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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Dandan Zhang, Chunlai Chen and Yu Sheng

– The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of public investment in agricultural R&D and extension on broadacre farming productivity in Australia.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of public investment in agricultural R&D and extension on broadacre farming productivity in Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regression model is applied to estimate the effects of public investment in agricultural R&D and extension on Australian braodacre productivity.

Findings

The study reveals that public investment in agricultural R&D and extension has contributed almost two-thirds of average annual broadacre productivity growth between 1952-1953 and 2006-2007, the average internal rate of return to public investment in agricultural R&D and extension was 28.4 and 47.5 per cent a year, respectively, and overseas spill-ins is an important source of domestic agricultural productivity growth.

Practical implications

Policy implications: the findings suggest that increasing public investment in agricultural R&D and extension and maintaining agricultural R&D policy stability are equally important to have a sustained long-term agricultural productivity growth, and maintaining an open trade and investment regime is important to benefit from foreign knowledge spillovers which is especially important for developing countries.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing literature by employing more sophisticated econometric techniques with an extended data set for the period from 1952-1953 to 2006-2007. The study separates the contribution of public R&D investment and the extension investment, and also takes into account the contribution of overseas public investment on the TFP growth in the Australian broadacre sector.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2010

Abstract

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Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

Satyajit Dhar and Subhabrata De

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact on selected financial performance indicators of Indian firms adopting employee stock option (ESO) schemes, if they…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact on selected financial performance indicators of Indian firms adopting employee stock option (ESO) schemes, if they recognize expenses and adopting fair‐value method of accounting pursuant to International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) 2.

Design/methodology/approach

The CMIE Prowess database was searched for Indian firms having stock option schemes and issue of shares pursuant to that scheme during the years ended 31 March 2007 and 31 March 2008. The data on financial performance were hand picked from the annual report of the sample companies. The impact of expense recognition on financial performance indicators were computed by using memorandum disclosures in directors' reports on use of fair value methods for ESO accounting. A non‐parametric Kruskal‐Wallis test was employed to find out the statistical significance of the impact. The role of firm growth characteristics on impact of expense recognition was also investigated.

Findings

The impact of recognizing expenses associated with stock option compensation varies considerably by entity and such recognition would have a material impact on key performance measure for at least 22 percent of the sample companies. Contrary to expectation, firm growth characteristics were found to have no statistical significance in explaining impact of expense recognition.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is restricted to India and may not be reflective of other countries. Also, this study considers the impact of expense recognition as if the requirements of IFRS 2 were adopted in 2006‐2007/2007‐2008 financial year and accordingly, may not be reflective of the situation that may prevail in 2011 when transition to IFRS set of standards will be applicable to Indian companies, as those entities may have altered their compensation contracts.

Practical implications

Indian firms will be required to prepare financial statements based on IFRS set of standards w.e.f. April 2011. IFRS 2, share‐based payments is not yet adopted in India. Overall, the significance of accounting changes associated with the adoption of IFRS 2 may not be very alarming for Indian companies with ESO schemes.

Originality/value

This study attempts to enrich empirical research in the field and provides an insight into the potential contractual and valuation implication of the adoption of one of the IFRS set of standards on Indian firms and also provides contrary evidence of the role of growth characteristics in explaining the impact of expense recognition.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Monir Zaman Mir, Bikram Chatterjee and Ross Taplin

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between “political competition” and “environmental reporting” by New Zealand local governments.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between “political competition” and “environmental reporting” by New Zealand local governments.

Design/methodology/approach

The research method includes a longitudinal analysis of environmental reporting by New Zealand local governments in their annual reports for the financial years 2005-2006 to 2009-2010. “Content analysis” was used to attach scores to the extent of environmental reporting. The “number of candidates divided by the number of available positions at the previous election” was used as the proxy for “political competition”.

Findings

The study reports a positive relationship between “political competition” and “environmental reporting” in 2007-2008. The number of local governments reporting voluntary environmental information increased in 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 compared to 2005-2006, followed by a reduction in such numbers following the 2007-2008 financial year. This trend in disclosure can be attributed to the local government elections in October 2007. This finding is consistent with the expectation of “agency theory” and provides insight into the pattern of perceived agency costs. The study also finds a dearth in reporting “monetary” and “bad” news.

Originality/value

The study contributes towards the previous literature on environmental reporting by concentrating on the public sector and New Zealand, together with investigating the relationship of such reporting with “political competition” through a longitudinal analysis. The theoretical contribution of this study is the adoption of “agency theory” in the context of public sector voluntary reporting and investigating the significance attached by agents to environmental reporting to minimise agency cost. The practical contribution of the study is in the area of future development of reporting standards in regards to environmental reporting.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2013

Bülend Terzioğlu, Elsie Chan and Peter Schmidt

The aim of this paper is to review 73 survey articles relating to information technology outsourcing (ITO) published by 17 information technology journals over the 20‐year…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to review 73 survey articles relating to information technology outsourcing (ITO) published by 17 information technology journals over the 20‐year period 1991‐2010. The review focuses on seven attributes of survey methodology (i.e. information on research questions, pilot testing of the survey instrument, sampling method employed, sample size, response rate, nonresponse bias and internal validity) and ascertains the extent to which those attributes have been addressed. The main purpose of this study is to provide insights for researchers to help improve the data quality, and reliability of survey results.

Design/methodology/approach

Review of literature over the past 20 years (1991‐2010).

Findings

There is strong evidence that deficiencies in the administration of survey methods in ITO persist and that such shortcomings compromise rigour, and therefore need to be redressed.

Practical implications

Although this review is performed in an ITO context, findings are of interest and benefit to all survey researchers. The key contribution of this paper is that it provides up‐to‐date evidence regarding quality of survey research as it applies to ITO by identifying areas needing attention so that the integrity of survey research methodology can be maintained and it can continue to provide reliable findings for the advancement of knowledge.

Originality/value

This study provides an examination of literature dealing exclusively with an IT outsourcing survey. It can, however, serve as a guide for all survey researchers regarding the pitfalls in survey methodology.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2012

Amir Arjomandi, Charles Harvie and Abbas Valadkhani

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the efficiency and productivity growth of the Iranian banking industry between 2003 and 2008, encompassing pre‐ and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the efficiency and productivity growth of the Iranian banking industry between 2003 and 2008, encompassing pre‐ and post‐2005‐reform years.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a new decomposition of the Hicks‐Moorsteen total factor productivity index developed by O'Donnell to analyse efficiency and productivity changes in a banking context. The advantage of this approach over the popular constant‐returns‐to‐scale Malmquist productivity index is that it is free from any assumptions concerning firms' optimising behaviour, the structure of markets, or returns to scale. The paper assumes that the production technology exhibits variable returns to scale.

Findings

The banking industry's technical efficiency level – which had improved between 2003 and 2006 – deteriorated after regulatory changes were introduced in Iran. The results obtained also show that during 2006‐2007, the industry's total factor productivity increased by 32 per cent. However, the industry experienced its highest negative scale efficiency rate of 38 per cent (ΔROSE=0.62) and its highest negative efficiency growth of 43 per cent (ΔEff=0.57) during this period. The industry also witnessed a strong drop in productivity in 2007‐2008. Overall, changes in the production possibility set and scale‐efficiency changes exerted dominant effects on productivity changes.

Originality/value

This study is the first to use a comprehensive decomposition of the Hicks‐Moorsteen TFP index to analyse efficiency and productivity changes in a banking context.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2020

Ali Uyar, Merve Kılıç and Mehmet Ali Köseoğlu

The objective of this study is to explore the accounting research network among institutions and countries globally and to contribute to the knowledge development in

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study is to explore the accounting research network among institutions and countries globally and to contribute to the knowledge development in accounting discipline across regions with a novel and original approach.

Design/methodology/approach

This study has been conducted by manually collecting data from 10,863 papers published in 22 accounting journals indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) for the period 2000–2016. Analyses and visualizations of collaborative networks across institutions and regions were performed by using network analysis software packages, including Pajek, UCINET 6, NetDraw and VOSviewer.

Findings

The study finds that the most productive five universities are the University of New South Wales, University of Sydney, University of Texas, University of California and University of Manchester worldwide. In accordance with the institution ranking, the five most productive countries in all periods are the USA, the UK, Australia, Spain and Canada. However, in addition to these countries, it is important to note that some European and Asian countries and New Zealand from Oceania are among the most productive countries which host prolific institutions. Furthermore, network indicators show that the UK is the most influential actor in centrality and brokerage within the research network. We should note that Australia is also among the most influential nations with its influential institutions. In all research metrics, the dominance of Anglophone countries (e.g. the USA, the UK and Australia) is observable on which language advantage might play a role since most internationally accredited journals publish scientific articles in English.

Research limitations/implications

The study is bounded with several main limitations. First, due to collecting the data manually, there might be some inherent limitations. Second, the study is constrained by the time frame between 2000 and 2016. The study does not answer why and how questions in investigating research productivity and effectiveness in the network. Our study might inspire new studies to complement ours by considering these constraints.

Practical implications

Our findings indicated the prominent institution-wide and country-wide actors; thus, the results provide a global perspective on the collaboration network. Second, our findings guide job seekers, who are particularly research-oriented, to potential recruiters around the world both at the institution level and country level. Third, the results might play an important role in forming institution-based and country-based research policies. The USA, among others, is a particularly important actor in productivity, whereas the UK, among others, is a remarkable country in centrality and brokerage in the research network. By examining the policies of these two countries, other nations might shape their research strategies, promotion policies and support and reward schemes. Fourth, cross-institution and in particular cross-country collaborations are imperative in the diversity of accounting research as they blend culturally diverse researchers. Fifth, prominent institutions highlighted in this study might be adopted as role models by other institutions in the same country and benefit their expertise in productivity and cooperation by scrutinizing their approaches. Sixth, our findings and metrics might be adopted as benchmarks for institutions and nations for performance evaluation. Considering our 5-year period indicators, institutions can set targets for their improvement and for measuring the progress. We provide other important implications in the conclusion section of the study.

Originality/value

To the best knowledge of the authors, no study yet investigated the collaboration across academic institutions, regions, and countries in accounting discipline to this extent. Therefore, our research provides a significant contribution to the literature by seeking a comprehensive network analysis of authorship patterns from an institutional and geographical perspective. Doing so, we contribute to knowledge development in accounting discipline with institutional and geographical network analyses.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Greg Foliente and Seongwon Seo

A systematic approach is needed to engage a broad range of stakeholders to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy use in the building sector. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

A systematic approach is needed to engage a broad range of stakeholders to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy use in the building sector. The purpose of this paper is to develop a systems‐based bottom‐up approach for this purpose, and to demonstrate its application in a case study of office building stock in the State of New South Wales (NSW) in Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework for the general method is developed based on a cross‐typology matrix of energy consumption and supply on the one hand, and intervention schemes or policy instruments on the other. This is then tested and demonstrated using a case study of commercial office building stock, with building energy demand calculated using a validated computer energy simulation tool for a representative set of office buildings within a local government area (LGA). The energy consumption and associated GHG emissions are then aggregated up from LGA to the whole State. The impact projections of different intervention schemes are compared and mapped spatially across the State.

Findings

Results have demonstrated the significance and capability of the proposed approach, in allowing quantitative comparisons of the relative effectiveness of a specific set of regulatory, technical and behavioral scenario settings on the spatial distribution and trends in energy consumption and GHG emissions of the NSW office building stock to 2020.

Research limitations/implications

Further case studies involving mixed building types and specific building types with greater granularity of modelling details, energy use and supply options, and spatial resolution are needed.

Originality/value

The structured cross‐typology approach is a novel contribution to bottom‐up modelling approaches to designing and/or assessing the effectiveness of specific policy instruments, alone or in combination. It will enable policy makers, property portfolio owners, utility companies and building tenants to assess the broader impacts of their specific actions towards a common goal.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Irina Alexeyeva and Tobias Svanström

The paper aims to investigate audit and non-audit fees during the global financial crisis (GFC) in an environment that is relatively sparsely regulated with regard to the…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate audit and non-audit fees during the global financial crisis (GFC) in an environment that is relatively sparsely regulated with regard to the provision of non-audit services.

Design/methodology/approach

Audit and non-audit fees were studied during pre-GFC (2006-2007), GFC (2008-2009) and post-GFC (2010-2011) periods.

Findings

During the GFC, Swedish companies benefited from an increase in sales and total assets, although return on assets decreased. In this setting, the auditors charged higher audit fees compared with the pre-GFC period, despite the absence of increased audit reporting lags. A significant increase in audit fees continued during the post-crisis periods with auditors paying more attention to companies’ leverage and whether they report losses. At the same time, the companies spent less on non-audit services.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to companies from Sweden, which was less affected by the GFC.

Practical implications

GFC auditors are able to charge higher audit fees to public companies including those that are well-performing during financial crises, and they are also able to increase the audit fees in the post-crisis period. This implies that auditors put in extra audit effort to compensate for higher risk, or that they are good at negotiating prices with their clients. However, non-audit fees decreased during the same period, implying that the demand for these services drops under financial instability.

Originality/value

The study highlights auditors’ behavior in the liberal economic environment and it studies both audit fees and non-audit fees before GFC, during GFC and after the GFC. The GFC appears to have provided audit firms the opportunity to extract higher audit fees. Our findings are of interest to managers, auditors and regulators.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 30 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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