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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Jörg Henseler, Christian M. Ringle and Marko Sarstedt

Research on international marketing usually involves comparing different groups of respondents. When using structural equation modeling (SEM), group comparisons can be…

6036

Abstract

Purpose

Research on international marketing usually involves comparing different groups of respondents. When using structural equation modeling (SEM), group comparisons can be misleading unless researchers establish the invariance of their measures. While methods have been proposed to analyze measurement invariance in common factor models, research lacks an approach in respect of composite models. The purpose of this paper is to present a novel three-step procedure to analyze the measurement invariance of composite models (MICOM) when using variance-based SEM, such as partial least squares (PLS) path modeling.

Design/methodology/approach

A simulation study allows us to assess the suitability of the MICOM procedure to analyze the measurement invariance in PLS applications.

Findings

The MICOM procedure appropriately identifies no, partial, and full measurement invariance.

Research limitations/implications

The statistical power of the proposed tests requires further research, and researchers using the MICOM procedure should take potential type-II errors into account.

Originality/value

The research presents a novel procedure to assess the measurement invariance in the context of composite models. Researchers in international marketing and other disciplines need to conduct this kind of assessment before undertaking multigroup analyses. They can use MICOM procedure as a standard means to assess the measurement invariance.

Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Massoomeh Hedayati, Aldrin Abdullah and Mohammad Javad Maghsoodi Tilaki

The purpose of this paper is to examine the validity of community organisation as part of the systemic model. Based on the systemic model of community crime, it is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the validity of community organisation as part of the systemic model. Based on the systemic model of community crime, it is perceived that community networks are negatively correlated with victimisation. The authors consider an alternative interpretation, suggesting that these conceptual relationships can run opposite to the directions shown in the systemic model. The crime rate itself may change residents’ perception of neighbouring behaviour and informal control.

Design/methodology/approach

This hypothesis is tested using a multigroup analysis of the community organisation across a sample of victims and non-victims in a Malaysian neighbourhood.

Findings

The authors find that property crime affects ethnic relations among the residents, where the non-victims perceived higher levels of ethnic relationships compared with the victims. The results show that configural and metric invariance are fully supported, while scalar and structural invariance were partially supported, suggesting that the items measured may be robust across cultures and that the factor loadings appeared to be equivalent across victims and non-victims. Non-victims perceived significantly higher informal control and closer ethnic relations than victims.

Originality/value

The paper provides a new direction of the systemic model, whereby victimisation could affect residents’ size of friendship networks and perception informal control.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2002

Boonghee Yoo and Naveen Donthu

The purpose of this study is to explore the cross‐cultural generalizability of Yoo et al.’s brand equity creation process model. A two‐step approach is introduced and used…

6287

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to explore the cross‐cultural generalizability of Yoo et al.’s brand equity creation process model. A two‐step approach is introduced and used to test the factorial invariance of the model cross‐culturally. The results reveal which marketing efforts and brand equity dimensions have invariant effects on brand equity across the US and Korean samples. Specifically, brand loyalty and perceived product quality do not have an invariant effect on brand equity, while brand awareness/associations have an equivalent effect. Price and store image show an equivalent, positive effect on perceived quality; distribution intensity has an equivalent, positive effect on both perceived quality and brand loyalty; and price deals have an equivalent, negative effect on both perceived quality and brand awareness/associations. But advertising has a quite different effect on brand equity. The between‐group differences in the brand equity formation process are explained from a cultural perspective.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 July 2019

Anupriya Kaur and Preeti Thakur

The purpose of this paper is to validate the conceptual model that presents the determinants of Tier 2 consumer’s online shopping attitude and the interrelationships among…

1276

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to validate the conceptual model that presents the determinants of Tier 2 consumer’s online shopping attitude and the interrelationships among the constructs across the three Tier 2 cities in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses survey-based data from three Tier 2 cities of North India – Kota, Agra and Jalandhar and uses a combination of statistical techniques to assess psychometric properties of the scales and conduct the measurement and structural invariance.

Findings

The findings of the paper reveals that technology readiness, consumer innovativeness, fondness for branded products and perceived brand unavailability act as determinants of online shopping attitude and there is a positive relationship between online shopping attitude and online purchase intention among Tier 2 consumers in India while perceived offline hedonic value do not have any significant impact.

Research limitations/implications

Future researchers can use this model with additional confidence given its cross-segment robustness.

Practical implications

Online marketers can use the antecedents identified in this study to develop and encourage positive online shopping attitude in small town India.

Originality/value

This research paper is the first one that investigated online shopping attitudes of Indian Tier 2 consumers. Importantly, it validated the determinants of online shopping attitude among Tier 2 consumers. National and international e-tailers aiming to develop and expand their operations to India now have the critical empirical verification concerned with the determinants of online shopping attitude and behaviour in India which would be meaningful to develop a sound marketing strategy.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 December 2021

Shubin Yu and Liselot Hudders

Many instruments have been developed to measure the perceived luxuriousness of brands, but one of the most frequently used scales is the “brand luxury index” (BLI) from…

Abstract

Purpose

Many instruments have been developed to measure the perceived luxuriousness of brands, but one of the most frequently used scales is the “brand luxury index” (BLI) from Vigneron and Johnson (2004) that distinguishes between high- and low-luxury brands. Despite its popularity and widespread use in academic research, the scale's psychometric properties and equivalence across cultures have been questioned. Recently, modified versions of the scale have been developed to strengthen the quality of the measurement. However, the performance and the measurement invariance of the modified version have not yet been investigated. The current paper aims to test the model fit of the modified BLI scale and the measurement invariance across gender, age and country groups using nine datasets from a total of three different countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper conducts a multi-group CFA to examine the measurement invariance of the BLI scale. Nine datasets were used in this study. The data were collected across three countries, the United States (5 datasets), China (2 datasets) and India (2 datasets) from 2016 to 2018.

Findings

The results of this analysis suggest that the modified BLI scale has an acceptable model fit and can be interpreted equivalently across gender and age groups. Metric invariance was found among the US, China and India. However, scalar measurement invariance was established only across two countries: the US and India. A follow-up analysis shows that partial scalar invariance can be established across the US, China and India when removing constraints on the parameters of three items: exclusive, precious and sophisticated.

Originality/value

This study is the first study to test the model fit of the modified BLI scale. The findings of this paper contribute to both the academia and industry. The authors recommend scholars and marketers to use a modified 19-item BLI scale to measure the perceived luxuriousness of brands in future research. First, the modified BLI scale tested in the current study offers very good performance with model fit values of a quality that has rarely been seen in prior research. The original scale of Vigneron and Johnson (2004) has been criticized for its poor model fit (Christodoulides et al., 2009). The modified scale of Doss and Robinson (2013) also has problems with the fit value. Second, the modified 19-item scale also shows adequate measurement invariance across different gender, age and countries. For scholars and marketers, the establishment of the metric invariance of the modified 19-item BLI scale implies that the scale can be used across gender, age and countries (the US, China and India) if the purpose of the study is to understand the relationship between some variables and perceived luxuriousness of a brand.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Xiao Tong

The purpose of this paper is to test the cross‐national application of an extended technology acceptance model (TAM) in online shopping across the USA and China…

7137

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the cross‐national application of an extended technology acceptance model (TAM) in online shopping across the USA and China. Specifically, the proposed model is tested for invariance, and used to investigate the effect of the TAM constructs on online purchase intentions and interrelationships among the constructs across the two samples.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 513 usable questionnaires were collected in the USA and China. Measurement and structural invariance of the proposed TAM model were assessed using multi‐group confirmatory factor analysis.

Findings

The paper revealed that both perceived usefulness and perceived risk of online shopping have an invariant effect on consumers' online purchase intentions, while prior online shopping experience does not have an invariant effect. Perceived ease of use shows an equivalent, positive effect on perceived usefulness; prior online shopping experience has an equivalent, positive effect on perceived ease of use and an equivalent, negative effect on perceived risks. But prior online shopping experience has a quite different effect on perceived usefulness across the two countries.

Originality/value

The paper not only tests the cross‐national application of the extended TAM, but also extends the TAM's use to examine key factors that influence online shoppers' purchase decision in the retail apparel sector.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 38 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Abdullah Al-Swidi and Mohammed Al Yahya

The purpose of this study is to further the current research on the topic of the intention to transfer training and training effectiveness by examining the gender-related…

1448

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to further the current research on the topic of the intention to transfer training and training effectiveness by examining the gender-related training intention and work behaviour differences.

Design/methodology/approach

To assess the gender-related behavioural differences, a quantitative approach using surveys from employees in Saudi universities. Using the structural equation modelling multi-group analysis approach, this study analysed the data collected from 389 individuals, comprising 186 males and 153 females. Group invariance analysis was conducted before the hypotheses were tested.

Findings

The results showed that learning style and supervisor support are critical determinants of training transfer intention and the latter is critical determinant of training effectiveness across samples of males and females. Moreover, the variance explained by the model in the male sample was found to be more than that of the female sample. Interestingly, males are found to be different than females in their perception that the training effectiveness is determined by the learning style.

Practical implications

Findings suggest that both the learning style of employees should be considered when designing a training programme and a proper support to employees should be provided by their supervisors to get the best of training investment. This may guide decision-makers to enhance training effectiveness.

Originality/value

The majority of the studies concerning training effectiveness has overlooked its antecedents and much in-depth scholarly research endeavours are still required. This study attempted to provide valuable insights of the antecedents and consequences of training transfer intention and how this structure differs between males and females in a developing country context.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2010

Timothy Teo and Jan Noyes

This paper aims to compare the pre‐service teachers from Singapore and the UK on their self‐reported attitude towards computer use (ATCU) by employing the technology…

3283

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to compare the pre‐service teachers from Singapore and the UK on their self‐reported attitude towards computer use (ATCU) by employing the technology acceptance model (TAM) as the research framework.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 395 pre‐service teachers completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to three constructs: perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEU) and ATCU. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used as the technique for data analysis.

Findings

The results of this paper show that there are full configural and metric invariance, and partial scalar invariance and factor variance. In addition, it is found that pre‐service teachers' attitudes towards computer use in the UK are less affected by PU compared to their counterparts in Singapore.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the growing interest among technology acceptance researchers in expanding and extending the TAM to explain users' ATCU. Although much research has been conducted using the TAM, comparisons across different cultural users are few. This paper shows the similarities and differences of two culturally diverse technology users: Singapore and the UK. The use of multi‐group invariance analysis as part of the SEM framework allow more complex analysis to be conducted, relative to the t‐test that is commonly used to compare mean differences between two groups.

Details

Multicultural Education & Technology Journal, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-497X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 October 2007

Susan L. Golicic

Prior research has primarily examined interorganizational relationships from the supplier or customer side or using dyadic pairs. The study aims to offer a comparison of…

1605

Abstract

Purpose

Prior research has primarily examined interorganizational relationships from the supplier or customer side or using dyadic pairs. The study aims to offer a comparison of carrier and shipper relationship views using a hybrid research method examining the relationship from both points of view by sampling both populations independently with identical surveys.

Design/methodology/approach

Mail surveys were used to collect data from the two samples. Invariance tests were conducted, and the model was analyzed using structural equation modeling (AMOS 5.0).

Findings

Invariance tests of the measurement instrument and comparisons of specific results show that, in the context of shippers and carriers, relationships – specifically trust and commitment and the contribution of dependence to relationship strength – are perceived differently.

Research limitations/implications

Empirically supporting significant differences in theoretical relationship constructs between the two participants in an interorganizational relationship is important for understanding and advancing knowledge on supply chain relationships.

Practical implications

Successful supply chain management can only be achieved when firms successfully develop and manage relationships with other firms in their supply chain; therefore, it is important to recognize and understand any differences in these relationships so that they will be better equipped to manage them. Knowing that the other firm perceives differences in levels of trust and commitment and the contribution of dependence to relationship strength can provide indications of behaviors that are important to a firm in reaching their relationship goals.

Originality/value

The paper applies a method to compare supplier and customer relationship views that has not been used in supply chain management literature to uncover and support relationship differences between carriers and shippers.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 37 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 March 2020

Do Young Pyun, Heetae Cho and Ho Keat Leng

While advertising and sponsorship are conceptually different, many studies have used the same measures for both constructs. The assumption is that respondents perceive…

Abstract

Purpose

While advertising and sponsorship are conceptually different, many studies have used the same measures for both constructs. The assumption is that respondents perceive both domains similarly. The purpose of this study was to test the invariance of the belief measures between the advertising and sponsorship measurement models across different consumer segments and to provide empirical justification for the practice.

Design/methodology/approach

Two independent samples were recruited from two different consumer segments: university student consumers (n = 290) and general consumers (n = 324). This study conducted multigroup invariance tests using LISREL 8.80. The measurement and structural invariances were concerned with factor loadings (λ), factor variance and covariance (f) and error variance (θ) metrics.

Findings

The factor patterns of the belief model were generally invariant between the advertising and sponsorship models in both consumer groups. However, the respondents interpreted three items between advertising and sponsorship in different ways: one annoyance/irritation item in the generic consumer group and two falsity/no sense items in the student consumer groups.

Originality/value

While the invariance test reveals three problematic items, the majority of items seem to be invariant, concluding that the advertising belief scale could be applicable to the sponsorship context.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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