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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2011

Kate van Dooren, Fernanda Claudio, Stuart A. Kinner and Megan Williams

This paper proposes a framework to better understand ex‐prisoner health, and pilot‐tests the framework using qualitative interviews with ten people who have been out of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes a framework to better understand ex‐prisoner health, and pilot‐tests the framework using qualitative interviews with ten people who have been out of prison for two years or more. The proposed framework considers different stages of re‐entry (from pre‐incarceration through to post‐release), individual and structural factors influencing health, and health outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted qualitative, open‐ended interviews with ex‐prisoners released from prison two or more years ago, who could be considered to have transitioned “successfully” out of prison. The aim of the interviews was to generate insights into the strategies that ex‐prisoners use to negotiate the post‐release period.

Findings

Most of the themes that emerged from interviews were consistent with the proposed framework. Structural factors are important concerns for ex‐prisoners that may have to be resolved before other issues, such as drug addiction, can be addressed. However, these findings suggest that it is inappropriate to view health‐related experiences during re‐entry as homogenous, given the diversity of individual characteristics and backgrounds among ex‐prisoners, notably including pre‐incarceration social status.

Originality/value

To explain the health‐related experiences of people following their release from prison, we need to think beyond reintegration and move beyond homogenous notions of the ex‐prisoner population. Addressing sociocultural, demographic and incarceration‐specific factors that ameliorate or intensify the challenges faced by ex‐prisoners is of critical importance.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Stuart A. Kinner

Prisoners experience high rates of chronic physical health problems, poor mental health and high rates of substance misuse. However, little is known about what happens to…

Abstract

Prisoners experience high rates of chronic physical health problems, poor mental health and high rates of substance misuse. However, little is known about what happens to prisoners after release from custody, except that many re‐offend and a disproportionate number die from drug overdose, suicide, accidents and other causes. Using a prospective design, 160 prisoners in Queensland, Australia were interviewed prior to release then 1 and 4 months post‐release. Most prisoners had a history of substance misuse and many reported poor mental health pre‐release. The prevalence of these problems was also high post‐release and there was a high degree of continuity of impairment. These findings add support to calls for (a) population‐level pre‐release planning and post‐release support for prisoners returning to the community, and (b) screening and targeted intervention for those most at risk of poor post‐release outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2021

Rebecca Jane Bosworth, Rohan Borschmann, Frederick L. Altice, Stuart Alistair Kinner, Kate Dolan and Michael Farrell

People in prison are at a higher risk of preventable mortality from infectious disease such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome…

Abstract

Purpose

People in prison are at a higher risk of preventable mortality from infectious disease such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and tuberculosis (TB) than those in the community. The extent of infectious disease-related mortality within the prison setting remains unclear. The purpose of this paper was to collate available information on infectious disease-related mortality, including the number of deaths and calculate the person-time death rate.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors searched databases between 1 January 2000 and 18 November 2020 for studies reporting HIV, HBV, HCV, TB and/or HIV/TB-related deaths among people in prison.

Findings

The authors identified 78 publications drawn from seven Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS’ regions encompassing 33 countries and reporting on 6,568 deaths in prison over a 20-year period. HIV/AIDS (n = 3,305) was associated with the highest number of deaths, followed by TB (n = 2,892), HCV (n = 189), HIV/TB (n = 173) and HBV (n = 9). Due to the limitations of the available published data, it was not possible to meta-analyse or in any other way synthesise the available evidence.

Research limitations/implications

To inform targeted efforts to reduce mortality, there is a need for more, better quality data to understand infectious disease-related mortality in custodial settings. Increased investment in the prevention and management of infectious diseases in custodial settings, and in documenting infectious disease-related deaths in prison, is warranted and will yield public health benefits.

Originality/value

To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first scoping review focussed on deaths due to these infections among people in prison internationally. The gaps identified form recommendations to improve the future collection and reporting of prison mortality data.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 23 December 2020

Xingzhong Jin, Stuart Alistair Kinner, Robyn Hopkins, Emily Stockings, Ryan James Courtney, Anthony Shakeshaft, Dennis Petrie, Timothy Dobbins, Cheneal Puljevic, Shuai Chang and Kate Dolan

This paper aims to determine whether a single session of a motivational interview (MI) reduces smoking relapse amongst people released from smoke-free prisons.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine whether a single session of a motivational interview (MI) reduces smoking relapse amongst people released from smoke-free prisons.

Design/methodology/approach

This study sought to recruit 824 ex-smokers from 2 smoke-free prisons in the Northern Territory, Australia. Participants were randomised to receive either one session (45–60 min) face-to-face MI intervention 4–6 weeks prior to release or usual care (UC) without smoking advice. The primary outcome was continuous smoking abstinence verified by exhaled carbon monoxide test (<5 ppm) at three months post-release. Secondary outcomes included seven-day point-prevalence, time to the first cigarette and the daily number of cigarettes smoked after release.

Findings

From April 2017 to March 2018, a total of 557 participants were randomised to receive the MI (n = 266) or UC (n = 291), with 75% and 77% being followed up, respectively. There was no significant between-group difference in continuous abstinence (MI 8.6% vs UC 7.4%, risk ratio = 1.16, 95%CI 0.67∼2.03). Of all participants, 66.9% relapsed on the day of release and 90.2% relapsed within three months. On average, participants in the MI group smoked one less cigarette daily than those in the UC within the three months after release (p < 0.01).

Research limitations/implications

A single-session of MI is insufficient to reduce relapse after release from a smoke-free prison. However, prison release remains an appealing time window to build on the public health benefit of smoke-free prisons. Further research is needed to develop both pre- and post-release interventions that provide continuity of care for relapse prevention.

Originality/value

This study is the first Australian randomised controlled trial to evaluate a pre-release MI intervention on smoking relapse prevention amongst people released from smoke-free prisons.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Anak Agung Sagung Sawitri, Anak Agung Gede Hartawan, Noel Craine, Ayu Kartika Sari, Ni Wayan Septarini and Dewa Nyoman Wirawan

– The purpose of this paper is to describe HIV-related risk behavior and knowledge of HIV among inmates of Kerobokan prison Bali, Indonesia.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe HIV-related risk behavior and knowledge of HIV among inmates of Kerobokan prison Bali, Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey of inmates of using a structured questionnaire and sample framework to reflect narcotic use among inmates and the prison gender mix.

Findings

Among 230 inmates recruited to the study self-reported prevalence of injecting drug use was 7.4 percent (95 percent CI 4.0-10.8percent). Respondents who participated in a prison based methadone treatment program were all still injecting drugs, these made up 13/17 of the IDU. In total, 47 percent (95 percent CIs 45-55 percent) of respondents who reported injecting also reported sharing needles within the last week. Sexual intercourse while in prison was reported by 3.0 percent (95 percent CI 0.82-5.26 percent) of study respondents. One-third of non-injectors were unaware of the preventative role of condom use. This study suggests that despite harm reduction initiatives within Kerobokan prison HIV risk behavior continues and there is a considerable lack of awareness of the importance of condom use in preventing HIV.

Research limitations/implications

The authors relied on self-reported risk behavior that may be subject to reporting bias. The sampling strategy may not reflect the true ratio inmates using or not using narcotics.

Practical implications

The current harm reduction approach, including methadone substitution treatment should be optimized within the Indonesian prison setting.

Originality/value

This is the first study reporting HIV-related risk behavior from an Indonesian prison with an established methadone substitution program.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2020

Ma. Regina M. Hechanova, Jennel C. Reyes, Avegale C. Acosta and Antover P. Tuliao

The purpose of this study is to evaluate a psychosocial treatment program for prisoners incarcerated because of methamphetamine use. It compared the outcomes of prisoners…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate a psychosocial treatment program for prisoners incarcerated because of methamphetamine use. It compared the outcomes of prisoners who received the program while incarcerated, those who were released and received the treatment as part of community-based drug recovery program and a waitlist-control group (WC) with no treatment.

Design/methodology/approach

A quasi-experimental design was use with pre- and post-test surveys administered to three groups: a WC group, a pre-release treatment-while-incarcerated (TWI) group, and a post-release outpatient treatment group (OP). Surveys measured recovery skills, life skills and substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms were administered before and after the intervention.

Findings

Results revealed that at baseline OP and TWI had significant higher recovery skills compared to WC group. However, in terms of life skills, there was no significant difference observed among the WC, OP and TWI group at baseline. TWI had a significantly lower number of SUD symptoms compared to the WC group at baseline. As hypothesized, findings revealed significant changes in recovery and life skills among the OP and TWI group compared to the WC group. No significant change in SUD scores were observed for all groups.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation of the study was the use of a quasi-experimental design because legal issues did not allow a randomized control trial. Future research using randomized controlled trial designs would provide more robust conclusions on the impact of the intervention. The study design was also limited to pre- and post-evaluation. Further studies are encouraged to look at longitudinal outcomes of appears on SUD symptoms and possibility of relapse.

Practical implications

Given that there were no significant differences in outcomes between OP and TWI groups, results suggest that the program may serve either as a pre- or post-release program for incarcerated drug users. However, results also suggest that completion is higher when the program is used as a pre-release program. Delivering the program prior to release also reduces challenges related to attrition including conflict in schedules and the lack of resources for transportation.

Social implications

The study suggests the value of psychosocial treatment as opposed to punitive approaches in dealing with drug use. In particular, delivering interventions prior to release can prepare participants for problems they may encounter during reintegration and prevent recidivism. In a country where drug-related killings are on the rise, the study presents an alternate and restorative justice approach.

Originality/value

The study addresses a dearth in the literature on psychosocial intervention for methamphetamine users. It also fills a vacuum in studies from developing countries such as the Philippines.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

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