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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Faezeh Mohammadi Tahroodi and Norsidah Ujang

Functioning as space connectors, path structures in urban parks may rarely present social interaction opportunities, although centralized activity spaces are available…

Abstract

Purpose

Functioning as space connectors, path structures in urban parks may rarely present social interaction opportunities, although centralized activity spaces are available. This paper investigated the interrelationships between the visual and physical accessibility attributes of path structure and their impacts on passive social interaction intensity across urban parks in Kuala Lumpur.

Design/methodology/approach

The concept of social interaction has been studied elsewhere in social cohesion, social affiliation and sense of communication. Still, it has not been studied in the context of urban park design. This study employed mixed methods using an adaptive and unique combination of qualitative and quantitative data collections to analyze urban parks with a bit of visual vegetation barrier. The experiential landscape method was applied to determine visual accessibility by interpreting experiential landscape maps. The space syntax method based on quantitative analysis is considered to measure physical accessibilities and vigorous activities along the designated paths by conducting integration analysis and gate observation. The data were crossed-analyzed using a Geographic Information System (GIS) classification technique, correlation analysis and Microsoft combo-charts to generate the relationship between patterns of activities and their accessibilities.

Findings

The results suggested that designated paths with higher accessibility attributes, impressively more elevated than other tracks, could influence the intensity of passive social interactions. The findings supported the understanding that activity nodes and active areas adjoining designated routes could make accessibility attribute areas more critical. These findings verify that visually enriching the spaces along the path structure toward activities is a pivotal contributor to urban planners and designers to enhance the paths’ local integration (LI) and visual accessibility to predict more passive eye contact among park visitors.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed interrelationship among variables in this study has limitations because of not considering other qualitative methods and techniques like cognitive maps and interview simultaneously. These techniques could discover why some paths generate more passive eye contact among park users (Mohammadi Tahroodi, 2018).

Practical implications

Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020 emphasizes Kuala Lumpur’s unique image as a tropical garden city via preserving and developing the iconic historical urban parks in the city center (CHKL, 2004, pp. 3–3). The latest Draft Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2040 has outlined the strategy to achieve a conducive, good-quality neighborhood that encourages social interaction. The findings could assist urban planners and designers better public parks by considering accessibility and permeability aspects of design. This research endorses the appropriateness of interrelationship between accessibility attributes of path structure and social interaction in urban design research, which local urban designers have not fully considered until now. Evaluating the visual convenience of designated paths and assessing LI of the axial lines constructing each designated route of urban parks during the primary stage could enable urban designers to estimate to what extent the paths are accessible and respond to passive social interaction. Then they could enrich with salient landmarks, views and activity nodes to make them attractive. The considerable number of designated paths connections, specifically while they shape the sides of activity nodes, could increase the connectivity and integration of spaces within the parks. These patterns of positioning the activity nodes make the designated routes more legible and provide ease of movement. As a result, it will give urban park users more information about the activities. Allowing people to use the paths will increase people’s presence and, subsequently, passive social interaction. One way is to locate accessible lands that provide social activities at direct visual access paths within urban parks for legibility.

Social implications

The socially responsive urban design enhances the quality of life and provides life satisfaction, happiness and society’s overall health. Being in urban social parks in any passive and active situations has psychological benefits. It facilitates relief and rests from a stressful modern lifestyle that significantly impacts their mental health and well-being. The framework applied in this research integrates the social, spatial and physical aspects of parks design. With this regard, principles and indicators facilitate physically and socially attractive urban parks for Kuala Lumpur city center and applicable to similar contexts elsewhere.

Originality/value

The concept of social interaction has been studied elsewhere in social cohesion, social affiliation and sense of communication. Still, it has not been studied in the context of urban park design. This study employed mixed methods using an adaptive and unique combination of qualitative and quantitative data collections to analyze urban parks with a bit of visual vegetation barrier.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2021

Aisha Javaid, Mian Sajid Nazir and Kaneez Fatima

This paper contributes to the existing literature by extending the empirical work on the relationship between corporate governance and capital structure by analyzing the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper contributes to the existing literature by extending the empirical work on the relationship between corporate governance and capital structure by analyzing the mediating role of cost of capital in the non-financial firms listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX).

Design/methodology/approach

The sample for this study includes non-financial firms listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (formerly Karachi Stock Exchange) for the period of 2004–2016. Based on 1800 firm-year observations, three approaches of panel data analysis are applied for the step-wise analysis of the underlying study. Firstly, Pooled OLS is applied. Secondly, fixed and random effect panel regression followed by the Hausman test to check the unobservable individual heterogeneity of the data. Hausman test indicates that the fixed-effects model is the most appropriate model for the sample panel data.

Findings

The study's findings are that board size, board composition, CEO/Chair duality, institutional ownership and managerial ownership have statistically significant direct effect on the firm's financing decisions. However, CEO/Chair duality, institutional ownership and managerial ownership have significant indirect effect on firm's capital structure decisions. The interesting finding of the paper is on the evidence of mediating role of cost of capital in the nexus of corporate governance and capital structure. Moreover, some conventional determinants of capital structure, including the firm's size, asset structure of the firm, profitability, business risk and growth, are found as determinants of capital structure decisions of the firms.

Research limitations/implications

There are a few limitations to our study which could be addressed by upcoming research. We did not include all the four mechanisms of corporate governance including board structure, audit structure, compensation structure and ownership structure. However, we used only five important attributes including board size, board composition and CEO/Chair duality form board structure, managerial ownership and institutional ownership form ownership structure of corporate governance as our explanatory variables to examine their impact on the capital structure choices of the firms. Future studies may fill this research gap by involving some other attributes of corporate governance and analyzing their effectiveness and impact on value relevant capital structure decisions. Further, due to limited time and resources, we only tested the mediating role of cost of capital, hence, future researchers can analyze the mediating and moderating roles of different variables which may influence the relationship between corporate governance and capital structure choices of the firms.

Practical implications

The study has many valuable guidelines and practical implications for the financial managers of the corporations. Our results will facilitate the policymakers in setting their corporate governance policies and practices and making the value relevant capital structure decisions in compliance with the implications of corporate governance mechanism. In addition, our study provides the empirical evidence in accordance with the argument that good governance practices, particularly the voluntary disclosures by the firm may reduce the information asymmetry which, ultimately, reduces the agency cost and the cost of capital for the firm. However, while deciding the financial policy of the corporations, managers can use our findings in order to assess the effectiveness of corporate governance practices employed by the firm in achieving the optimal capital structure at which the weighted average cost of capital is at its minimum level.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by investigating the mediating role of the cost of capital in the relationship between corporate governance and capital structure decisions of the firms. This paper provides empirical evidence that corporate governance indirectly affects capital structure decisions through the mediating role of cost of capital.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Tianqi Wang, Xu Zhou and Hongyu Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to study the wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) method and path planning algorithm of truss structure parts, to realize the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) method and path planning algorithm of truss structure parts, to realize the collision-free rapid prototyping of truss structures with complex characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a point-by-point stacking strategy is proposed based on the spot-welding mode of cold metal transfer welding technology. A force analysis model of the droplet is established, which can be used to adjust the posture of the welding torch and solve the collapse problem in the WAAM process of the truss structure. The collision detection model is developed to calculate the interference size between the truss structure and the welding torch, which is used to control the offset of the welding torch. Finally, the ant colony algorithm has been used to optimize the moving path of welding torch between truss with considering the algorithm efficiency and collision avoiding and the efficiency of the algorithm is improved by discretizing the three-dimensional workspace.

Findings

A series of experiments were conducted to prove the validity of the proposed methods. The results show that the wire feeding speed, welding speed are the important parameters for controlling the WAAM process of truss parts. The inclination angle of the welding torch has an important influence on the forming quality of the truss.

Originality/value

The force analysis model of truss structure in the WAAM process is established to ensure the forming quality and a collision-free path planning algorithm is proposed to improve forming efficiency.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Levent Altinay and Hasan Evrim Arici

Drawing on chaos theory as an overarching approach, as well as guidelines from effectuation and transformative learning theories, this study aims to evaluate the changing…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on chaos theory as an overarching approach, as well as guidelines from effectuation and transformative learning theories, this study aims to evaluate the changing marketing channels in the hospitality industry in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. It also aims to develop a conceptual framework that demonstrates the transformation of the marketing structure; in particular, the transformation of hospitality organizations, employees and customers.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the hermeneutic method and conceptually evaluates the existing actors of the services marketing structure. It also discusses how to transform this structure into the new normal in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Findings

The findings of the study demonstrated that COVID-19 has resulted in changing marketing channels in the hospitality industry. These include external, internal, interactive and substitutional marketing channels. In response to these changes, the hospitality industry needs to adopt a more transformative marketing structure that requires the transformation of hospitality companies, employees and customers.

Research limitations/implications

The conceptualized transformation of the services marketing structure could help hospitality practitioners, employees and customers to understand the new normal and acquire new abilities, meanings, awareness and learning accordingly.

Originality/value

This study uses chaos, effectuation and transformative learning theories to reconceptualize the hospitality services marketing structure. The contribution of this paper lies in the conceptual pathways it suggests for transforming hospitality firms, employees and customers and for demonstrating their transformed roles and positions in the wake of the pandemic.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2021

Giampaolo Campana, Eckart Uhlmann, Mattia Mele, Luca Raffaelli, André Bergmann, Jaroslaw Kochan and Julian Polte

Support structures used in laser powder bed fusion are often difficult to clean from unsintered powder at the end of the process. This issue can be significantly reduced…

Abstract

Purpose

Support structures used in laser powder bed fusion are often difficult to clean from unsintered powder at the end of the process. This issue can be significantly reduced through a proper design of these auxiliary structures. This paper aims to investigate preliminary the airflow within differently oriented support structures and to provide design guidelines to enhance their cleanability, especially the depowdering of them.

Design/methodology/approach

This study investigates the cleanability of support structures in powder bed fusion technology. Digital models of cleaning operations were designed through computer-aided engineering systems. Simulations of the airflow running into the powder entrapped within the thin walls of auxiliary supports were implemented by computational fluid dynamics. This approach was applied to a set of randomly generated geometrical configurations to determine the air turbulence intensity depending on their design.

Findings

The results, which are based on the assumption that a relationship exists between turbulence and powder removal effectiveness, demonstrated that the maximum cleanability is obtainable through specific relative rotations between consecutive support structures. Furthermore, it was possible to highlight the considerable influence of the auxiliary structures next to the fluid inlet. These relevant findings establish optimal design rules for the cleanability of parts manufactured by powder bed fusion processes.

Originality/value

This study presents a preliminary investigation into the cleanability of support structures in laser powder bed fusion, which has not been addressed by previous literature. The results allow for a better understanding of the fluid dynamics during cleaning operations. New guidelines to enhance the cleanability of support structures are provided based on the results of simulations.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2019

Evgeniy G. Molchanov, Angelika K. Musaelyan, Ruslan G. Mikhaylenko and Elena N. Smertina

Purpose: The purpose of the chapter is to determine the dependence of the process of decision making in modern business systems on their organizational structure and to…

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of the chapter is to determine the dependence of the process of decision making in modern business systems on their organizational structure and to substantiate the necessity for considering the requirements to the process of decision making during designing the organizational structure of a business system.

Methodology: A new simplified classification of the organizational structure of business systems according to the criterion of complexity is offered, and its two main types are distinguished – organizational structure of low complexity and organizational structure of high complexity.

Conclusions: According to the offered classification, dependence of the process of decision making in modern business systems on complexity of their business structure at each stage of making of managerial decisions is determined. As a result of analysis of statistical data, it is determined that business systems with organizational structure of low complexity dominate in Russia. By the example of modern Russian business systems with the organizational structure of high complexity – Sberbank, Lukoil, Gazprom, and Rosneft – it is shown that formation of the structure of this type and supporting its functioning requires resources and thus is inaccessible for most modern business systems. Moreover, the expected advantages, related to high probability of making of optimal managerial decisions, are not always gained in practice.

Originality/value: It is substantiated that the process of decision making in modern business systems largely depends on the complexity of their organizational structure. With increase of complexity of a business system, resource intensity of decision making and duration of this process increase, but the risk of nonoptimal decisions decreases. Organizational structure of low complexity is peculiar for business systems that have deficit of financial and human resources, which does not allow using the means of optimization and fully control the process of decision making. However, in this case, managerial decisions are made much quicker. In the conditions of modern market economy, it is necessary to make quick optimal decisions, which cannot be achieved within the organizational structure of either low or high complexity. Thus, it is necessary to find a way to make quick optimal managerial decisions beyond the design of organizational structure.

Details

Specifics of Decision Making in Modern Business Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-692-7

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2021

Nadim S. Hmeidat, Bailey Brown, Xiu Jia, Natasha Vermaak and Brett Compton

Mechanical anisotropy associated with material extrusion additive manufacturing (AM) complicates the design of complex structures. This study aims to focus on…

Abstract

Purpose

Mechanical anisotropy associated with material extrusion additive manufacturing (AM) complicates the design of complex structures. This study aims to focus on investigating the effects of design choices offered by material extrusion AM – namely, the choice of infill pattern – on the structural performance and optimality of a given optimized topology. Elucidation of these effects provides evidence that using design tools that incorporate anisotropic behavior is necessary for designing truly optimal structures for manufacturing via AM.

Design/methodology/approach

A benchmark topology optimization (TO) problem was solved for compliance minimization of a thick beam in three-point bending and the resulting geometry was printed using fused filament fabrication. The optimized geometry was printed using a variety of infill patterns and the strength, stiffness and failure behavior were analyzed and compared. The bending tests were accompanied by corresponding elastic finite element analyzes (FEA) in ABAQUS. The FEA used the material properties obtained during tensile and shear testing to define orthotropic composite plies and simulate individual printed layers in the physical specimens.

Findings

Experiments showed that stiffness varied by as much as 22% and failure load varied by as much as 426% between structures printed with different infill patterns. The observed failure modes were also highly dependent on infill patterns with failure propagating along with printed interfaces for all infill patterns that were consistent between layers. Elastic FEA using orthotropic composite plies was found to accurately predict the stiffness of printed structures, but a simple maximum stress failure criterion was not sufficient to predict strength. Despite this, FE stress contours proved beneficial in identifying the locations of failure in printed structures.

Originality/value

This study quantifies the effects of infill patterns in printed structures using a classic TO geometry. The results presented to establish a benchmark that can be used to guide the development of emerging manufacturing-oriented TO protocols that incorporate directionally-dependent, process-specific material properties.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Razali Haron, Naji Mansour Nomran, Anwar Hasan Abdullah Othman, Maizaitulaidawati Md Husin and Ashurov Sharofiddin

This study aims to evaluate the impact of firm, industry level determinants and ownership concentration on the dynamic capital structure decision in Indonesia and analyses…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the impact of firm, industry level determinants and ownership concentration on the dynamic capital structure decision in Indonesia and analyses the governing theories.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the dynamic panel model of generalized method of moments-System (one-step and two-step) by using a panel data from 2000 to 2014 to examine the relationship between the determinants and leverage. The results are robust to the various definitions of leverage, heterogeneity, autocorrelation, multicollinearity and endogeneity concern.

Findings

Growing firms and firms operating in a highly concentrated industry use high level of debt, taking advantage of the tax shield (trade-off theory). However, if the firms are operating in a highly dynamic environment, they take on less debt as to avoid bankruptcy risk. Firms in Indonesia opt for debt financing perhaps to act as a controlling mechanism to mitigate agency conflicts that may exist between the large controlling shareholders and the minority. Aged and highly profitable firms with high tangible and intangible assets and liquidity level operating in a high dynamic environment follow the pecking order theory.

Research limitations/implications

This study does not perform each industry regression individually. All the industries are pooled together, as the main focus of this study is to examine the factors affecting leverage of firms in general without giving particular attention to individual industry.

Originality/value

The insights on the impact of ownership concentration and industry characteristics are novel especially on Indonesia, thus fill the gap in the literature.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Suzan Abd El Moneim El Balshy and Mamdouh Ismael

This paper aims to present a theoretical framework which reveals the relationship between job evaluation (JE) and the development of fair wage structure from the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a theoretical framework which reveals the relationship between job evaluation (JE) and the development of fair wage structure from the organizational justice (OJ) perspective. It focuses on analyzing the dimensions of job-based pay structure and the use of multifaceted construct of OJ (procedures, distribution and interaction) to determine how the perceived justice of JE's multi-levels construct contributes to achieve the fairness of wage structure.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts an analytical descriptive approach in terms of explaining the perspectives and viewpoints related to the analysis. This paper is based on examining a theoretical framework provided by the authors based on a theoretical review of literature and a set of empirical evidences.

Findings

The design of a hierarchical wage structure counts on the multidimensional approach of JE which consists of three dimensions (processes, outcomes and social system). In addition, the determination of wage structure fairness is dependent on the assessment of the perceived justice of: JE's procedures, wages distribution and management's treatment with its employees.

Originality/value

This study provides a new theoretical contribution in studying the relationship between JE and the design of fair wage structure. This contribution can be regarded as a theoretical foundation for conducting some empirical and comparative studies in the future. The study affords directive mechanisms to policymakers in order to enhance the fairness of the wage structure across the state.

Details

Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2632-279X

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Mingkang Zhang, Yongqiang Yang, Meizhen Xu, Jie Chen and Di Wang

The purpose of this study is focused on the mechanical properties of multi-materials porous structures manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is focused on the mechanical properties of multi-materials porous structures manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM).

Design/methodology/approach

The Diamond structure was designed by the triply periodic minimal surface function in MATLAB, and multi-materials porous structures were manufactured by SLM. Compression tests were applied to analyze the anisotropy of mechanical properties of multi-materials porous structures.

Findings

Compression results show that the multi-materials porous structure has a strong anisotropy behavior. When the compression force direction is parallel to the material arrangement, multi-materials porous structure was compressed in a layer-by-layer way, which is the traditional deformation of the gradient structure. However, when the compression force direction is perpendicular to the material arrangement, the compression curves show a near-periodic saw-tooth waveform characteristic, and this kind of structure was compressed consistently. It is demonstrated that the combination with high strength brittle material and low strength plastic material improves compression mode, and plastic material plays a role in buffering fracture.

Originality/value

This research provides a new method for the design and manufacturing of multi-materials porous structures and an approach to change the compression behavior of the porous structure.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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