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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Elizabeth McCay, Celina Carter, Andria Aiello, Susan Quesnel, Carol Howes, Heather Beanlands, John Langley, Bruce MacLaurin, Steven Hwang, Linda Cooper and Christina Lord

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) training which was provided to community agency staff (N=18…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) training which was provided to community agency staff (N=18) implementing DBT in the community with street-involved youth.

Design/methodology/approach

Staff participated in a multi-component approach to training which consisted of webinars, online training, self-study manuals, and ongoing peer consultation. To evaluate assess the effectiveness of the training, questionnaires assessing evaluating DBT skills knowledge, behavioral anticipation and confidence, and DBT skills use, were completed at baseline, immediately post-training, four to six months post-training, and 12-16 months post-training. Additionally, the mental health outcomes for youth receiving the DBT intervention are reported to support the effectiveness of the training outcomes.

Findings

Results demonstrate that the DBT skills, knowledge, and confidence of community agency staff improved significantly from pre to post-training and that knowledge and confidence were sustained over time. Additionally, the training was clinically effective as demonstrated by the significant improvement in mental health outcomes for street-involved youth participating in the intervention.

Practical implications

Findings suggest that this evidence-based intervention can be taught to a range of staff working in community service agencies providing care to street-involved youth and that the intervention can be delivered effectively.

Originality/value

These findings help to close the knowledge-practice gap between evidence-based treatment (EBT) research and practice while promoting the implementation of EBT in the community to enhance positive youth outcomes.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 14 April 2008

Cecilia Benoit, Mikael Jansson, Helga Hallgrimsdotter and Eric Roth

Social science and media depictions of youth living on our city streets typically focus on their “risk behaviours,” especially illicit drug use and unprotected sex, the…

Abstract

Social science and media depictions of youth living on our city streets typically focus on their “risk behaviours,” especially illicit drug use and unprotected sex, the social environmental challenges they face, in particular higher likelihood of sexual and physical assault and homicide (Tyler, Hoyt, & Whitbeck, 2000; Auerswald & Eyre, 2002; Pedersen & Hegna, 2003; Brooks, Milburn, Rotheram, & Witkin, 2004; Ensign & Bell, 2004; Raleigh-DuRoff, 2004; Hyde, 2005; Witkin et al., 2005) and their delinquent/criminal behaviour (Hartnagel, 1998). This focus on the multiple “risks” that street youth face has been accompanied by the search for determinants of the risk factors for street involvement, such as parental substance abuse and child neglect. Female street youth have been depicted as particularly vulnerable, partly because once on the street, they come under the control of male recruiters who make the girls drug-dependent and force them into trading sexual favours for money or in-kind goods. According to Bagley and Young (1987, p. 23), “the girl who finally tries prostitution is one who is already degraded and demoralized, in a state of psychological bondage, with grossly diminished self-confidence.” Adults who exploit these female street youth are believed to take advantage of their feelings of disconnectedness and low self-esteem and isolation (Silbert & Pines, 1981, 1982a, 1982b) and addiction to substances (Green & Goldberg, 1993). Yet, many females who were victims of childhood physical and sexual abuse do not end up on the street, nor do all those who were abused and end up on the street (male as well as female) become involved in prostitution, and, finally, many males and females who become involved in prostitution have no history of early abuse (Hagan & McCarthy, 1997).

Details

Childhood: Changing Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1419-5

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2017

Ciann L. Wilson and Sarah Flicker

This paper, and the corresponding project, is motivated by the lack of qualitative research elucidating the voices of young Black women in Canada when it comes to their…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper, and the corresponding project, is motivated by the lack of qualitative research elucidating the voices of young Black women in Canada when it comes to their sexual health.

Methodology/approach

This paper draws from data produced in the Let’s Talk About Sex (LTAS) project – a Photovoice process held once a week for nine consecutive weeks in the Jane-Finch community, a low-income community in Toronto, Canada. This workshop was completed by 15 young African Caribbean and Black (ACB) women in the age group 14–18. These young women used photography and creative writing to express their opinions on the barriers and facilitators to making healthy sexual decisions.

Findings

A central finding was the existence of a subculture among youth in Toronto, where the exchange of sex for material resources was commonplace. Herein, we unpack the various forms of economically motivated relationships reported, which ranged from romantic relationships to sugar daddies and brothel-like sex dens. We also reflect on the discussions at community forums where the research findings were presented. From shock and outrage to a sly smile of knowing, the responses were often gendered, generational and reflective of a trend occurring across Toronto, not just in the Jane-Finch community, and not merely among the Black youth.

Research implications

Effective interventions and youth programs should focus on the sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV risks that may result from transactional relationships, economic empowerment, and youth employment.

Originality/value

This is a novel arts-based study on youth engaged inthe exchange of sex for money, which has nuanced differences from survival sex.

Details

Gender, Sex, and Sexuality Among Contemporary Youth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-613-6

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

David G. Hendry, Jill Palzkill Woelfer and Thuy Duong

Addressing the question, how might socio-technical systems help homeless young people to succeed broadly in employment, the purpose of this paper is to present a future…

Abstract

Purpose

Addressing the question, how might socio-technical systems help homeless young people to succeed broadly in employment, the purpose of this paper is to present a future vision, the U-District Job Co-op, where youth take on “mini-jobs” offered by neighborhood stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on value sensitive design, design-based, and qualitative research methods, the Job Co-op is explicated by reporting on three linked studies.

Findings

First, based on empirical research with varied neighborhood stakeholders, barriers and possible solutions to employment for homeless young people are presented. Second, three design insights for shaping a solution space of socio-technical systems for job search are presented and used analytically to examine six existing systems. Third, findings from a co-design study in which homeless young people expressed their understandings for web-based job services explicate the vision of the Job Co-op.

Social implications

This study offers a socio-technical approach, grounded in the neighborhood context, for supporting homeless young people in job search and related activities.

Originality/value

The studies reported in this paper demonstrate how methods for information system design can be used to generate and clarify opportunities for human benefit and for the development of socio-technical systems that account for human values.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2012

Maurice N. Gattis

Purpose – This chapter discusses a study that examined outcomes between homeless sexual minority youths and their heterosexual counterparts regarding family, peer…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter discusses a study that examined outcomes between homeless sexual minority youths and their heterosexual counterparts regarding family, peer behaviors, school, mental health (suicide risk and depression), stigma, discrimination, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors.

Methodology – Structured interviews were conducted with individuals ages 16–24 at three drop-in programs serving homeless youths in downtown Toronto (N=147).

Findings – Bivariate analyses indicate statistically significant differences between homeless sexual minorities (n=66) and their heterosexual counterparts (n=81) regarding all parameters except school engagement, including family communication, peer behaviors, stigma, discrimination, mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Specifically, homeless sexual minority youths fared more poorly than their heterosexual counterparts.

Implications – Improving family communication may be a worthwhile intervention for the youths who are still in contact with their families. Future research should focus on victimization in the context of multiple systems.

Details

Health Disparities Among Under-served Populations: Implications for Research, Policy and Praxis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-103-8

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Emily Dauria, Marina Tolou-Shams, Halyna Skipalska, Mariya Bachmaha and Sara Hodgdon

Ukraine has one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics globally. Due to their engagement in high-risk behaviors, adolescents and emerging adults involved with the…

Abstract

Purpose

Ukraine has one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics globally. Due to their engagement in high-risk behaviors, adolescents and emerging adults involved with the penitentiary system are at a particularly high risk of HIV-acquisition. To address the epidemic, young males (aged 14 to 20 years) in penitentiary institutions across Ukraine participated in a ten-week, group-based HIV-prevention intervention (STEPS). The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyzed clinical and programmatic services data collected as part of an evaluation of the STEPS intervention. Paired t-tests and χ2 were used to examine pre- and post-intervention differences in HV knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors and alcohol and other drug use knowledge.

Findings

In total, 105 male youths participated in the ten-session STEPS intervention. At baseline, males reported high frequencies of risk behaviors (e.g. unprotected sexual activity, injection drug use), moderate levels of HIV-related knowledge, and negative attitudes toward HIV and people living with HIV. At follow-up (immediately following the last STEPS session), participants’ HIV-related knowledge substantially improved and participants tended to have more favorable attitudes toward HIV.

Research limitations/implications

Outcomes suggest that knowledge and attitudes about HIV among Ukrainian incarcerated youth can improve as a result of group-based HIV-prevention intervention.

Originality/value

In Ukraine, individuals involved with the criminal justice system are one of the populations most-at-risk for HIV; criminal justice-involved adolescents and young adults are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. Research among this sub-population is limited. This study aims to address this gap by evaluating an on-going group-based HIV-prevention program designed to reduce adolescent risk of HIV.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2017

Devon Greyson

Despite societal investment in providing health information to young parents, little is known about the health information practices of young parents themselves. The…

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Abstract

Purpose

Despite societal investment in providing health information to young parents, little is known about the health information practices of young parents themselves. The purpose of this paper is to explore young parents’ health information practices in context.

Design/methodology/approach

This constructivist grounded theory study investigates the health information practices of young mothers and fathers (age 16-23) in Greater Vancouver, Canada. Data were collected over 16 months via individual interviews with 39 young parents (37 mothers, 2 fathers) and observations at young parent programs. Inductive analysis was iterative with data collection.

Findings

Young parent health information practices emerged, clustering around concepts of information seeking, assessment, and use, with sharing conceptualised as a form of use. Many young parents were sophisticated information seekers, and most were highly networked using mobile technology. While access to information was rarely a barrier, assessment of the large quantity of health-related information posed challenges.

Research limitations/implications

These findings are not generalisable to all populations. Newly identified information-seeking practices such as defensive and subversive seeking should be explored further in future research.

Practical implications

Rather than focusing on quantity of information, health and information professionals trying to reach young parents should focus on fostering information literacy skills and building relationships as trusted information providers.

Social implications

Young parent experiences of social marginalisation influenced their information practices and should be taken into consideration.

Originality/value

This first investigation of young parent information practices can guide services and resources for young parents, suggests that sharing might be conceptualised as a subset of use, and highlights new information-seeking practices by marginalised individuals, such as defensive and subversive seeking.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 73 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Desneige Meyer, Wanda Martin and Laura M. Funk

Sustainable solutions for meeting the physical, emotional and social health care needs of individuals may be realized by shifting the care landscape; for instance, through…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainable solutions for meeting the physical, emotional and social health care needs of individuals may be realized by shifting the care landscape; for instance, through innovative models of service-integrated housing (SIH). By diversifying populations in these settings, care recipients can choose to engage their skills and abilities toward assisting co-residents, and vice versa as a form of symbiosis. The purpose of this paper is to define attributes of the concept and practice of symbiotic care.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors drew on firsthand field experience and secondary data from a literature review to conduct a conceptual derivation and analysis, using Walker and Avant’s methodology. The term symbiotic mutualism was derived from the field of biology as an analogy for care exchanged between non-peer co-residents. Attributes, antecedents and consequences of symbiotic care were identified and illustrated using model, borderline and contrary case descriptions.

Findings

Four defining attributes of symbiotic care were identified: first, cohabitation: care recipients live closely together in SIH settings. Second, non-peer: co-residents have distinct, complementary needs and abilities. Third, mutualism: co-residents experience mutually significant benefits as a result of the activities of their co-residents. Fourth, agency-sponsored: the professional SIH agency or organization attends to unmet resident needs.

Research limitations/implications

Symbiotic care is a relatively rare phenomenon for which little research exists. This analysis provides a starting point for empirical research, policy and program development and critical evaluation.

Originality/value

This paper fills a wide gap in the research literature and offers important terminology. It is the first to define the attributes of symbiotic care.

Details

Housing, Care and Support, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-8790

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Andrea Nga Wai Chan

This paper aims to explore the ways in which social supports can promote enduring attachments to work and improve overall well-being of disadvantaged workers, within the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the ways in which social supports can promote enduring attachments to work and improve overall well-being of disadvantaged workers, within the context of social purpose enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

With coordinators, managers and directors as informants, this mixed-methods study uses a survey and interviews to establish the availability and importance of different social supports found in social purpose enterprises across Canada, and to explore the reasons for such support mobilization and the influences that determine whether social supports are sought or accepted.

Findings

Findings substantiate the prevalence and importance of work-centred social supports. Social supports can promote more sustainable attachment to work by addressing work process challenges, ameliorating workplace conflict, attending to non-vocational work barriers and building workers’ self-confidence and self-belief. The source of a support, as well as the relationship between support providers and recipients, contributes to whether supports will be beneficial to recipients.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies require corroboration directly from the employees and training participants of social purpose enterprises. The limitations on the sampling and the survey response rate may limit generalizability of findings.

Practical implications

Findings contribute to knowledge on more effective social support provision for improved work outcomes and overall well-being of employees and training participants.

Originality/value

Applying theory from social support research brings greater clarity to the potential of work-centred supports for addressing both vocational and non-vocational barriers to employment and job training for disadvantaged workers.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Scott B. Harpin, April S. Elliott and Colette L. Auerswald

Runaway and homeless youth (RHY) are among the most vulnerable youth globally. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) states that all children…

Abstract

Purpose

Runaway and homeless youth (RHY) are among the most vulnerable youth globally. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) states that all children have the right to the highest level of health, and that universal healthcare rights are afforded to RHY and all children. Social determinants of health (SDH) are universal factors that frame the experiences of RHY as facilitators or barriers for accessing healthcare. The purpose of this paper is to describe practical best approaches, and policy recommendations, for improving clinical care systems to make healthcare more accessible to RHY.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors describe and apply an adapted socio-ecological framework that includes SDH specific to RHY around the globe.

Findings

There are multiple and complex factors in the social ecology of RHY that determine their chances of accessing healthcare. While many intrapersonal reasons for homelessness are the same globally, systems of care vary by country and by developing/developed country status. Structurally competent care systems offer a new lens for how to best provide care to RHY to take into account SDH and the unique needs of RHY.

Originality/value

The UNCRC serves as a moral guide and frame of universal child healthcare provision for countries around the world. The authors uniquely argue for UNCRC, tailored-SDH, and care delivered in a structurally competent manner to make a moral case for both physical and mental health for all RHY.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

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