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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Ramazan Özkan and Mustafa Serdar Genç

Wind turbines are one of the best candidates to solve the problem of increasing energy demand in the world. The aim of this paper is to apply a multi-objective structural

Abstract

Purpose

Wind turbines are one of the best candidates to solve the problem of increasing energy demand in the world. The aim of this paper is to apply a multi-objective structural optimization study to a Phase II wind turbine blade produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to obtain a more efficient small-scale wind turbine.

Design/methodology/approach

To solve this structural optimization problem, a new Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) was performed. In the optimization study, the objective function was on minimization of mass and cost of the blade, and design parameters were composite material type and spar cap layer number. Design constraints were deformation, strain, stress, natural frequency and failure criteria. ANSYS Composite PrepPost (ACP) module was used to model the composite materials of the blade. Moreover, fluid–structure interaction (FSI) model in ANSYS was used to carry out flow and structural analysis on the blade.

Findings

As a result, a new original blade was designed using the multi-objective structural optimization study which has been adapted for aerodynamic optimization, the NSGA-II algorithm and FSI. The mass of three selected optimized blades using carbon composite decreased as much as 6.6%, 11.9% and 14.3%, respectively, while their costs increased by 23.1%, 29.9% and 38.3%. This multi-objective structural optimization-based study indicates that the composite configuration of the blade could be altered to reach the desired weight and cost for production.

Originality/value

ACP module is a novel and advanced composite modeling technique. This study is a novel study to present the NSGA-II algorithm, which has been adapted for aerodynamic optimization, together with the FSI. Unlike other studies, complex composite layup, fiber directions and layer orientations were defined by using the ACP module, and the composite blade analyzed both aerodynamic pressure and structural design using ACP and FSI modules together.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

Chongbin Zhao, G.P. Steven and Y.M. Xie

Extends the evolutionary structural optimization method to the solution for the natural frequency optimization of a two‐dimensional structure with additional non‐structural

Abstract

Extends the evolutionary structural optimization method to the solution for the natural frequency optimization of a two‐dimensional structure with additional non‐structural lumped masses. Owing to the significant difference between a static optimization problem and a structural natural frequency optimization problem, five basic criteria for the evolutionary natural frequency optimization have been established. The inclusion of these criteria into the evolutionary structural optimization method makes it possible to solve structural natural frequency optimization problems for two‐dimensional structures with additional non‐structural lumped masses. Gives two examples to demonstrate the feasibility of the extended evolutionary structural optimization method when it is used to solve structural natural frequency optimization problems.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

M T Cui, J J Chen and P G Jiang

Considering the randomness of physical parameters of structural material, dynamic characteristic topology optimization mathematical model based on reliability of planar…

Abstract

Considering the randomness of physical parameters of structural material, dynamic characteristic topology optimization mathematical model based on reliability of planar continuum structures is built in this paper. In which topology information variables of the structure are taken as design variables, minimizing the mean value of total structural weight as objective function and satisfying the reliability requirement of structural dynamic characteristic as constraints. In the process of optimization, the ESO method based on probability is adopted as solution strategy. At the same time, distribution function method is utilized to convert the reliability constraints into conventional constraints formally. A square thin plate with four sides fixed is used as an example to demonstrate the rationality and validity of the presented model.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2021

Jens Mattke, Christian Maier, Lea Reis and Tim Weitzel

Individuals only click on a very small fraction of the in-app advertisements (ads) they are exposed to. Despite this fact, organizations spend generously placing in-app…

Abstract

Purpose

Individuals only click on a very small fraction of the in-app advertisements (ads) they are exposed to. Despite this fact, organizations spend generously placing in-app ads without theoretical knowledge of how the structure and the semantics of in-app ads influence individuals’ clicking behavior. This study aims to identify how the processing of structural and semantic factors leads to clicking behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the limited capacity theory, this paper proposes that the sequential processing of structural and semantic factors leads to clicking behavior. To mirror the sequential process, this paper applies a process-oriented configurational approach and performs a two-step qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) using 262 incidents of exposure to in-app ads.

Findings

The results support the proposed sequential processing and show that neither structural nor semantic factors alone lead to clicking behavior. This paper reveals four different paths of sequential processing of in-app ads that lead to clicking behavior. The results show that individuals click on non-animated in-app ads even though these are perceived as irritating or privacy-concerning. When the in-app ads are animated, individuals do only click on them when these are not irritating, privacy-concerning and personalized.

Research limitations/implications

Organizations can use these findings to improve their in-app ads and generate more clicks. This study recommends that organizations place in-app ads in a prominent location, design them similar to the design of the app and use bright colors. The advertising message needs to have new and relevant information in a credible and entertaining way. Depending on the degree of personalization, organizations should use different sizes of the in-app ad and only use animation if it is unlikely that the in-app ad caused irritation or privacy concerns.

Practical implications

Organizations can use these findings to improve their in-app ads and generate more clicks. This paper recommends that organizations place in-app ads in a prominent location, design them similar to the design of the app and with bright colors. The advertising message needs to have new and relevant information in a credible and entertaining way. Depending on the degree of personalization, organizations should use different sizes of the in-app ad and only use animation if it is unlikely that the in-app ad caused irritation or privacy concerns.

Originality/value

From the in-app ad perspective, this study is the first to theoretically develop and empirically show the sequential processing of structural and semantic factors of in-app ads. From the methodological perspective, this study applies an advanced configurational two-step QCA approach, which is capable of analyzing sequential processes and is new to marketing research.

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Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2014

Ronald S. Burt and Jennifer Merluzzi

The structural holes to which a person is connected are embedded in a broader organization or market. High status in the broader context signals a reputation that can make…

Abstract

The structural holes to which a person is connected are embedded in a broader organization or market. High status in the broader context signals a reputation that can make a would-be broker more attractive, more likely to engage opportunities to broker, and allay audience concerns about proposed brokerage. The implications are correlation and contingency. We offer illustrative evidence of both implications and conclude that status and structural holes are so closely related in concept and fact that advantage is more clearly revealed when the two network forms are analyzed together as complements defining the hubs in a network.

Details

Contemporary Perspectives on Organizational Social Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-751-1

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Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2018

Fernanda Claudio and Kristen Lyons

The present effects of transnational corporations (TNCs) on social, health, and environmental aspects of local societies have a long history. The pre-conditions for the…

Abstract

The present effects of transnational corporations (TNCs) on social, health, and environmental aspects of local societies have a long history. The pre-conditions for the insertion of the types of economic initiatives now seen in the Global South, and driven by TNCs, were set through histories of colonialism and development schemes. These initiatives disrupted local economies and modified environments, delivering profound effects on livelihoods. These effects were experienced as structural violence, and have produced social suffering through the decades.

In this paper, we compare two African cases across time; the conjunction of development initiatives and structural adjustment in the Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe in the early 1990s and industrial plantation forestry in present-day Uganda. Each case presents a specific constellation of political and economic forces that has produced prejudicial effects on local populations in their time period of application and are, essentially, different versions of structural violence that produce social suffering. While each case depicts a specific type of violent encounter manifest at a particular historical moment, these are comparable in the domains of environmental impacts, disruptions to societies, co-opting of local economies, disordering of systems of meaning and social reproduction, and nefarious effects on well-being. We analyze the conjunction of these effects through a theoretical lens of structural violence and social suffering. Our analysis draws particular attention to the role of TNCs in driving this structural violence and its effects.

Details

Environmental Impacts of Transnational Corporations in the Global South
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-034-5

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Syed Abidur Rahman, Golam Mostafa Khan, Salem AlAbri and Seyedeh Khadijeh Taghizadeh

This study aims to investigate the role of the components of intellectual capital (IC) on entrepreneurial opportunity recognition among small and medium enterprises (SMEs…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the role of the components of intellectual capital (IC) on entrepreneurial opportunity recognition among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Sultanate of Oman. The interrelationships of these components are also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used quantitative research methods. Data were collected using structured questionnaires from a sample of 347 respondents from SMEs operating in Oman. Structural equation modeling was employed to examine the hypotheses using partial least square technique.

Findings

The analysis results demonstrate that structural capital, relational capital and spiritual capital have significant relationships with entrepreneurial opportunity recognition. Meanwhile, human capital has no relationship with either entrepreneurial opportunity recognition or spiritual capital. Intriguingly, significant interrelationships are observed among IC's components.

Practical implications

This study offers useful managerial implications for the related parties: firms, public institutions and other stakeholders. The findings could be a guideline for SME managers/owners to recognize the right entrepreneurial opportunity.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal the relationships between the tripartite model of IC and entrepreneurial opportunity recognition. This study is also the first to test the interrelationship of spiritual capital on other intellectual components.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2017

Maria Adelaide Pedrosa da Silva Duarte and Marta Cristina Nunes Simões

European Union (EU) central and eastern economies have gone through a process of structural change since 1989, when the post-communist transition started. This process was…

Abstract

European Union (EU) central and eastern economies have gone through a process of structural change since 1989, when the post-communist transition started. This process was afterwards reinforced by the three EU enlargement waves that took place in 2004, 2007 and 2013. Though exhibiting low levels of aggregate productivity, this group of countries joined the EU with higher levels of human capital than the southern member states, an advantage that should have accelerated real convergence towards the EU15. However, evidence to date suggests that the convergence process came to a halt in 2007–2008 when massive capital inflows stopped, highlighting the fragilities of the growth strategies implemented so far. In these peripheral countries, structural change has been characterised by an expanding services sector alongside growing income inequality. The two strands of literature on these issues highlight that: (a) an expanding services sector may not be detrimental for growth, quite the opposite, depending on services composition and on the capacity of services sub-sectors to incorporate information and communication technologies (ICTs); and (b) inequality is negatively related to growth through the fiscal policy, socio-political instability, borrowing constraints to investment in education and endogenous fertility channels and positively through the savings channel and incentives. We analyse the nexus between structural change, inequality and growth in this group of countries highlighting income inequality as a potential mechanism that connects the other two variables. We provide a descriptive quantitative analysis of the profiles of structural change and income inequality in our sample and apply dynamic panel methods to investigate the existence of causality among services sector expansion, inequality and aggregate productivity considering a maximum period between 1980 and 2010.

Details

Core-Periphery Patterns Across the European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-495-8

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Book part
Publication date: 24 May 2007

Frederic Carluer

“It should also be noted that the objective of convergence and equal distribution, including across under-performing areas, can hinder efforts to generate growth

Abstract

“It should also be noted that the objective of convergence and equal distribution, including across under-performing areas, can hinder efforts to generate growth. Contrariwise, the objective of competitiveness can exacerbate regional and social inequalities, by targeting efforts on zones of excellence where projects achieve greater returns (dynamic major cities, higher levels of general education, the most advanced projects, infrastructures with the heaviest traffic, and so on). If cohesion policy and the Lisbon Strategy come into conflict, it must be borne in mind that the former, for the moment, is founded on a rather more solid legal foundation than the latter” European Commission (2005, p. 9)Adaptation of Cohesion Policy to the Enlarged Europe and the Lisbon and Gothenburg Objectives.

Details

Managing Conflict in Economic Convergence of Regions in Greater Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-451-5

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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