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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2017

Maria Adelaide Pedrosa da Silva Duarte and Marta Cristina Nunes Simões

European Union (EU) central and eastern economies have gone through a process of structural change since 1989, when the post-communist transition started. This process was…

Abstract

European Union (EU) central and eastern economies have gone through a process of structural change since 1989, when the post-communist transition started. This process was afterwards reinforced by the three EU enlargement waves that took place in 2004, 2007 and 2013. Though exhibiting low levels of aggregate productivity, this group of countries joined the EU with higher levels of human capital than the southern member states, an advantage that should have accelerated real convergence towards the EU15. However, evidence to date suggests that the convergence process came to a halt in 2007–2008 when massive capital inflows stopped, highlighting the fragilities of the growth strategies implemented so far. In these peripheral countries, structural change has been characterised by an expanding services sector alongside growing income inequality. The two strands of literature on these issues highlight that: (a) an expanding services sector may not be detrimental for growth, quite the opposite, depending on services composition and on the capacity of services sub-sectors to incorporate information and communication technologies (ICTs); and (b) inequality is negatively related to growth through the fiscal policy, socio-political instability, borrowing constraints to investment in education and endogenous fertility channels and positively through the savings channel and incentives. We analyse the nexus between structural change, inequality and growth in this group of countries highlighting income inequality as a potential mechanism that connects the other two variables. We provide a descriptive quantitative analysis of the profiles of structural change and income inequality in our sample and apply dynamic panel methods to investigate the existence of causality among services sector expansion, inequality and aggregate productivity considering a maximum period between 1980 and 2010.

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Core-Periphery Patterns Across the European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-495-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1996

Michael Hammond

Habituation is one of natural selection's tools to limit the activating role of positive emotions. It is a barrier to expanding needs. The structural requirements for…

Abstract

Habituation is one of natural selection's tools to limit the activating role of positive emotions. It is a barrier to expanding needs. The structural requirements for getting around this barrier are similar to the characteristics of a system of expanded inequality. Such inequality was the most likely social structure to first break this barrier. Only much later in human history could mass production technology offer an alternative means to bend habituation rules.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 16 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Lotte Holck

The purpose of this paper is to apply a spatial approach to organizational inequality to explore why unequal opportunity structures persist in an organization despite its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply a spatial approach to organizational inequality to explore why unequal opportunity structures persist in an organization despite its commitment to diversity and employing highly skilled ethnic minority employees.

Design/methodology/approach

The (re)production of inequality is explored by linking research on organizational space with HRM diversity management. Data from an ethnographic study undertaken in a Danish municipal center illustrates how a substructure of inequality is spatially upheld alongside a formal diversity policy. Archer’s distinction between structure and agency informs the analysis of how minority agency not only reproduces but also challenges organizational opportunity structures.

Findings

The analysis demonstrates how substructures of inequality stabilize in spatial routines enacted in an ethnic zoning of the workplace and ethnification of job categories. However, the same spatial structures allows for a variety of opposition and conciliation strategies among minority employees, even though the latter tend to prevail in a reproduction rather than a transformation of the organizational opportunity structures.

Research limitations/implications

The reliance on a single case study restricts the generalizability of the findings but highlights fruitful areas for future research.

Practical implications

The study sensitizes HRM practitioners to the situated quality of workplace diversity and to develop a broader scope of HRM practices to address the more subtle, spatially embedded forms of inequality.

Originality/value

Theoretical and empirical connections between research on organizational space and HRM diversity management have thus far not been systematically studied. This combination might advance knowledge on the persistence of micro-inequality even in organizations formally committed to diversity.

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Matthew A. Witenstein and Betsy Palmer

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model for examining the unique factors contributing to the gendered inequality of post‐secondary educational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model for examining the unique factors contributing to the gendered inequality of post‐secondary educational participation in Nepal.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual/theoretical paper aims to apply and potentially critique the dynamic model of educational inequality offered by Lynch and O’Riordan to the context of Nepalese post‐secondary educational inequality. The authors hope to use the current model, developed through an exploration of data from a developed country, to further understanding of the forces maintaining educational inequality in the developing world.

Findings

The constraints from Lynch and O’Riordan's model are all important forces that impact educational persistence for girls and women in Nepal. However in order to fully examine the complexity of barriers imposed on girls in persisting through the Nepali educational system, the case has been made to add both geographic and political facilitators/constraints to the model. By creating a model that includes these forces, researchers and policy makers can proscribe change that is more holistic.

Research limitations/implications

By constructing models that accurately reflect the real conditions present in developing countries, we can truly begin to find solutions to disparities in educational access and attainment.

Originality/value

This paper contributes both an examination of barriers and stratification in Nepal's higher education system while also developing a model for examining post‐secondary education systems in developing nations. It also provides some understanding of why Nepal has fallen behind its peers.

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Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Abstract

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SDG10 – Reduce Inequality Within and Among Countries
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-981-6

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2017

Katy Gordon, Juliette Wilson, Andrea Tonner and Eleanor Shaw

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of social enterprise on individual and community health and well-being. It focusses on community food initiatives…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of social enterprise on individual and community health and well-being. It focusses on community food initiatives, their impact on the social determinants of health and the influence of structure on their outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an interpretive qualitative approach through case studies focussed on two community food social enterprises, the research team conducted observations, interviews and ad hoc conversations.

Findings

Researchers found that social enterprises impacted all layers of the social determinants of health model but that there was greater impact on individual lifestyle factors and social and community networks. Impact at the higher socio-economic, cultural and environmental layer was more constrained. There was also evidence of the structural factors both enabling and constraining impact at all levels.

Practical implications

This study helps to facilitate understanding on the role of social enterprises as a key way for individuals and communities to work together to build their capabilities and resilience when facing health inequalities. Building upon previous work, it provides insight into the practices, limitations and challenges of those engaged in encouraging and supporting behavioural changes.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to a deeper insight of the use, motivation and understanding of social enterprise as an operating model by community food initiatives. It provides evidence of the impact of such social enterprises on the social determinants of health and uses structuration theory (Giddens, 1984) to explore how structure both influences and constrains the impact of these enterprises.

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International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2008

Robert A. Rubinstein

In my view, during the coming decades, research in peace and conflict studies will be characterized by work on nonstate actors, identities, structural inequalities, and…

Abstract

In my view, during the coming decades, research in peace and conflict studies will be characterized by work on nonstate actors, identities, structural inequalities, and multilateral action. Our interdisciplinary research in these areas will be aimed at consolidating our understandings of these factors at all levels of society, from the individual to the macro. It will then: (i) develop understandings of how the dynamics of actions at each level affect and are affected by the other levels, and (ii) develop strategies as to how to promote constructive change in these dynamics, leading to the integration of theory with practice. I turn to some brief comments on each of these areas.

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Pushing the Boundaries: New Frontiersin Conflict Resolution and Collaboration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-290-6

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Book part
Publication date: 27 December 2013

Míriam Arenas Conejo

The text explores the feminist concept of intersectionality and its adoption within disability studies. The aim is to analyze how feminist and disability movements and…

Abstract

Purpose

The text explores the feminist concept of intersectionality and its adoption within disability studies. The aim is to analyze how feminist and disability movements and theories have managed the issue of struggling against oppression and for equality while acknowledging internal diversity.

Methodology/approach

Literature review based on the concepts of intersectionality, disabled women, and disability and diversity seeking for explicit and implicit confluences and emerging implications at different levels: social movements, theoretical developments, and policymaking.

Findings

Intersectionality is a minor field within disability studies. However, diversity and multiple oppression issues have been addressed by the disability rights movement, after disabled women introduced feminist principles. This intersection of disability and feminist studies has transformed both fields, and at the same time fostered a new paradigm. It situates the claims on the similarities between disabled and nondisabled people, instead of focusing on identity politics.

Social implications

The chapter acknowledges social movements as key actors in generating and developing significant debates, both in feminist and disability studies. Moreover, it seeks for conceptual tools that promote alliance-building strategies between oppressed groups in the struggle for social justice.

Originality/value

The chapter presents overall perspective of what intersectionality is and how the disability rights movement has addressed it, while seeking broader implications of the analysis of multiple inequalities.

Details

Disability and Intersecting Statuses
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-157-1

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2018

Angela Dy and Adaku Jennifer Agwunobi

This conceptual paper has two central aims: to critically analyse the potential of intersectionality theory as a means by which to understand aspects of context in…

Abstract

Purpose

This conceptual paper has two central aims: to critically analyse the potential of intersectionality theory as a means by which to understand aspects of context in entrepreneurship studies, and advocate for the value of a realist perspective and mixed methods approaches to produce better intersectional research on entrepreneurship. This paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Highlighting context as an emerging topic within entrepreneurship literature, the paper examines how drawing upon notions of intersectionality and positionality can help to explain the social context for entrepreneurial activity and outcomes, particularly in terms of agency and resources.

Findings

The paper complements and extends existing intersectional approaches to entrepreneurship studies by introducing Archer’s critical realist philosophical perspective on agency and Anthias’ positional perspective on resource access, considering the usefulness of realism and mixed methods approaches for such work, and outlining a methodologically informed potential research agenda for the area.

Originality/value

The paper offers a theoretical foundation for researchers to begin systematically exploring social entrepreneurial context by accounting for the effects of overarching intersecting structures such as gender, race, and socio-economic class (amongst others), presents empirical methods through which these social-structural influences, and the degree of their impact, can be identified and analysed, and suggests a philosophically robust means of conceptualising how, in combination with agency, they influence essential aspects of entrepreneurial activity.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

Astrid Kersten

Develops a critical perspective on organizations and psychoanalysis. Following a brief review of various strands of psychoanalytic theorizing about organizations, argues…

Abstract

Develops a critical perspective on organizations and psychoanalysis. Following a brief review of various strands of psychoanalytic theorizing about organizations, argues that psychoanalysis can make an important contribution both to recognizing and to restoring the human subject in the organization. However, psychoanalysis also runs the risk of becoming complicitous with the larger context of domination that structures and governs organizations, unless it explicitly acknowledges and incorporates this context. Discusses the importance of acknowledging relations of power, recognizing the normalization of dysfunctionality in organizations, and moving away from individualizing issues of emotion, resistance and control.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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