat, the workplace, alongside implications for employees and organisations.

Design/methodology/approach

This study draws on affective events theory (AET) to illuminate this dark-side phenomenon. Thematic analysis is used to identify themes from qualitative data collected from a small sample of interviews conducted with human resource management (HRM) directors and other managers.

Findings

The findings show that the subclinical psychopath is agentic, being unfettered by intra self-directed conscious moral emotions. The predominant moral emotion directed at employees during interpersonal workplace exchanges is typically anger. However, it appears likely the subclinical psychopath fakes this moral emotion as a smokescreen for manipulative and exploitative gains. The predominant moral emotion directed by employees towards the subclinical psychopath is fear. Employees resort to avoidance and withdrawal behaviour and intentions to quit become a reality.

Practical implications

The signalling quality of employees' moral emotions and subsequent dysfunctional avoidance and withdrawal behaviour can provide valuable information to HRM professionals in the detection of subclinical psychopaths which is acknowledged as notoriously difficult.

Originality/value

This study contributes new knowledge to subclinical psychopathy and makes novel use of AET to explore this personality type as a driver of employees' negative workplace emotions, the impact on employees' behaviour alongside implications for organisational effectiveness.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Anne Fennimore

The purpose of this paper is to adapt research conducted on subclinical psychopaths and Machiavellians to conceptualise false agents in transaction cost economics (TCE)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to adapt research conducted on subclinical psychopaths and Machiavellians to conceptualise false agents in transaction cost economics (TCE). Both opportunism and information asymmetry provide a means to manipulate contractual relationships, pursuing existing loopholes for self-interest, while uncertainty and small-numbers bargaining allow false agents to exploit existing agreements during periods of rapid change, growth, and development. Considering differences in contract length preference may inform our understanding of subclinical psychopaths and Machiavellians. Contextually, the rise of “quasi-governmental” hybrid organisations may produce an ideal prospect for “natural born” opportunists to reap self-interested benefits through contractual loopholes.

Design/methodology/approach

This theoretical paper addresses social norms and blind trust in contractual relationships. In turn, blind trust may provide clues about the environmental conditions that facilitate manipulation by subclinical psychopaths and Machiavellians during negotiations of contract term length.

Findings

Williamson’s (1975) TCE framework provides a novel approach to subclinical psychopathic and Machiavellian behaviour by agents. Assumptions about behavioural norms may differ between the contracting party and the agent, leading to positive behavioural expectations of trust such as confidence, reciprocity, and history. The length of the contractual relationship may distinguish subclinical psychopaths from Machiavellians. The subclinical psychopath is more likely to behave opportunistically in short-term contracts, while Machiavellians more likely amass goodwill to behave opportunistically in long-term contracts. The role of uncertainty, small-numbers bargaining, information asymmetry, and opportunism is particularly relevant in quasi-governmental organisations when agents are “natural born” opportunists.

Originality/value

This theoretical paper adds to discussion of TCE related problems in organisations. “Natural born” opportunistic agents are more likely to take advantage of principals who extend trust as a goodwill gesture in a contractual relationship. Trust often represents a mental shortcut, based on “gut” reactions to save time, especially in dynamic environments. Hybrid organisations represent one such environment, in which contracting of goods and services renders comprehensive monitoring impracticable. Yet, scholarship adheres to legal mechanisms as safeguards against opportunism without acknowledging social norms that guide blind trust. Finally, contrasting motives between principals and false agents creates an inherent relationship asymmetry.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 55 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Anne Fennimore and Arthur Sementelli

The purpose of this paper is to adapt the research conducted on subclinical psychopaths in the private sector and applies it to the public sector to build a conceptual…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to adapt the research conducted on subclinical psychopaths in the private sector and applies it to the public sector to build a conceptual frame for further research on subclinical psychopaths in public organisations. General characteristics of entrepreneurs often run counter to democratic values, and are more often aligned with private sector values. Public managers who display one of the dark-triad personalities, i.e., psychopathy, can pose a greater threat to democratic values and the state.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach of this paper is theoretical with the aim of proposing a conceptual framework that utilises Downs’ five types of officials governing bureaucracies, to illustrate a relationship between public entrepreneurs and subclinical psychopaths.

Findings

The conceptual framework presented in this paper suggests that psychopathic entrepreneurs can be identified within Downs’ bureaucratic framework specifically as climbers (due to inherent personality traits) and as zealots (heroic and altruistic behaviour for organisational causes, yet motivated by power, domination, and self-interest). The implications of psychopathic public managers who engage in entrepreneurial activities may be escalating public distrust, hostility, and dissatisfaction in government.

Originality/value

This theoretical paper adds to the growing body of criticism for public entrepreneurship by conceptualising how psychopaths, as climbers and zealots, affect public trust in terms of accountability and democratic values.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Daniel J. Paulus, Lauren Page Wadsworth and Sarah A. Hayes-Skelton

Improving mental health literacy is an important consideration when promoting expedient and effective treatment seeking for psychological disorders. Low recognition serves…

Abstract

Purpose

Improving mental health literacy is an important consideration when promoting expedient and effective treatment seeking for psychological disorders. Low recognition serves as a barrier to treatment and the purpose of this paper is to examine recognition by lay individuals of severity for three psychological disorders: social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and major depression using a dimensional approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Vignettes of mild/subclinical, moderate, and severe cases of each disorder were rated for severity by a team of expert assessors and 270 participants (mean age=26.8; 76.7 percent women).

Findings

Difference ratings were calculated comparing participants’ responses to scores from the assessors. A within-groups factorial ANOVA with LSD follow-up was performed to examine the effects of Diagnosis and Severity on difference ratings. Both main effects (Diagnosis, F(2, 536)=35.26, Mse=1.24; Severity, F(2, 536)=9.44, Mse=1.93) and the interaction were significant (F(4, 1,072)=13.70, Mse=1.13) all p’s < 0.001. Social anxiety cases were under-rated in the mild/subclinical and moderate cases, generalized anxiety cases were under-rated at all three severities, and major depression cases were over-rated at all three severities.

Social implications

Judgments of severity may underlie the low recognition rates for social anxiety disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Future efforts should focus on improved recognition and education regarding anxiety disorders in the population, particularly before they become severe.

Originality/value

This project demonstrates the importance of considering judgments of symptom severity on a continuum, and in a range of cases, rather than just the ability to correctly label symptoms, when determining whether or not people recognize psychological disorders.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 September 2015

Toru Uehara and Yoko Ishige

This study aims to examine the association of frontal functioning with subclinical bipolar spectrum by a newly developed convenient method. We investigated subclinical

Abstract

This study aims to examine the association of frontal functioning with subclinical bipolar spectrum by a newly developed convenient method. We investigated subclinical bipolar tendency and frontal lobe activation during word productions using multi-channel near infrared spectroscopy. Participants: 44 healthy university students (mean ages 20.5 years old, and 29 female) gave their written informed consent, and we strictly protected privacy and anonymity was carefully preserved. A 13-items self-report questionnaire (Mood Disorders Questionnaire; MDQ) and a 16-channel near-infrared spectroscopy were used to compare frontal activations between two samples divided by median (4 points) of the total MDQ scores and to analyze correlations between relative changes of cerebral blood volume and bipolarity levels. There was no case suspected as bipolar disorders by MDQ screening (mean 3.4, max 10). Significant differences in lower activations were noted in the right and left pre-frontal cortex (PFC) with higher bipolarity scores using the specific software to analyze the NIRS waveform (P<0.05). Total MDQ were correlated significantly with frontal activation negatively in many channels; therefore, we conducted multiple linear regression to select significant frontal activations using the MDQ as a dependent variable. Stepwise method revealed that activation in left lateral PFC was negatively associated to bipolar tendency, and this regression model was significant (R2=0.10, F=4.5, P=0.04). Differences in frontal functioning suggest that subclinical bipolar tendencies might be related to left lateral PFC activations. It should be confirmed whether the identical pattern can be identified for clinical subjects with bipolar disorders.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 June 2007

John M. Violanti, Michael Andrew, Cecil M. Burchfiel, Tara A. Hartley, Luenda E. Charles and Diane B. Miller

The purpose of the present study is to examine associations between post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and salivary cortisol parameters.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study is to examine associations between post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and salivary cortisol parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

PTSD symptoms and cortisol responses were measured in a random sample of 100 police officers. The impact of event scale (IES) categorized into subclinical, mild, moderate and severe levels was employed to measure PTSD symptoms. Cortisol was analyzed from saliva samples over a period of three days and included an awakening response, high protein lunch challenge, whole day (diurnal), and a dexamethasone suppression test (DST).

Findings

Officers in moderate and severe PTSD symptom categories had higher mean awakening cortisol values. A significant sample‐time by PTSD interaction (p=0.008) was found for awakening cortisol responses. Officers in the severe PTSD symptom category showed a blunted response to the cortisol protein meal challenge compared to those in lower PTSD categories. Diurnal cortisol levels suggested an increasing trend across subclinical to severe PTSD categories respectively (p=0.15 test for trend). DST ratios were lower in moderate and severe PTSD symptom categories (6.86 and 8.03 respectively) than in the subclinical and mild categories (9.32 and 10.43 respectively).

Research limitations/implications

The sample was not representative of all police in the USA. These results suggest that associations between psychological trauma symptoms and dysregulation of cortisol patterns may exist and could possibly affect future health outcomes in police officers.

Practical implications

Exposure to trauma and disaster events emphasizes the need to further investigate the health impact of PTSD on police personnel as well as other first responder groups.

Originality/value

This article will not only be of interest to those in the police service but to the general public. The present study may serve to provide a guide for larger police population investigations on PTSD and physiological impact.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 22 March 2019

Christie Tetreault and Eva Hoff

The purpose of this paper is to explore if a ringing cell phone could impact cognitive performance as well as being agitating to provoke aggressive reactions. The study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore if a ringing cell phone could impact cognitive performance as well as being agitating to provoke aggressive reactions. The study investigated variables that could impact a participant’s willingness to aggress and retaliate, such as sensitivity to arousal and dark personalities (DRPs), Machiavellianism, narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy and sadism.

Design/methodology/approach

There were 128 participants (77 women and 51 men). The cognitive load task consisted of forming anagrams while being in a high or low provocation condition. Participants were subsequently asked how willing they would be to allow one out-group member to be harmed in favor of saving several in-group members. Three personality measures were used: two measuring DRPs and one measuring arousal sensitivity.

Findings

The authors discovered that older age and subclinical psychopathy were significant predictors for the willingness to aggress. Those in the high provocation condition retaliated the most against the experimenter, and a participant’s English ability was the only variable that predicted good performance on the cognitive task.

Originality/value

The results warrant further research into how personality types, aggression, and everyday, multiple arousal sources intertwine to inform personalized evidence-based interventions. Organizational and educational psychologists could also use this research to in form how offices and schools are run.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

A.H. Subratty and Y. Peerbacus

This article focuses on the assessment of thyroid hormones in 64 pregnant women in Mauritius. Our study revealed that serum thyroid‐stimulating hormone was significantly…

Abstract

This article focuses on the assessment of thyroid hormones in 64 pregnant women in Mauritius. Our study revealed that serum thyroid‐stimulating hormone was significantly raised in four pregnant women with normal serum‐free tri‐iodothyronine and serum‐free thyroxine. It was also noted that mean serum‐free tri‐iodothyronine was non‐significantly much lower in the pregnant women. It is concluded that the four pregnant women with an abnormally elevated serum thyroid‐stimulating hormone together with normal free thyroid hormones probably have subclinical hypothyroidism.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Aaron Cohen and Emrah Özsoy

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between dark triad personality (DTP) and organizational and individual counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between dark triad personality (DTP) and organizational and individual counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) and perceived career success among employees in Turkey. Additionally, the study examined the effects of four situational variables: perceived organizational politics, transparency, psychological contract breach, and accountability.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 156 employees across five service organizations in Sakarya, Turkey, using the survey method.

Findings

The regression analysis findings showed that the three traits of the DTP, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy were significantly related to both organizational and interpersonal dimensions of the CWB. Narcissism was not related to any of the dimensions of CWB. The findings showed no significant relationship between any of the four situational variables and the two forms of CWB. However, three of the situational variables were related to perceived career success, while the three dimensions of DTP were not.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitations of this study are its cross-sectional design and the self-reported measures of the dependent variables. Interestingly, the study showed that having high levels of DTP does not necessarily promote their careers.

Originality/value

This study contributes to examining career success as a dependent variable in addition to CWB. The findings showed that situational variables are related to career success, and DTP is related to CWB. This finding has both conceptual and practical implications.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Seth M. Spain, P. D. Harms and Dustin Wood

The role of dark side personality characteristics in the workplace has received increasing attention in the organizational sciences and from leadership researchers in…

Abstract

The role of dark side personality characteristics in the workplace has received increasing attention in the organizational sciences and from leadership researchers in particular. We provide a review of this area, mapping out the key frameworks for assessing the dark side. We pay particular attention to the roles that the dark side plays in leadership processes and career dynamics, with special attention given to destructive leadership. Further, we examine the role that stress plays in the emergence of leaders and how the dark side plays into that process. We additionally provide discussion of the possible roles that leaders can play in producing stress experiences for their followers. We finally illustrate a dynamic model of the interplay of dark leadership, social relationships, and stress in managerial derailment. Throughout, we emphasize a functionalist account of these personality characteristics, placing particular focus on the motives and emotional capabilities of the individuals under discussion.

Details

The Role of Leadership in Occupational Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-061-9

Keywords

1 – 10 of 174