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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

George K. Stylios

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…

Abstract

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2011

Rudrajeet Pal and Håkan Torstensson

Concurrent designing of products, processes and supply chains (three‐dimensional concurrent engineering (3‐DCE)) has proved to be beneficial in rendering holistic…

Abstract

Purpose

Concurrent designing of products, processes and supply chains (three‐dimensional concurrent engineering (3‐DCE)) has proved to be beneficial in rendering holistic, market‐responsive architecture to organizations through linkages created by dynamic capability development and innovation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the promises of 3‐DCE in synthesizing and sustaining critical success factors (CSFs) for organizations, and also to underpin the existing gap between its offerings in devising the CSFs and the “real solutions” essential in a dynamic system's perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts an intermediary approach combining both explanatory and exploratory researches. The conceptual framework of the paper is based on a matrix for organizational mapping of textile, clothing and fashion (TCF) firms prepared through content analysis. This is followed by an extensive semi‐structured survey. The selection of firms was based on contacting TEKO and Europages. Usable responses were obtained from 42 firms for detailed analysis, making the response rate around 15 percent.

Findings

The results were manifold. It showed that most of the key success factors are synthesized and sustained through 3‐DCE designing. The paper also highlights the necessity of incorporating intangible value propositions of culture, leadership and governance, knowledge, image and relationship into the 3‐DCE model to generate an “extended 3‐DCE” framework for mediating operational performance and hence organizational success. Such a model required in a dynamic environment is argued to show a fit to represent a design for resilience perspective, requiring further research.

Research limitations/implications

First, the selection of sample size of organizations was small and arguments regarding its representation of the Swedish TCF firms' population could be raised. So the claims and propositions of the paper cannot be widely generalized. Second, the responses to the survey were based on judgments of the company top management and could vary if intra‐organizational responses were considered.

Practical implications

The findings from the paper can be beneficial for organizations to understand the key areas in which to invest and how to invest their resources and time, as CSF identification is largely qualitative and can result in differing opinions in pinpointing them. It is thus recommended to synthesize or identify them from the 3‐DCE perspective.

Originality/value

The paper is original in realizing how 3‐DCE can be instrumental in devising CSFs in organizations and also what factors needs to be incorporated into its “extended” framework to match the requirements for organizations in a dynamic environment.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Rong Wang, Jianzhong Shang, Xin Li, Zhuo Wang and Zirong Luo

This paper aims to present a new topology method in designing the lightweight and complex structures for 3D printing.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a new topology method in designing the lightweight and complex structures for 3D printing.

Design/methodology/approach

Computer-aided design (CAD) and topology design are the two main approaches for 3D truss lattices designing in 3D printing. Though these two ways have their own advantages and have been used by the researchers in different engineering situations, these two methods seem to be incompatible. A novel topology method is presented in this paper which can combine the merits of both CAD and topology design. It is generally based on adding materials to insufficient parts in a given structure so the resulting topology evolves toward an optimum.

Findings

By using the topology method, an optimized-Kagome structure is designed and both 3D original-Kagome structure and 3D optimized-Kagome structure are manufactured by fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer with ABS and the compression tests results show that the 3D optimized-Kagome has a higher specific stiffness and strength than the original one.

Originality/value

The presented topology method is the first work that using the original structure-based topology algorithm other than a boundary condition-based topology algorithm for 3D printing lattice and it can be considered as general way to optimize a commonly used light-weight lattice structure in strength and stiffness.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Book part
Publication date: 10 April 2006

Georgiy Levchuk, Daniel Serfaty and Krishna R. Pattipati

Over the past few years, mathematical and computational models of organizations have attracted a great deal of interest in various fields of scientific research (see Lin &

Abstract

Over the past few years, mathematical and computational models of organizations have attracted a great deal of interest in various fields of scientific research (see Lin & Carley, 1993 for review). The mathematical models have focused on the problem of quantifying the structural (mis)match between organizations and their tasks. The notion of structural congruence has been generalized from the problem of optimizing distributed decision-making in structured decision networks (Pete, Pattipati, Levchuk, & Kleinman, 1998) to the multi-objective optimization problem of designing optimal organizational structures to complete a mission, while minimizing a set of criteria (Levchuk, Pattipati, Curry, & Shakeri, 1996, 1997, 1998). As computational models of decision-making in organizations began to emerge (see Carley & Svoboda, 1996; Carley, 1998; Vincke, 1992), the study of social networks (SSN) continued to focus on examining a network structure and its impact on individual, group, and organizational behavior (Wellman & Berkowitz, 1988). Most models, developed under the SSN, combined formal and informal structures when representing organizations as architectures (e.g., see Levitt et al., 1994; Carley & Svoboda, 1996). In addition, a large number of measures of structure and of the individual positions within the structure have been developed (Roberts, 1979; Scott, 1981; Wasserman & Faust, 1994; Wellman, 1991).

Details

Understanding Adaptability: A Prerequisite for Effective Performance within Complex Environments
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-371-6

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Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2005

Fredrik von Corswant

This paper deals with the organizing of interactive product development. Developing products in interaction between firms may provide benefits in terms of specialization…

Abstract

This paper deals with the organizing of interactive product development. Developing products in interaction between firms may provide benefits in terms of specialization, increased innovation, and possibilities to perform development activities in parallel. However, the differentiation of product development among a number of firms also implies that various dependencies need to be dealt with across firm boundaries. How dependencies may be dealt with across firms is related to how product development is organized. The purpose of the paper is to explore dependencies and how interactive product development may be organized with regard to these dependencies.

The analytical framework is based on the industrial network approach, and deals with the development of products in terms of adaptation and combination of heterogeneous resources. There are dependencies between resources, that is, they are embedded, implying that no resource can be developed in isolation. The characteristics of and dependencies related to four main categories of resources (products, production facilities, business units and business relationships) provide a basis for analyzing the organizing of interactive product development.

Three in-depth case studies are used to explore the organizing of interactive product development with regard to dependencies. The first two cases are based on the development of the electrical system and the seats for Volvo’s large car platform (P2), performed in interaction with Delphi and Lear respectively. The third case is based on the interaction between Scania and Dayco/DFC Tech for the development of various pipes and hoses for a new truck model.

The analysis is focused on what different dependencies the firms considered and dealt with, and how product development was organized with regard to these dependencies. It is concluded that there is a complex and dynamic pattern of dependencies that reaches far beyond the developed product as well as beyond individual business units. To deal with these dependencies, development may be organized in teams where several business units are represented. This enables interaction between different business units’ resource collections, which is important for resource adaptation as well as for innovation. The delimiting and relating functions of the team boundary are elaborated upon and it is argued that also teams may be regarded as actors. It is also concluded that a modular product structure may entail a modular organization with regard to the teams, though, interaction between business units and teams is needed. A strong connection between the technical structure and the organizational structure is identified and it is concluded that policies regarding the technical structure (e.g. concerning “carry-over”) cannot be separated from the management of the organizational structure (e.g. the supplier structure). The organizing of product development is in itself a complex and dynamic task that needs to be subject to interaction between business units.

Details

Managing Product Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-311-2

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2019

Dong Liu, Minghao Wang and Ming Cong

The purpose of this paper is to solve the common problems of outer phenomenon and stress concentration among pneumatic networks soft actuators.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to solve the common problems of outer phenomenon and stress concentration among pneumatic networks soft actuators.

Design/methodology/approach

On the basis of imitating the caterpillar structure, the new soft actuator adopts the integral circular ladder structure instead of the traditional independent distributed structure as the air chamber. Through the comparison of several different structures, the parabolic in-wall curve is found to be fit for designing the optimal integrated chamber structure of the soft actuator. The curve function of each ladder chamber is computed based on the torque distribution model, aiming to decrease the terminal deformation. Meanwhile, the FEM analysis method is applied to establish the motion model of the integrated parabolic ladder soft actuator. The model’s accuracy, as well as structure’s deformation and stress, are verified.

Findings

Compared with the FEM data, the experimental data indicate that the new soft actuator has no obvious outer phenomenon, the maximum stress decreases and the stiffness increases. The new actuator is applied for designing a flexible gripper to grasp objects of different shapes and sizes. The gripper can grasp objects of 52.6 times its own mass.

Practical implications

The designed gripper is available for flexible production in various fields, such as capturing fruits of different sizes, soft foods or parts with complex shapes.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a new type soft actuator, which provides a solution for exploring the field of the soft robot. The problems of outer phenomenon and stress concentration are suppressed with pneumatic networks soft actuators.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

Jan Achterbergh and Dirk Vriens

The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design theory are introduced and analyzed in order to show how they relate.

Findings

The VSM provides insight into the related systems necessary and sufficient for viability. As such, it specifies criteria supporting the diagnosis and design of organizational infrastructures, i.e. of organizational structures, HR systems, and technology. However, it does not explicitly conceptualize and provide a detailed heuristic for the design of organizational structures. De Sitter's theory fills in this gap.

Originality/value

The paper illustrates how, based on a rudimentary model of organizational viability, de Sitter's design theory positively addresses the question of how to diagnose and design organizational structures that add to the viability of organizations.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 40 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

Dirk Vriens and Jan Achterbergh

The purpose of this paper is to use de Sitter's design theory to show how organizational structures can be designed so as to attenuate organizational disturbances and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use de Sitter's design theory to show how organizational structures can be designed so as to attenuate organizational disturbances and amplify regulatory potential. It is argued that organizational structures with low values on so‐called design‐parameters are themselves no source of disturbances and have the required built‐in regulatory potential.

Design/methodology/approach

Key concepts from de Sitter's design theory are introduced and used to show how structures can attenuate disturbances and amplify regulatory potential.

Findings

The analysis in this paper deepens our understanding of the role of organizational structures for dealing with organizational complexity, and of the design parameters that should be manipulated to achieve structural attenuation and amplification.

Practical implications

Having a structure permitting organizations to attenuate and amplify is a crucial condition for organizational viability. This paper provides guidelines for the design of such structures.

Originality/value

This is one of a limited number of studies that makes apparent how general insights from (management) cybernetic (e.g. viability, attenuation and amplification) may be realized in organizations by their structural design.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 40 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1967

D.M. McElhinney

THE increasingly competitive nature of both the operational and manufacturing sides of the aviation business has had the effect of making the designer more conscious of…

Abstract

THE increasingly competitive nature of both the operational and manufacturing sides of the aviation business has had the effect of making the designer more conscious of the economic characteristics which he is building into his aircraft, and these have now become a major design consideration.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 39 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2010

Jane Chu, Sarah Engelbrecht, Gregory Graf and David W. Rosen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate design synthesis methods for designing lattice cellular structures to achieve desired stiffnesses. More generally, to find…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate design synthesis methods for designing lattice cellular structures to achieve desired stiffnesses. More generally, to find appropriate design problem formulations and solution algorithms for searching the large, complex design spaces associated with cellular structures.

Design/methodology/approach

Two optimization algorithms were tested: particle swarm optimization (PSO) and Levenburg‐Marquardt (LM), based on a least‐squares minimization formulation. Two example problems of limited complexity, specifically a two‐dimensional cantilever beam and a two‐dimensional simply‐supported plate, were investigated. Computational characteristics of the algorithms were reported for design problems with hundreds of variables. Constraints from additive manufacturing processes were incorporated to ensure that resulting designs are realizable.

Findings

Both PSO and LM succeeded in searching the design spaces and finding good designs. LM is one to two orders of magnitude more efficient for this class of problems.

Research limitations/implications

Three‐dimensional problems are not investigated in this paper.

Practical implications

LM appears to be a viable algorithm for optimizing structures of complex geometry for minimum weight and desired stiffness.

Originality/value

The testing of design synthesis methods (problem formulations and algorithms) for lattice cellular structures, and the testing of PSO and LM algorithms, are of particular value.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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